Laser Speckle and Applications in Optics - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780122657603, 9780323160728

Laser Speckle and Applications in Optics

1st Edition

Authors: M Francon
eBook ISBN: 9780323160728
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th July 1979
Page Count: 174
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Description

Laser Speckle and Applications in Optics focuses on developments in laser speckle techniques, with emphasis on the experimental aspect of phenomena and on applications in optics. These applications include interference with scattered light, optical processing of images, and studies of surface roughness as well as displacements and deformations of diffuse objects. This book is comprised of 10 chapters and begins by reviewing the elements of diffraction theory and the properties of speckle in the image of a diffuse object. The discussion then turns to speckle in the near field and interferometry with diffuse light, along with experiments in which interference patterns are produced from photographically superimposed laterally shifted speckle patterns. The following chapters consider optical processing of images modulated by speckle; deformations and displacements of diffuse objects; speckle applications in astronomy; and surface roughness measurements. The final chapter looks at the use of laser speckle to study transparent objects; the average shape of diffuse surfaces; the transfer functions and aberrations of optical systems; and the movement of diffuse objects. This monograph will be of value to physicists and researchers as well as those interested in lasers and optics.

Table of Contents


Preface

Chapter I Speckle in the Image of an Object Illuminated with Laser Light

1.1 Image of a Point Source. Fourier Transforms

1.2 The Image of a Point Source in the Presence of a Slight Defect of Focus

1.3 The Images of Two Monochromatic Point Sources

1.4 The Images of a Large Number of Point Sources Distributed at Random

1.5 The Spectrum of a Large Number of Coherent Point Sources

1.6 The Spectrum of a Large Number of Coherent Point Sources Forming Identical Groups Having the Same Orientation and Distributed at Random

1.7 Speckle in the Image of an Object Illuminated with a Laser

1.8 Changing the Structure of a Speckle by Displacing the Plane of Focus

1.9 The Speckle Patterns Produced in the Image of a Diffuse Object under a Change of Wavelength

1.10 White-Light Speckle

Chapter II Speckle Produced at a Finite Distance by a Diffusing Object Illuminated by a Laser

2.1 Fresnel and Fraunhofer Diffraction in Three Dimensions

2.2 Speckle Produced at a Finite Distance by a Diffuse Object

2.3 Speckle Produced by a Laterally Displaced Diffusing Object

2.4 Speckle Produced by a Diffuse Object When the Orientation of the Incident Light Beam is Changed

2.5 Speckle Produced by a Diffuse Object under an Axial Translation of the Plane of Observation or of the Object

2.6 Speckle Produced by a Diffuse Object under a Change of Wavelength

2.7 Speckle Produced by a Diffuse Object When the Wavelength and the Position of the Plane of Observation Are Changed

2.8 Speckle Produced by a Diffuse Object Itself Illuminated with Another Speckle Pattern

Chapter III Interference with Scattered Light

3.1 Historical Background

3.2 Principles of Interference with Scattered Light

3.3 Interference with Two Identical Diffusers

3.4 The Burch Interferometer

3.5 Interference Patterns Obtained from Two Laterally Shifted Diffusers

3.6 Interference Patterns Obtained from Two Different Axially Shifted Diffusers

Chapter IV Interference Patterns Produced by Photographic Superposition of Laterally Shifted Speckle Patterns

4.1 Amplitude Transmitted by a Photographic Plate after Development

4.2 The Fundamental Experiment of Burch and Tokarski

4.3 The Superposition of a Series of Successive Exposures on the Same Holographic Plate

4.4 Simultaneous Recordings with Birefringent Plates

4.5 Recording with a Continuous Displacement of the Photographic Plate

4.6 Recordings Obtained When the Orientation of the Incident Beam is Changed

4.7 Recordings Made with Polarized Light

4.8 Recordings Obtained When the Orientation of the Diffuse Object is Changed

4.9 Recordings Made with More Than One Wavelength

Chapter V Interference Patterns Produced by Photographic Superposition of Axially Shifted Speckle Patterns

5.1 Circular Interference Fringes Produced by Two Successive Recordings on the Same Photographic Plate

5.2 A Change of Wavelength between the Two Exposures

5.3 A Change of Wavelength and a Displacement of the Photographic Plate between Exposures

5.4 Circular Interference Fringes Produced by Two Successive Recordings on the Same Photographic Plate of the Image of a Diffuse Object

5.5 Circular Interference Fringes Obtained with a Single Exposure by Means of an Amplitude Diffuser

5.6 Circular Interference Fringes Obtained with More Than One Exposure When the Photographic Plate is Axially Translated between Each Exposure

5.7 Hyperbolic or Elliptical Fringes

Chapter VI Optical Processing of Images Modulated by Speckle

6.1 Introduction

6.2 The Principle of a Technique to Extract the Difference between Two Images

6.3 The Light Distribution in the Image Plane

6.4 Improving the Profile of the Fringes and the Quality of the Images

6.5 Image Coding and Decoding

6.6 Image Multiplexing by Superposition of Laterally Shifted Speckle Patterns

6.7 Image Multiplexing with Oriented Speckle Patterns

Chapter VII The Study of Displacements and Deformations of Diffuse Objects by Means of Speckle Photography

7.1 The Study of Lateral Displacements of a Diffuse Object When the Displacement is Greater Than the Diameter of a Speckle Grain

7.2 The Study of Lateral Displacements of a Diffuse Object When the Displacement is Smaller Than the Diameter of a Speckle Grain

7.3 The Study of Lateral Displacements of a Diffuse Object Illuminated with Two Beams When the Displacement is Smaller Than the Diameter of a Speckle Grain

7.4 The Study of the Lateral Displacement of a Diffuse Object with a Diffuse Reference Surface

7.5 The Study of the Axial Displacement of a Diffuse Object with a Diffuse Reference Surface

7.6 The Speckle Observed in the Focal Plane of Lens Ο

7.7 The Use of an Auxiliary Speckle Pattern to Illuminate a Diffuse Surface

7.8 The Study of the Rotation of a Diffuse Surface

7.9 The Study of the Vibrations of a Diffuse Object

7.10 The Study of the Variations of the Slopes of a Diffuse Object

Chapter VIII Speckle in Astronomy

8.1 The Image of a Star at the Focus of a Telescope in the Presence of Atmospheric Turbulence

8.2 The Study of Double Stars at the Focus of a Telescope in the Presence of Atmospheric Turbulence

8.3 The Measurement of the Apparent Diameters of Stars by A. Labeyrie's Methods

8.4 The Measurement of the Apparent Diameters of Stars with Multiple Telescopes

Chapter IX The Study of Surface Roughness

9.1 Surface Deviations

9.2 The Use of Speckle to Study Surface Roughness

9.3 Surface Roughness Measurement by the Correlation of Two Speckle Patterns Obtained by Changing the Incidence of a Laser Beam

9.4 The Real-Time Measurement of Surface Roughness by the Amplitude Correlation of Two Speckle Patterns Corresponding to Two Orientations of the Laser Beam

9.5 Surface Roughness Measurement by the Correlation of Two Speckle Patterns Obtained with Two Wavelengths

9.6 Surface Roughness Measurements with a Source Having a Wide Bandwidth

9.7 Surface Roughness Measurements with Partially Coherent Light

Chapter X Various Applications of Speckle

10.1 Differential Interferometry of Transparent Objects by Double-Exposure Speckle Photography

10.2 The Use of Two Wavelengths to Study the Shape of Diffuse Objects

10.3 The Use of Speckle to Determine the Transfer Function of an Optical System

10.4 The Study of the Aberrations of an Optical System by Speckle Photography

10.5 The Focusing of a Lens by Means of Speckle

10.6 Laser Speckle for Determining the Ametropia of the Eye

10.7 The Use of the Double Exposure of a Random Distribution of Intensity to Measure Atmospheric Turbulence

10.8 The Measurement of Motion Trajectories by Speckle Photography

10.9 The Determination of the Velocities of Different Parts of a Diffuse Object by Speckle Photography

10.10 An Example of Industrial Application of Speckle Interferometry

References

Index


Details

No. of pages:
174
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1979
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780323160728

About the Author

M Francon