Laser Light Scattering - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9780121745516, 9780323161886

Laser Light Scattering

2nd Edition

Basic Principles and Practice

Authors: Benjamin Chu
eBook ISBN: 9780323161886
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th May 1991
Page Count: 354
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Laser Light Scattering: Basic Principles and Practice, Second Edition deals with the technical aspects of laser light scattering, including the basic principles and practice. Topics covered include light scattering theory, optical mixing spectrometry, photon correlation spectroscopy, and interferometry. Experimental methods and methods of data analysis are also described. This book is comprised of eight chapters and begins with a discussion on the interrelationship between laser light scattering and other types of scattering techniques that use X-rays and neutrons, with particular reference to momentum and energy transfers as well as time-averaged and time-dependent scattered intensity. The spectrum of scattered light and a single-particle approach to time-averaged scattered intensity are considered. The following chapters focus on photoelectric detection of the scattered electric field; optical mixing spectrometers; basic equations for photon correlation spectroscopy; and the principles of Fabry-Perot interferometry. The pertinent features of the experimental aspects of laser light scattering are also outlined, together with the Laplace inversion problem. The final chapter examines polymer molecular-weight distributions in relation to particle sizing. This monograph will be of interest to physicists.

Table of Contents


I. Introduction

1.1. Momentum and Energy Transfers

1.2. Time-Averaged and Time-Dependent Scattered Intensity

Appendix l.A.

Appendix I.B.


II. Light Scattering Theory

2.1. Single-Particle Approach to Time-Averaged Scattered Intensity

2.2. Scattered Electric Field from the Fluctuation Viewpoint

2.3. Intensity of Scattered Light Based on Section 2.2

2.4. Spectrum of Scattered Light

Appendix 2. A. Radius of Gyration

Appendix 2. B. Fourier Decomposition of Susceptibility Fluctuations

Appendix 2. C. Mean-Squared Fluctuations of Fundamental Thermodynamic Quantities

Appendix 2.D. Spatial Correlation Function and Spatial Volume


III. Optical Mixing Spectroscopy

3.1. Coherence Solid Angle

3.2. Photoelectric Detection of the Scattered Electric Field

3.3. Optical Mixing Spectrometers


IV. Photon Correlation Spectroscopy

4.1. Photocount Autocorrelation

4.2. Full and Clipped Hardware Digital Correlators

4.3. Complementary Single-Clipped Autocorrelation Function

4.4. Sampling Scheme of a Single-Clipped Digital Correlator

4.5. Randomly Clipped Autocorrelation Function

4.6. Scaled Autocorrelation Function

4.7. Add-Subtract Autocorrelation Function

4.8. Statistical Accuracy of Estimating Digital Autocorrelation of Photon-Counting Fluctuations

4.9. Time-of-Arrival Schemes

4.10. Photon Structure Function

4.11. Computer-Based Correlators


V. Interferometry

5.1. General Considerations

5.2. Fabry-Perot Interferometer: General Characteristics


VI. Experimental Methods

6.1. Introduction

6.2. The Laser

6.3. The Optical System

6.4. Light-Scattering Spectrometers and Design Considerations

6.5. Photon-Counting Technique

6.6. Current Detection

6.7. Method to Compensate Laser Fluctuations in Photon Correlation Spectroscopy

6.8. Fabry-Perot Interferometer

6.9. Fiber Optics

6.10. Correlator Comparison

Appendix 6. A. Design of Fiber-Optic Probes for Light Scattering


VII. Methods of Data Analysis

7.1. Nature of the Problem

7.2. A Schematic Outline of the Procedure

7.3. Experimental Considerations

7.4. Brief Outline of Current Data Analysis Techniques

7.5. Multiexponential Singular-Value Decomposition (MSVD)

7.6. The Maximum-Entropy Formalism

7.7. Comparison of the MEM with CONTIN

7.8. Maximum-Entropy Method Using a Bayesian Estimate for the Regularization Parameter

7.9. Particle Polydispersity Analysis in Real Space

Appendix 7. A.

Appendix 7. B.


VIII. Characterization of Polymer Molecular Weight Distribution (Particle Sizing)

8.1. Introduction

8.2. Finding a Solvent

8.3. Dissolving the Polymer and Clarifying the Resultant Polymer Solution

8.4. Measuring the Appropriate Time-Averaged Scattered Intensity Rvv(Kτ) and the Intensity-Intensity Time Correlation Function G2(K,τ)

8.5. Performing the Laplace Inversion and Using the Scaling Relation for Transformation of G(Γ) to the Molecular-Weight Distribution

8.6. Summary of Polymers Characterized

8.7. Light Scattering by Nonergodic Media

8.8. Other New Developments

Appendix 8.A. Bibliography


Correlator Specifications




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About the Author

Benjamin Chu

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