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Know and Understand Centrifugal Pumps - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9781856174091, 9780080509747

Know and Understand Centrifugal Pumps

1st Edition

Editors: L. Bachus A Custodio
eBook ISBN: 9780080509747
Hardcover ISBN: 9781856174091
Imprint: Elsevier Science
Published Date: 25th July 2003
Page Count: 264
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Pumps are commonly encountered in industry and are essential to the smooth running of many industrial complexes. Mechanical engineers entering industry often have little practical experience of pumps and their problems, and need to build up an understanding of the design, operation and appropriate use of pumps, plus how to diagnose faults and put them right. This book tackles all these aspects in a readable manner, drawing on the authors' long experience of lecturing and writing on centrifugal pumps for industrial audiences.


Mechanical engineers, fitters and maintenance engineers.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Basic Pump Principles


How do pumps work?

Pressure measurement

Atmospheric pressure (ATM)

Absolute pressure (psia)

Gauge pressure (psig)


Pump head

Specific gravity

Pressure measurement

Pressures inside the pump

Chapter 2: NPSH, Net Positive Suction Head


Definition of NPSHr (required)

Definition NPSHa (available)

Chapter 3: Cavitation


Vapor pressure


The effects of vapor pressure on pump performance

Cavitation: A practical discussion

Review for preventing cavitation

Cavitation review

Do something about cavitation!

Chapter 4: The Affinity Laws


The Laws

The Affinity Laws and the impeller diameter

What's the practical application of these laws?

Chapter 5: Useful Work and Pump Efficiency

Useful work from a pump

Flow determination

Pump efficiency

Factors that affect the efficiency

Calculating pump efficiency

Chapter 6: Pump Classification


Positive displacement pumps

Centrifugal pumps

Conceptual difference

Centrifugal volate pumps

Types of centrifugal pumps

Overhung impeller

Impeller between the bearings

Turbine pumps

Specific duty pumps

The typical ANSI pump

API (American Petroleum Institute) pumps

Vertical turbine pumps

Non-metalic pumps

Magnetic drive pumps

Canned motor pumps

Pump impellers

Turbine impellers

Conventional impellers

Suction specific speed, Nss

Open impellers

Semi open impeller

Totally enclosed impeller

Wer bands

Specific speed, Ns

Chapter 7: Understanding Pump Curves

Pump performance curves


Head versus pressure


Pump efficiency

The energy (BHp) curve

The pump's minimum requirements (NPSH)

Special design pumps

Family curves

Chapter 8: The System Curve

The system controls the pump

The elements of the Total Dynamic Head (TDH)

Determining the Hs

Determining the Hp

Calculating the Hf and Hv

The dynamic system

Variable elevations

The happy zone

Dynamic pressures

Variable resistances

Short term reistance changes

Long term reistance changes

Pumps in parallel and pumps in series

Pumps in parallel

Three tips

Pumps running in series

Combined parallel and seris pump operation

Chapter 9: Shaft Deflection


Operation, design and maintenance

Signs of shaft deflection

Interpreting the evidence

The sweet zone

The dual volute pump

Chapter 10: Pump and Motor Alignment


Types of misalignment

Alignment techniques

Equipment alignment sequence

Coupling alignment

Chapter 11: Bearings


Bearing lubrication

Bearing failure

Bearing maintenance

Bearing seals

Chapter 12: Pump Shaft Packing


Vegetable fibers

Reciprocating action


Rotary action

Synthetic fibers

Compression packing

The lantern ring

The packing lubricant

Stages in the life of packing

Chapter 13: Mechanical Seals

Pump packing


The mechanical seal

The single, unbalance, insider mounted mechanical seal

The single, outside-mounted, unbalanced seal

The single, balanced, internal mechanical seal

The single, balanced, external mechanical seal

Advantages of o-rings

The balance effect

Advantages of balance

Balance explained by math

Cartridge mechanical seals

Double seals

The tandem dual seal

The back-to-back double seal

The fact-to-face dual seal

Support systems for dual seals

The thermal convection tank

The turbo tank

The pumping unit

Chapter 14: Failure Analysis of Mechanical Seals

Causes of premature seal failure

O-ring (the elastomer) failure

The elastomer sticks to the shaft

The springs clog and jam

The shaft frets under the shaft seal

Incorrect installation dimension

Environmental controls for difficult sealing applications

Difficult pumping applications for mechanical seals

Environmental control

Proper pump repair alignment methods

Chapter 15: Common Sense Failure Analysis

Pump maintenance files

Failure analysis on centrifugal pumps

Why is this pump in the shop?

Chapter 16: Avoiding Wear in Centrifugal Pumps




Wear rings

Fluid velocity accelerates wear



Chapter 17: Pump Piping


Piping design to drain tanks and sumps

The Submergence Laws


No. of pages:
© Elsevier Science 2003
25th July 2003
Elsevier Science
eBook ISBN:
Hardcover ISBN:

About the Editors

L. Bachus

Affiliations and Expertise

Bachus Company Inc

A Custodio

Ratings and Reviews