Knitting Technology - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780080247632, 9781483182230

Knitting Technology

1st Edition

Authors: David J. Spencer
eBook ISBN: 9781483182230
Imprint: Pergamon
Published Date: 1st January 1983
Page Count: 368
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Knitting Technology details the fundamental principles of knitting. The title tackles the topics that are relevant to the application of knitting technology in education, industry, or commerce. The coverage of the text includes flat, circular, full fashioned, hosiery, Raschel, tricot, and crochet production. The selection also discusses the historical development of the types of machines and their actions and mechanisms, as well as the construction, properties, and end uses of the products they manufacture. The book will be of great use to anyone involved in weft and warp knitting.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 An Introduction to Textile Technology

1.1 Evolution of Textiles

1.2 Textile Fabrics

1.3 Textile Yarns and Fibers

1.4 Yarn Count Numbering Systems

1.5 Conversion Formulae

Chapter 2 The Evolution of Knitting Technology

2.1 The Spread of Knowledge of Hand Pin Knitting

2.2 Principles of Hand Knitting Using Two Pins

2.3 Invention of the Stocking Frame

2.4 The Bearded Needle

2.5 Principles of Frame Knitting

2.6 Evolution of Other Weft Knitting Machines

2.7 Development of Warp Knitting

Chapter 3 General Terms and Principles of Knitting Technology

3.1 Machine Knitting

3.2 Knitted Loop Structure

3.3 A Course

3.4 A Wale

3.5 Stitch Density

3.6 Technically Upright

3.7 Design Appearance Requirements

3.8 The Knitting Machine

3.9 The Needle

3.10 Fabric Draw-off

3.11 The Front of Rectilinear Needle Bar Machines

3.12 Basic Knitting Action of a Needle

3.13 The Bearded Needle

3.14 Main Parts of the Bearded Needle

3.15 Knitting Action of the Bearded Needle

3.16 The Latch Needle

3.17 Features of the Latch Needle

3.18 Knitting Action of the Latch Needle

3.19 Friction and Frictionless Needles

3.20 The Bi-partite Compound Needle

3.21 Machine Gauge

Chapter 4 Basic Mechanical Principles of Knitting Technology

4.1 The Sinker

4.2 The Jack

4.3 Cam Arrangement

4.4 The Two Methods of Yarn Feeding

4.5 The Three Methods of Forming Yarn into Needle Loops

Chapter 5 Elements of Knitted Loop Structure

5.1 The Needle Loop

5.2 The Sinker Loop

5.3 Warp Knitted Laps

5.4 The Overlap

5.5 The Underlap

5.6 Closed Lap

5.7 Open Lap

5.8 Wrapping

5.9 The Knitted Stitch

5.10 The Intermeshing Points of a Needle Loop

5.11 The Face Loop Stitch

5.12 The Reverse Loop Stitch

5.13 Single-faced Structures

5.14 Double-faced Structures

5.15 A Balanced Structure

5.16 Face and Reverse Stitches on the Same Surface

5.17 Selvedged Fabric

5.18 Cut Edge Fabric

5.19 Tubular Fabric

5.20 Upright Loop Structures

5.21 Knitting Notations

Chapter 6 Comparison of Weft and Warp Knitting

6.1 Yarn Feeding and Loop Formation

6.2 The Two Industries

6.3 Productivity

6.4 Machine Design

6.5 Patterning and Fabric Structures

6.6 Course Length and Run-in Per Rack

6.7 Fabric Quality

6.8 Structural Modifications Commonly Used in Weft and Warp Knitting

6.9 Laying-in

6.10 Plating

6.11 Openwork Structures

6.12 Plush and Pile Constructions

Chapter 7 The Four Primary Base Structures

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Plain

7.3 Production of Single-Jersey Fabric on a Circular Latch Needle Machine

7.4 The Knitting Head

7.5 The Knitting Action

7.6 The Cam System

7.7 Sinker Timing

7.8 Rib Fabric

7.9 Knitting Action of a Circular Rib Machine

7.10 Needle Timing

7.11 Interlock

7.12 Production of Interlock Fabric

7.13 Example of Interlock Cam System

7.14 Purl Fabric

7.15 Purl Needle Transfer Action

7.16 The Use of Dividing Cams

7.17 The Use of Spring-loaded Cams

Chapter 8 The Various Types of Weft Knitting Machines

8.1 Fabric Machines and Garment Length Machines

8.2 Fabric Machines

8.3 Garment Length Machines

8.4 Straight Bar Frames

8.5 Flat Machines

8.6 Circular Machines

8.7 Development of the Circular Weft Knitting Technique

Chapter 9 Stitches Produced by Varying the Timing of the Needle Loop Intermeshing

9.1 The Held Loop

9.2 The Drop or Press-off Stitch

9.3 The Float Stitch

9.4 Float Plating

9.5 The Tuck Stitch

Chapter 10 Colored Stitch Designs in Weft Knitting

10.1 Horizontal Striping

10.2 Intarsia

10.3 Plating

10.4 Individual Stitch Selection

10.5 Weft Knitted Jacquard

10.6 Single-Jersey Jacquard

10.7 Accordion Fabrics

10.8 Rib Jacquard

10.9 Worked Example

Chapter 11 Pattern and Selection Devices

11.1 Different Lengths of Butt

11.2 Different Butt Positions

11.3 Multi-Step Butt Set-Outs

11.4 Selection Devices

11.5 Element Selection

11.6 Selection Area Arrangement

11.7 Full Jacquard Mechanical Needle Selection

11.8 Multi-Step Geometric Selection

11.9 Monofilm Selection

11.10 The Pattern Wheel

11.11 Pattern Design Areas

11.12 Examples of a Pattern Area Calculation

11.13 Argyle Wheels

11.14 Electronic Needle Selection

Chapter 12 Electronics in Knitting

12.1 The Advantage of using Electronics

12.2 Electronic Signals

12.3 Computers

12.4 Micro-miniaturization

12.5 Computer Hardware and Software

12.6 The Main Sections of a Computer

12.7 Input and Output Devices

12.8 Storage

12.9 ROM and RAM

12.10 Bubble Memory

12.11 Tapes and Discs

12.12 Knitting Machine Programming and Control

12.13 Computer Graphics and Pattern Preparation

Chapter 13 The Production of Weft Knitted Fabric

13.1 Simple Tuck and Float Stitch Single-Jersey Fabrics

13.2 History of Double Jersey

13.3 Types of Double-Jersey Structure

13.4 Non-Jacquard Double-Jersey Structures

13.5 Rib Jacquard Double-Jersey Structures

13.6 Double-Jersey Inlay

Chapter 14 Speciality Fabrics and Machines

14.1 The Loop wheel Frame

14.2 The Knitting Cycle to produce one Course of Fleecy

14.3 The Production of Fleecy on Sinker Top Machines

14.4 Fleecy Interlock

14.5 Plush Structures

14.6 The Sinkerwheel Machine

14.7 Knitting Action

14.8 Plush on Sinker Top Latch Needle Machines

14.9 Sliver or High-Pile Knitting

14.10 Wrap Patterning

Chapter 15 Loop Transfer Stitches

15.1 Plain Loop Transfer Stitches

15.2 Fancy Lacing Stitches

15.3 Rib Loop Transfer Stitches

15.4 Rib Loop Transfer on a Circular Garment Length RTR Type Machine

15.5 Pelerine or Eyelet

Chapter 16 Welts, Garment Sequences and Knitting to Shape

16.1 The Welt

16.2 Separation

16.3 Imparting Shape During Knitting

16.4 Wale Fashioning

16.5 The Calculation of Fashioning Frequencies

16.6 Three-Dimensional Wale Fashioning

16.7 Needle Selection Shaping

16.8 Reciprocating Knitting of Pouches

16.9 Shaping by Changing the Knitted Structure

16.10 Shaping by Altering the Stitch Length

Chapter 17 The Straight Bar Frame

17.1 Development of the Straight Bar Frame

17.2 Fully-Fashioned Articles

17.3 Knitting Motions of the Straight Bar Frame

17.4 Knitting Action of the Plain Straight Bar Frame

17.5 Loop Transfer

17.6 Rib-to-Plain Machines

17.7 Patterned Structures

Chapter 18 Flat Knitting Basic Principles and Structures

18.1 History

18.2 Flat Machines

18.3 Yarn Counts

18.4 Simple Hand-Manipulated V-Bed Rib Flat Machines

18.5 The Cam System

18.6 Double Cam Systems

18.7 Direct and Indirect Yarn Feed

18.8 Cardigan Stitches

18.9 Racked Rib Structures

18.10 Knop Structures

18.11 The Cable Stitch

Chapter 19 Automatic Power Flat Knitting

19.1 Mechanically-Controlled Jacquard Knitting

19.2 The Pasteboard Movement Card Reader Unit

19.3 Stoll Selectanit Electronic Selection

19.4 The Dubied Actuator Selection Post

19.5 Multi-Carriage Flat Machines

19.6 The Presser Foot Concept

19.7 Flat Bed Purl Knitting

Chapter 20 Circular Garment Length Machines

20.1 Double-Cylinder Garment Length Machine

20.2 RTR Garment Length Machine

20.3 Dogless Drive and Dial Shogging

20.4 The Basic Elements and Camming Arrangement of the RTR

20.5 The Mecmor Variatex

Chapter 21 The Manufacture of Hosiery on Small Diameter Circular Machines

21.1 Classes of Hosiery Machines

21.2 Development of Seamless Hosiery

21.3 Ladder-Resist Structures

21.4 Development of the Double-Cylinder Machine

21.5 The Slider Butt Set-Out

21.6 Timing and Control of Mechanical Changes on Circular Hosiery Machines

21.7 The Cam Drums

21.8 Adjustment of Loop Length

21.9 Production of Heels and Toes

21.10 Automatic Separation

21.11 Panty-Hose

Chapter 22 Aspects of Knitting Science

22.1 Knitted Loop Shape and Loop Length Control

22.2 Loop Length

22.3 Warp Let-Off

22.4 Weft Knitted Fabric Relaxation and Shrinkage

22.5 Knitted Fabric Geometry

22.6 Tightness Factor

22.7 Robbing Back

22.8 Needle Bounce and High-Speed Knitting

22.9 The Cadratex Unit

Chapter 23 Basic Warp Knitting Principles

23.1 Construction of Warp Knitted Fabrics

23.2 The Warp Beams

23.3 The Guide Bar

23.4 The Guides

23.5 Single Needle Bar Structures

23.6 The Pattern Mechanism

23.7 Chain Links

23.8 Development of Lapping Diagrams and Chain Notations

23.9 Single- or Double-Needle Overlaps

23.10 The Five Basic Overlap/Underlap Variations

23.11 Direction of Lapping at Successive Courses

Chapter 24 Classes of Warp Knitting Machinery

24.1 Characteristics of Tricot and Raschel Machines

24.2 The Knitting Cycle of the Bearded Needle Tricot Machine

24.3 The Raschel Machine

24.4 The Knitting Action of the Single Needle Bar Raschel

24.5 Compound Needle Warp Knitting Machines

24.6 The Crochet Machine

24.7 Warping

Chapter 25 Plain Tricot Structures Knitted with Two Full Set Guide Bars

25.1 Rules Governing Two Guide Bar Structures

25.2 Two Bar Tricot

25.3 Locknit

25.4 Reverse Locknit

25.5 Sharkskin

25.6 Queenscord

25.7 Double Atlas

25.8 Satin

25.9 Velour and Velvet Structures

25.10 Overfed Pile Structures

Chapter 26 Surface Interest, Relief and Openwork Structures

26.1 Miss-Lapping

26.2 Part-Threaded Guide Bars

Chapter 27 Laying-In in Warp Knitting

27.1 General Rules Governing Laying-in in Warp Knitting

27.2 Fall-Plate Patterning

27.3 Full Width Weft Insertion

27.4 Cut Presser and Miss-Press Structures

Chapter 28 Multi-Guide Bar Machines and Fabrics

28.1 Lace, Curtain-Net and Elastic Fabrics

28.2 Pattern Guide Bars

28.3 Nesting

28.4 Multi-Bar Tricot Lace Machines

28.5 Chain Links and Electronic Control of Shogging

28.6 Mesh Structures

28.7 Elasticized Fabrics

28.8 Jacquard Rascheis

Chapter 29 Double Needle Bar Warp Knitting Machines

29.1 Basic Lapping Principles

29.2 The Simplex Machine

29.3 The Double Needle Bar Raschel

29.4 Double Needle Bar Raschel Products

29.5 Knitting Tubular Articles

29.6 Pile Fabrics


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© Pergamon 1983
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About the Author

David J. Spencer

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