Knitting Technology

Knitting Technology

1st Edition - January 1, 1983

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  • Author: David J. Spencer
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483182230

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Knitting Technology details the fundamental principles of knitting. The title tackles the topics that are relevant to the application of knitting technology in education, industry, or commerce. The coverage of the text includes flat, circular, full fashioned, hosiery, Raschel, tricot, and crochet production. The selection also discusses the historical development of the types of machines and their actions and mechanisms, as well as the construction, properties, and end uses of the products they manufacture. The book will be of great use to anyone involved in weft and warp knitting.

Table of Contents

  • Chapter 1 An Introduction to Textile Technology

    1.1 Evolution of Textiles

    1.2 Textile Fabrics

    1.3 Textile Yarns and Fibers

    1.4 Yarn Count Numbering Systems

    1.5 Conversion Formulae

    Chapter 2 The Evolution of Knitting Technology

    2.1 The Spread of Knowledge of Hand Pin Knitting

    2.2 Principles of Hand Knitting Using Two Pins

    2.3 Invention of the Stocking Frame

    2.4 The Bearded Needle

    2.5 Principles of Frame Knitting

    2.6 Evolution of Other Weft Knitting Machines

    2.7 Development of Warp Knitting

    Chapter 3 General Terms and Principles of Knitting Technology

    3.1 Machine Knitting

    3.2 Knitted Loop Structure

    3.3 A Course

    3.4 A Wale

    3.5 Stitch Density

    3.6 Technically Upright

    3.7 Design Appearance Requirements

    3.8 The Knitting Machine

    3.9 The Needle

    3.10 Fabric Draw-off

    3.11 The Front of Rectilinear Needle Bar Machines

    3.12 Basic Knitting Action of a Needle

    3.13 The Bearded Needle

    3.14 Main Parts of the Bearded Needle

    3.15 Knitting Action of the Bearded Needle

    3.16 The Latch Needle

    3.17 Features of the Latch Needle

    3.18 Knitting Action of the Latch Needle

    3.19 Friction and Frictionless Needles

    3.20 The Bi-partite Compound Needle

    3.21 Machine Gauge

    Chapter 4 Basic Mechanical Principles of Knitting Technology

    4.1 The Sinker

    4.2 The Jack

    4.3 Cam Arrangement

    4.4 The Two Methods of Yarn Feeding

    4.5 The Three Methods of Forming Yarn into Needle Loops

    Chapter 5 Elements of Knitted Loop Structure

    5.1 The Needle Loop

    5.2 The Sinker Loop

    5.3 Warp Knitted Laps

    5.4 The Overlap

    5.5 The Underlap

    5.6 Closed Lap

    5.7 Open Lap

    5.8 Wrapping

    5.9 The Knitted Stitch

    5.10 The Intermeshing Points of a Needle Loop

    5.11 The Face Loop Stitch

    5.12 The Reverse Loop Stitch

    5.13 Single-faced Structures

    5.14 Double-faced Structures

    5.15 A Balanced Structure

    5.16 Face and Reverse Stitches on the Same Surface

    5.17 Selvedged Fabric

    5.18 Cut Edge Fabric

    5.19 Tubular Fabric

    5.20 Upright Loop Structures

    5.21 Knitting Notations

    Chapter 6 Comparison of Weft and Warp Knitting

    6.1 Yarn Feeding and Loop Formation

    6.2 The Two Industries

    6.3 Productivity

    6.4 Machine Design

    6.5 Patterning and Fabric Structures

    6.6 Course Length and Run-in Per Rack

    6.7 Fabric Quality

    6.8 Structural Modifications Commonly Used in Weft and Warp Knitting

    6.9 Laying-in

    6.10 Plating

    6.11 Openwork Structures

    6.12 Plush and Pile Constructions

    Chapter 7 The Four Primary Base Structures

    7.1 Introduction

    7.2 Plain

    7.3 Production of Single-Jersey Fabric on a Circular Latch Needle Machine

    7.4 The Knitting Head

    7.5 The Knitting Action

    7.6 The Cam System

    7.7 Sinker Timing

    7.8 Rib Fabric

    7.9 Knitting Action of a Circular Rib Machine

    7.10 Needle Timing

    7.11 Interlock

    7.12 Production of Interlock Fabric

    7.13 Example of Interlock Cam System

    7.14 Purl Fabric

    7.15 Purl Needle Transfer Action

    7.16 The Use of Dividing Cams

    7.17 The Use of Spring-loaded Cams

    Chapter 8 The Various Types of Weft Knitting Machines

    8.1 Fabric Machines and Garment Length Machines

    8.2 Fabric Machines

    8.3 Garment Length Machines

    8.4 Straight Bar Frames

    8.5 Flat Machines

    8.6 Circular Machines

    8.7 Development of the Circular Weft Knitting Technique

    Chapter 9 Stitches Produced by Varying the Timing of the Needle Loop Intermeshing

    9.1 The Held Loop

    9.2 The Drop or Press-off Stitch

    9.3 The Float Stitch

    9.4 Float Plating

    9.5 The Tuck Stitch

    Chapter 10 Colored Stitch Designs in Weft Knitting

    10.1 Horizontal Striping

    10.2 Intarsia

    10.3 Plating

    10.4 Individual Stitch Selection

    10.5 Weft Knitted Jacquard

    10.6 Single-Jersey Jacquard

    10.7 Accordion Fabrics

    10.8 Rib Jacquard

    10.9 Worked Example

    Chapter 11 Pattern and Selection Devices

    11.1 Different Lengths of Butt

    11.2 Different Butt Positions

    11.3 Multi-Step Butt Set-Outs

    11.4 Selection Devices

    11.5 Element Selection

    11.6 Selection Area Arrangement

    11.7 Full Jacquard Mechanical Needle Selection

    11.8 Multi-Step Geometric Selection

    11.9 Monofilm Selection

    11.10 The Pattern Wheel

    11.11 Pattern Design Areas

    11.12 Examples of a Pattern Area Calculation

    11.13 Argyle Wheels

    11.14 Electronic Needle Selection

    Chapter 12 Electronics in Knitting

    12.1 The Advantage of using Electronics

    12.2 Electronic Signals

    12.3 Computers

    12.4 Micro-miniaturization

    12.5 Computer Hardware and Software

    12.6 The Main Sections of a Computer

    12.7 Input and Output Devices

    12.8 Storage

    12.9 ROM and RAM

    12.10 Bubble Memory

    12.11 Tapes and Discs

    12.12 Knitting Machine Programming and Control

    12.13 Computer Graphics and Pattern Preparation

    Chapter 13 The Production of Weft Knitted Fabric

    13.1 Simple Tuck and Float Stitch Single-Jersey Fabrics

    13.2 History of Double Jersey

    13.3 Types of Double-Jersey Structure

    13.4 Non-Jacquard Double-Jersey Structures

    13.5 Rib Jacquard Double-Jersey Structures

    13.6 Double-Jersey Inlay

    Chapter 14 Speciality Fabrics and Machines

    14.1 The Loop wheel Frame

    14.2 The Knitting Cycle to produce one Course of Fleecy

    14.3 The Production of Fleecy on Sinker Top Machines

    14.4 Fleecy Interlock

    14.5 Plush Structures

    14.6 The Sinkerwheel Machine

    14.7 Knitting Action

    14.8 Plush on Sinker Top Latch Needle Machines

    14.9 Sliver or High-Pile Knitting

    14.10 Wrap Patterning

    Chapter 15 Loop Transfer Stitches

    15.1 Plain Loop Transfer Stitches

    15.2 Fancy Lacing Stitches

    15.3 Rib Loop Transfer Stitches

    15.4 Rib Loop Transfer on a Circular Garment Length RTR Type Machine

    15.5 Pelerine or Eyelet

    Chapter 16 Welts, Garment Sequences and Knitting to Shape

    16.1 The Welt

    16.2 Separation

    16.3 Imparting Shape During Knitting

    16.4 Wale Fashioning

    16.5 The Calculation of Fashioning Frequencies

    16.6 Three-Dimensional Wale Fashioning

    16.7 Needle Selection Shaping

    16.8 Reciprocating Knitting of Pouches

    16.9 Shaping by Changing the Knitted Structure

    16.10 Shaping by Altering the Stitch Length

    Chapter 17 The Straight Bar Frame

    17.1 Development of the Straight Bar Frame

    17.2 Fully-Fashioned Articles

    17.3 Knitting Motions of the Straight Bar Frame

    17.4 Knitting Action of the Plain Straight Bar Frame

    17.5 Loop Transfer

    17.6 Rib-to-Plain Machines

    17.7 Patterned Structures

    Chapter 18 Flat Knitting Basic Principles and Structures

    18.1 History

    18.2 Flat Machines

    18.3 Yarn Counts

    18.4 Simple Hand-Manipulated V-Bed Rib Flat Machines

    18.5 The Cam System

    18.6 Double Cam Systems

    18.7 Direct and Indirect Yarn Feed

    18.8 Cardigan Stitches

    18.9 Racked Rib Structures

    18.10 Knop Structures

    18.11 The Cable Stitch

    Chapter 19 Automatic Power Flat Knitting

    19.1 Mechanically-Controlled Jacquard Knitting

    19.2 The Pasteboard Movement Card Reader Unit

    19.3 Stoll Selectanit Electronic Selection

    19.4 The Dubied Actuator Selection Post

    19.5 Multi-Carriage Flat Machines

    19.6 The Presser Foot Concept

    19.7 Flat Bed Purl Knitting

    Chapter 20 Circular Garment Length Machines

    20.1 Double-Cylinder Garment Length Machine

    20.2 RTR Garment Length Machine

    20.3 Dogless Drive and Dial Shogging

    20.4 The Basic Elements and Camming Arrangement of the RTR

    20.5 The Mecmor Variatex

    Chapter 21 The Manufacture of Hosiery on Small Diameter Circular Machines

    21.1 Classes of Hosiery Machines

    21.2 Development of Seamless Hosiery

    21.3 Ladder-Resist Structures

    21.4 Development of the Double-Cylinder Machine

    21.5 The Slider Butt Set-Out

    21.6 Timing and Control of Mechanical Changes on Circular Hosiery Machines

    21.7 The Cam Drums

    21.8 Adjustment of Loop Length

    21.9 Production of Heels and Toes

    21.10 Automatic Separation

    21.11 Panty-Hose

    Chapter 22 Aspects of Knitting Science

    22.1 Knitted Loop Shape and Loop Length Control

    22.2 Loop Length

    22.3 Warp Let-Off

    22.4 Weft Knitted Fabric Relaxation and Shrinkage

    22.5 Knitted Fabric Geometry

    22.6 Tightness Factor

    22.7 Robbing Back

    22.8 Needle Bounce and High-Speed Knitting

    22.9 The Cadratex Unit

    Chapter 23 Basic Warp Knitting Principles

    23.1 Construction of Warp Knitted Fabrics

    23.2 The Warp Beams

    23.3 The Guide Bar

    23.4 The Guides

    23.5 Single Needle Bar Structures

    23.6 The Pattern Mechanism

    23.7 Chain Links

    23.8 Development of Lapping Diagrams and Chain Notations

    23.9 Single- or Double-Needle Overlaps

    23.10 The Five Basic Overlap/Underlap Variations

    23.11 Direction of Lapping at Successive Courses

    Chapter 24 Classes of Warp Knitting Machinery

    24.1 Characteristics of Tricot and Raschel Machines

    24.2 The Knitting Cycle of the Bearded Needle Tricot Machine

    24.3 The Raschel Machine

    24.4 The Knitting Action of the Single Needle Bar Raschel

    24.5 Compound Needle Warp Knitting Machines

    24.6 The Crochet Machine

    24.7 Warping

    Chapter 25 Plain Tricot Structures Knitted with Two Full Set Guide Bars

    25.1 Rules Governing Two Guide Bar Structures

    25.2 Two Bar Tricot

    25.3 Locknit

    25.4 Reverse Locknit

    25.5 Sharkskin

    25.6 Queenscord

    25.7 Double Atlas

    25.8 Satin

    25.9 Velour and Velvet Structures

    25.10 Overfed Pile Structures

    Chapter 26 Surface Interest, Relief and Openwork Structures

    26.1 Miss-Lapping

    26.2 Part-Threaded Guide Bars

    Chapter 27 Laying-In in Warp Knitting

    27.1 General Rules Governing Laying-in in Warp Knitting

    27.2 Fall-Plate Patterning

    27.3 Full Width Weft Insertion

    27.4 Cut Presser and Miss-Press Structures

    Chapter 28 Multi-Guide Bar Machines and Fabrics

    28.1 Lace, Curtain-Net and Elastic Fabrics

    28.2 Pattern Guide Bars

    28.3 Nesting

    28.4 Multi-Bar Tricot Lace Machines

    28.5 Chain Links and Electronic Control of Shogging

    28.6 Mesh Structures

    28.7 Elasticized Fabrics

    28.8 Jacquard Rascheis

    Chapter 29 Double Needle Bar Warp Knitting Machines

    29.1 Basic Lapping Principles

    29.2 The Simplex Machine

    29.3 The Double Needle Bar Raschel

    29.4 Double Needle Bar Raschel Products

    29.5 Knitting Tubular Articles

    29.6 Pile Fabrics


    General Textbooks on Knitting

    Textbook Availability

    Reference Books

    General Information


Product details

  • No. of pages: 368
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Pergamon 1983
  • Published: January 1, 1983
  • Imprint: Pergamon
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483182230

About the Author

David J. Spencer

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