Kenya: A Natural Outlook

Kenya: A Natural Outlook

Geo-Environmental Resources and Hazards

1st Edition - November 1, 2011

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  • Editors: Paolo Paron, Daniel Olago, Christian Omuto
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780444595591
  • eBook ISBN: 9780444595478

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Description

Kenya is a thriving country in East Africa: its economy is largely based on the natural environment that frames the tourism sector, mainly through safaris and holidays on the coast. The natural environment also underpins the second largest industry: agriculture. Kenya’s social, technological, and industrial developments are a reference for many neighboring countries. Kenya plays a leading role in Africa and attracts huge amounts of investments. Furthermore, the humanitarian community has made Nairobi its base for international headquarters and regional offices. This makes Kenya a possible model for development and investment in its widest sense. This book aims at updating the holistic view on Kenya’s natural environment and resources. It provides a sound scientific introduction to this country’s physical and socioeconomic setting and its evolution through time and will appeal to a broad audience of students – in Kenya and abroad – as well as those working in the development and humanitarian sectors and to international donors looking for a scientific compendium on Kenya’s environment. Its structure and references allow the reader to deepen his or her knowledge of every theme touched on in the book.

Key Features

  • Combines different aspects of physical geography, water and soil resources and their management strategies
  • Written by a blend of international and national experts
  • Includes specific case studies

Readership

Environmentalists, land ecologists, engineers, geologists, geomorphologists, archaeologists, soil scientists, and land managers

Table of Contents

  • Series Page

    Foreword

    Introduction

    Contributors

    Section I: Natural Resources

    Chapter 1. General Geology of Kenya

    Abstract

    1 Introduction

    2 The Nyanzian Shield

    3 The Kisii Group

    4 Mozambique Belt

    5 Palaeozoic and Mesozoic Sediments

    6 Tertiary and Quaternary Volcanics

    7 Tertiary and Quaternary Sediments

    References

    Chapter 2. Mineral, Oil and Gas Resources

    Abstract

    1 Mineral Resources

    2 Oil and Gas Resources

    References

    Chapter 3. Relief, Physiography and Drainage

    Abstract

    1 Introduction

    2 Major Physical Regions of Kenya

    3 The Drainage Patterns

    References

    Chapter 4. Quaternary Evolution

    Abstract

    1 Introduction

    2 The Western Kenya Region

    3 The Kenya Rift System

    4 The Eastern Kenya Region

    5 The Coastal Kenya Region

    References

    Chapter 5. Climate

    Abstract

    1 The Climate of Kenya

    2 Air Masses in Kenya

    3 Rainfall and Temperature

    4 Climatic Regions in Kenya

    5 Climate and Agriculture

    6 Climate Extremes

    7 A Note on Meteorologic Networks and Observations in Kenya

    References

    Further-Reading

    Chapter 6. Remote Sensing Application Supporting IWRM in Kenya

    Abstract

    1 Concept of Remote Sensing

    2 Status of Stored Water in Kenya

    3 Contribution of Geospatial Information in Supporting IWRM

    4 Case Studies

    Acknowledgements

    References

    Chapter 7. Surface Flows for People and Wildlife in the Transboundary Mara River Basin

    Abstract

    1 Introduction

    2 Environmental Flow Assessment to Set the Reserve

    3 Results of the Assessment

    4 Implications of Environmental Flow Recommendations

    References

    Chapter 8. Groundwater Distribution and Aquifer Characteristics in Kenya

    Abstract

    1 Introduction

    2 Groundwater Distribution and Aquifer Characteristics of Sedimentary Rocks of Northern Kenya

    3 Groundwater Distribution and Aquifer Characteristics of Sedimentary Rocks of Coastal Kenya

    4 Groundwater Distribution and Aquifer Characteristics of Sedimentary Rocks of Lamu Island

    5 Groundwater Distribution and Aquifer Characteristics of Intrusive and Volcanics of Rift Valley

    6 Groundwater Distribution and Aquifer Characteristics of Metamorphic Rocks

    References

    Chapter 9. Coastal Waters

    Abstract

    1 Composition and Temperature

    2 Pollution

    3 Tidal Movements

    4 A Note on Coastal Management

    References

    Chapter 10. Renewable Energy Resources in Kenya

    Abstract

    1 Introduction

    2 Solar Energy

    3 Wind Energy

    4 Hydropower

    5 Geothermal Power Generation

    6 Tidal

    7 Biogas and Biofuels

    References

    Chapter 11. Major Soil and Data Types in Kenya

    Abstract

    1 Introduction

    2 Materials and Methods

    3 Results and Discussions

    3 Conclusions

    Acknowledgements

    References

    Chapter 12. Vegetation

    Abstract

    1 Ecoregions, Vegetation Zones and Land Cover

    2 Land Cover Change in Kenya

    3 Results

    4 Discussion

    5 Protected Areas in Kenya

    6 Land Cover on Protected Areas

    References

    Chapter 13. Agricultural Expansion and Its Consequences in the Taita Hills, Kenya

    Abstract

    1 Introduction: Land-Cover Change in Sub-Saharan Africa

    2 Study Area: The Taita Hills Are Islands in the Sea of Savanna

    3 Material and Methods: Land-Cover-Change Studies Using Two Scales

    4 Results: Loss of Indigenous Forests in the Hills and Agricultural Expansion in the Lowlands

    5 Discussion: Endangered Ecosystem Services

    Acknowledgements

    References

    Chapter 14. The Importance of Fire Ecology in Protected Areas Management

    Abstract

    1 Introduction

    2 Fires in Africa

    References

    Chapter 15. Importance and Dynamics of the Mangroves in Kenya

    Abstract

    1 Introduction

    2 Threats to Kenyan Mangroves

    3 Conservation Measures

    References

    Chapter 16. Freshwater Ecology of Kenyan Highlands and Lowlands

    Abstract

    1 Introduction

    2 Kenya Water Towers

    3 Freshwater Ecosystems of Athi River Basin

    4 Freshwater Ecosystems of Tana River Basin

    5 Freshwater Ecosystems of Ewaso Ng'iro Basin

    6 Freshwater Ecosystems of Lake Victoria Basin

    7 Freshwater Ecosystems of the Rift Valley Basin

    8 Discussion

    References

    Chapter 17. The Management of Wildlife and Fisheries Resources in Kenya: Origins, Present Challenges and Future Perspectives

    Abstract

    1 Introduction

    2 Transitions

    3 Management and Mitigation of Human–Wildlife Conflict in Kenya

    4 Case Study 1: Human–Elephant Conflict and Attempted Mitigation Measures in Laikipia County

    5 Case Study 2: Livestock Depredation and the Use of Monetary Compensation in Amboseli, Kenya

    6 Laikipia

    7 Wildlife Protection and Antipoaching Operations

    8 The Development and Role of Wildlife Civil Society Organizations

    9 The Kenya Fisheries Sector

    10 Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 18. Environmental Impact Assessment in Kenya

    Abstract

    1 Introduction

    2 The Environmental Impact Assessment Process

    3 Public Consultation and Participation in Environmental Assessment

    4 Social Dimensions in Environmental Impact Assessment

    5 Legislative and Regulatory Framework for Environmental Management in Kenya

    References

    Section II: Natural Hazards

    Chapter 19. Seismic Hazard

    Abstract

    1 Introduction

    2 Tectonic Setting, Seismicity, and Seismic Hazards in Kenya

    3 Seismicity and Seismic Hazards

    4 Tsunami Potential Along the East African Coast

    5 Conclusion

    References

    Further-Reading

    Chapter 20. Overview of Landslide Occurrences in Kenya: Causes, Mitigation, and Challenges

    Abstract

    1 Introduction

    2 Types and Causes of Landslides

    3 Causative Factors of Landslides in Kenya

    4 Socioeconomic and Environmental Impacts of Landslides in Kenya

    5 Landslide Mitigation: How to Reduce the Effects of Landslides

    6 Way Forward

    Acknowledgements

    References

    Chapter 21. Floods in Kenya

    Abstract

    1 Introduction

    2 History of the Major Floods in Kenya

    3 Flood Hazards in Kenya

    4 Impacts of Floods in Kenya

    5 Vulnerability Indices for the Flood-Prone Areas

    6 Flood Hazards Map for Kenya

    References

    Further Reading

    Chapter 22. Coastal Erosion

    Abstract

    1 Introduction

    2 Causes and Impacts of Coastal Erosion

    3 Extreme Events

    4 Management of the Shoreline

    References

    Chapter 23. Monitoring Drought with the Combined Drought Index in Kenya

    Abstract

    1 Introduction

    2 Drought Definitions, Types and Estimation

    3 Methodology for Calculating the Combined Drought Index

    4 Droughts in Kenya, Measured by the CDI

    5 Long-Term Trends of Drought Events in Kenya

    6 Short-Term Forecast of Drought by the CDI

    7 Conclusions

    References

    Conclusions

    1 Challenges due to Lack of Data

    2 Challenges Posed by Lack of Integrated Approach in Exploitation of Natural Resources

    3 Opportunities

    4 Knowledge Application and Sharing

    References

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 402
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier Science 2013
  • Published: November 1, 2011
  • Imprint: Elsevier Science
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780444595591
  • eBook ISBN: 9780444595478

About the Series Volume Editors

Paolo Paron

Paolo is a Senior Lecturer at IHE Delft in the River Basin Development research group. He has more than 15 years of combined professional experience in the Humanitarian, Professional and Academic world in the areas of mapping, geology and geomorphology and remote sensing. In the last years he has been developing methods and tools for the use of UAV in hydraulic research including flood mapping as well as in ecology and soil erosion. He has worked and lived extensively in Eastern and Southern Africa with shorter assignments in Asia and East Asia, and at present he is based in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Affiliations and Expertise

UNESCO-IHE, Institute for Water Education, Delft, The Netherlands

Daniel Olago

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya

Christian Omuto

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya

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