Job Hazard Analysis

Job Hazard Analysis

A guide for voluntary compliance and beyond

1st Edition - October 15, 2007

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  • Authors: James Roughton, Nathan Crutchfield
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080554167
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780750683463

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Description

Job Hazard Analysis: A Guide for Voluntary Compliance and Beyond presents a new and improved concept for Job Hazard Analysis (JHA) that guides the reader through the whole process of developing tools for identifying workplace hazards, creating systems that support hazard recognition, designing an effective JHA, and integrating a JHA based program into occupational safety and health management systems. The book goes beyond the traditional approach of focusing just on the sequence of steps and demonstrates how to integrate a risk assessment and behavioral component into the process by incorporating elements from Behavior-Related Safety and Six Sigma. This approach allows businesses to move from mere compliance to pro-active safety management. This book methodically develops the risk assessment basis needed for ANSI/AIHA Z10 and other safety and health management systems. It is supported by numerous real-life examples, end of chapter review questions, sample checklists, action plans and forms. There is a complete online solutions manual for instructors adopting the book in college and university occupational safety and health courses. This text is intended for lecturers and students in occupational safety and health courses as well as vocational and degree courses at community colleges and universities. It will also appeal to safety and health professionals in all industries; supervisors, senior managers and HR professionals with responsibility for safety and health; and loss control and insurance professionals.

Key Features

  • Enhances the JHA with concepts from Behavior- Related Safety and proven risk assessment strategies using Six Sigma tools
  • Methodically develops the risk assessment basis needed for ANSI/AIHA Z10 and other safety and health management systems
  • Includes numerous real-life examples, end of chapter review questions, sample checklists, action plans and forms
  • Readership

    Safety and Health professionals in all industries; supervisors, senior managers and HR professionals with responsibility for safety and health. Loss control and insurance professionals. Lecturers and students on occupational safety and health courses - vocational and degree courses at community colleges and universities.

    Table of Contents

    • Introduction

      Why Do You Need This Book?
      The Value of the JHA
      What Is A Job Hazard Analysis?
      What is in this Book?
      Connecting the Dots

      Part 1, Developing a Toolkit for Identifying Workplace Risk and Hazards

      Chapter 1, Preparing for the Risk and Hazard Assessment

      The Centerpiece of a Safety Process
      Hazard Recognition and Control Systems
      Conducting a Risk Assessment of the Workplace
      Prioritizing the Risk Assessment Findings
      Developing Solutions to Resolve Risk-Related Issues
      Recommending and Implementing Controls
      Monitoring the Results
      Developing a System to Identify and Report Hazards
      Company Safety Policy
      Involving Employees in the JHA Process
      Protecting Employees from Harassment
      Identifying Workplace Hazards
      Employee Reporting Systems
      Verbal Reports
      Suggestion Programs
      Hazard Card Program
      “Hazard Wanted” Program
      A Word of Caution With Regard to Hazard Reporting
      Maintenance Work Orders
      Forms Used to Report Hazards
      Action Planning
      Tracking Hazards
      Tracking by Committee
      Follow-up Reviews
      Codes of Safe Work Practices
      Summary
      Review Chapter Questions
      References


      Appendix

      A Sample Guidance in Writing a Complete Statement
      Sample Policy Safety Statements
      B Sample Forms for Employee Reporting Of Hazards
      Tracking Hazard Corrections
      Follow-Up Documentation
      C Action Planning
      Three Sample Versions are Included
      D Codes of Safe Practices

      Chapter 2, Workplace Hazard Analysis and Review of Associated Risk

      Objective
      Analysis of the Workplace System
      Inspections and Audits
      The Checklist
      Consultant and Outside Specialist
      Employee Interviews
      Types of Inspections
      General Walk-Around Inspections
      Verification Reviews
      Focus Reviews
      Self-Assessment
      Document Review
      General Walk-Around Inspections
      Verification Reviews
      Focus Reviews
      Self-Assessment
      Document Review
      Written Inspection Reports
      Who Should Review the Workplace?
      Supervisors
      Employees
      Safety Professionals
      Preventive Maintenance Programs
      Other Things to Consider during a Site Inspection
      Incident Investigations
      Trend Analysis
      Summary
      Review Chapter Questions
      References

      Appendix

      E Self-Inspection Checklists

      Chapter 3, Developing Systems to Manage Hazards

      Hierarchy of Controls
      Why Engineering Controls?
      Administrative Control
      PPE
      PPE Limitations
      PPE Hazard Assessment
      Work Practices and Safety Rules
      General Safety Rules
      Limitations of Work Practices and Safety Rules
      Change Analysis
      A Change in the Process
      Building or Leasing a New Facility
      New Equipment Installation
      Using New Materials
      Employee Changes
      Adapting to Change
      Other Analytical Tools for Consideration:
      Summary
      Review Chapter Questions
      References


      Appendix

      F Sample Safety Rules
      G PPE Assessment
      Guidelines for complying with PPE requirements
      Hazard Assessment for PPE, Option 1
      Job Hazard Analysis Assessment for PPE, Option 2
      Example Personal Protective Equipment Training Certification Form
      Example Personal Protective Equipment Training Quiz, (RECOMMENDED)
      Sample PPE Policies, INSTRUCTIONS
      H Safety Review of New/Relocated Equipment Major Modification Sign-Off Form I Other Analytical Tools for Consideration

      Part 2, Developing Systems that Support Hazard Recognition

      Chapter 4, Understanding the Human Role in the Safety Process

      How are At-Risk Events Developed?
      What Contributes to an At-Risk Event?
      The Feedback Loop
      Behavior Approach
      Changing Behavior
      Understanding Why Employees Put Themselves at Risk
      Understanding the Other Side of Safety
      Benefits of Behavior-Based Safety
      Behavior-Based Safety and Integrated Safety Management Functions
      Seven Guiding Principles of Integrated Safety Management
      Five Core Functions of Integrated Safety Management
      Will a BBS Process Work for you?
      Summary
      Chapter Review Questions
      References

      Appendix
      J Sample Behavior (At-Risk Events) List


      Chapter 5, Effective Use of Employee Participation

      Why Should Employees Be Involved?
      Involving Employees in the Safety Management System
      Close Contact with Hazards
      Improved Support
      More Participation More Awareness
      Hawthorne Studies
      Committee Participation
      Getting Employee Participation Started
      Form a Committee
      How to involve Employees in the Process
      Joint Labor-Management Committees
      Other Joint Committees
      Employee Safety Committees
      Central Safety Committee
      Function-Specific Committees
      Areas of Employee Participation
      Conducting Site Inspections
      Routine Hazard Analysis
      Developing or Revising Site-Specific Safety Rules
      Training Other Employees
      Employee Orientation
      Different Approaches: Union and Non-Union Sites
      Unionized Work Sites
      Non-Union Work Sites
      Forms of Employee Participation
      What Can Management Must Do
      Summary
      Chapter Review Questions
      References

      Appendix

      K Example of a Committee Team Charter

      Chapter 6, Defining Associated Risk
      Risk Management
      General Risk Management Theories and Models
      People (Employees)
      The Environment
      Tools/Equipment/Materials
      Policies, Procedures, and Management Considerations
      Job Steps and Task Considerations
      The System Engineering Model
      Risk versus Benefit
      Risk Management Communication
      Risk Management Responsibilities
      Supervision Responsibilities
      Employees Responsibilities
      Risk Assessment
      Classification and Ranking Hazards
      Risk versus Opportunity
      Safety Significance
      What Does Success Look Like?
      Summary
      Chapter Review Questions
      References


      Chapter 7, Assessing Safety and Health Training Needs

      How is a Good Trainer Defined?
      Basic Training Principles
      Types of Safety Education
      General Safety Instruction
      How to Conduct Safety Training
      Training Plan Linked To Consequences
      Natural consequences
      System consequences
      Steps in the Course Development Process
      Conducting a Training Needs Analysis
      Developing Learning Activities
      Establishing Learning Objectives
      Guidelines for Writing Learning Objectives
      Components of Learning Objectives
      Target Audience
      Audience Analysis
      Behavior
      Types of Behavior in Learning Objectives
      Cognitive behaviors
      Knowledge-level cognitive behaviors
      Comprehension-level cognitive behaviors
      Application-level cognitive behaviors
      Problem-solving cognitive behaviors
      Psychomotor Behaviors
      Affective Behaviors
      Learning Styles
      Conditions
      Course Content Development
      Delivering Effective Safety Training
      Safety Program Evaluation
      Level 1: Measuring Employees Reaction
      Level 2: Measures KSA's in the Learning Environment
      Level 3: Evaluates the application of KSA's in the Work Environment
      Level 4: Evaluates how training has impacted productivity
      Level 5: Evaluates how training has impacted profits
      Recordkeeping
      Other Effective Training
      “Blues Clues” Training Techniques
      Improved Self-Esteem?
      Summary
      Review Chapter Questions
      References

      Appendix

      L Sample, Safety and Health Training Policy,

      ANSI Guidelines for Evaluating Training Programs
      Sample Safety Training Program Audit
      Sample Training Certification

      Part 3- Developing an Effective Job Hazard Analysis

      Chapter 8, Planning for the Job Hazard Analysis

      Where do I begin?
      Regaining the “Feel” of the Workplace
      Conducting the JHA
      Why is a JHA Important?
      Benefits of Developing JHA's
      Drawbacks of a JHA
      Why Is It Important to Get Employees Involved in the Process?
      Selecting a Team
      How do I know that A JHA will Work For Me?
      Defining the JHA
      Selecting the Jobs for Analysis
      Non-Routine Tasks
      Summary
      Review Chapter Questions
      References

      Appendix

      M Description of Common Hazards

      Chapter 9, Breaking the Job Down Into Individual Components
      Basic Steps in the JHA Development Process
      Tasks Defined
      Using a Checklist
      Methods for Breaking down the Job into Steps and Tasks
      Discussion Method
      Observation Method
      What Tools can be used to enhance the JHA Process?
      Cameras and Video Equipment
      Drawings and Sketches
      “Can’t See the Forest for the Trees”
      Summary
      Review Chapter Questions
      References

      Appendix

      N Sample Facility Checklist

      Chapter 10, Putting together the Puzzle Pieces

      Completing the JHA Form
      The Header
      Job Description
      Department
      Date Developed
      Page Numbering
      Performed by
      Approvals
      PPE
      Body of JHA
      Job Steps and Task-Specific Description
      Risk Assessment
      Existing and Potential Hazards and Consequences of Exposure
      At-Risk Events and Preventative Measures
      Preventative Measures
      Eliminate the hazard.
      Substitute
      Engineering
      Contain the hazard
      Administrative Controls
      Revise work procedures
      Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
      Reduce the exposure
      Residual Risk
      Benefit review, Getting the Biggest Bang for the Buck
      Okay, I have completed the JHA, Now What!
      Review JHAs until Employee Understands Hazards of Job
      Revising the JHA
      Summary
      Review Chapter Questions
      References

      Appendix O
      Sample instructions on how to change a tire on a car.
      Sample Job Hazard Analysis Pre-Hazard Assessment Worksheet
      JHA on Changing a Tire
      JHA on Changing a Tire, Annotated
      Comparison JHA on Changing a Tire, Traditional vs. New Version
      Job Hazard Analysis, Canadian Centre for Occupational Health & Safety (CCOHS)
      Chapter 11, Standard or Safe Operating Procedures (SOP)
      How Far is far enough? Why develop an SOP?
      Elements of an SOP
      Summary
      Review Chapter Questions

      Appendix
      P Standard Operating Procedure for Changing a Tire Send New Updated File

      Part 4, Additional Tools That Can Be Used To Develop A Successful JHA

      Chapter 12, Overview of a Safety Management Process

      Process Elements
      What are the Voluntary Protection Programs?
      How does VPP work?
      How does VPP help employers and employees?
      Management Commitment and Leadership
      Employee participation
      Hazard Identification and Assessment
      Hazard Prevention and Control)
      Education and Training
      Employee Training
      Management Training
      Evaluation of Process Effectiveness
      The Nature of All Safety Systems
      Indicators and Measures
      Assessment Techniques
      Multi-Employer Workplace
      Employee Rights
      Healing a Sick System
      The PDSA Cycle
      Voluntary Protection Program
      Summary
      Review Chapter Questions
      References

      Appendix None

      Chapter 13, Six Sigma as a Management System: A Tool for Effectively Managing a JHA Process

      Six Sigma Exposed
      The Beginning
      What Does Process Improvement Mean?
      What Does Process Improvement Look Like?
      Benefits of Improving a Process
      Improving the Process Using the Six Sigma Methodology
      A Basic Six Sigma Process Improvement Model
      DMAIC Methodology
      Defining the Project
      Measuring the Project
      Analyzing the Project
      Improving the Project
      Controlling the Project
      Define Phase
      Step 1, Define the Scope of the Project.
      Selecting the Process
      Step 2, Developing a Problem Statement
      Step 3, Define the Appropriate Metric
      Step 4, Develop Objective Statement
      Step 5, Select and Organize the “Right” Team.
      Measure Phase
      Step 6, Develop a Macro Map of Current Process
      Step 7, Define the project with Pareto charts, XY matrix, etc.
      Analyze Phase
      Step 9, Tool Use (Process Flow, XY Matrix, Gauge Studies, Fishbone, FMEA)
      Step 10, Identify Root Cause(s) for lack of Capability Using Specific Analysis Techniques

      Improve Phase
      Step 11, Design and Conduct Experiment, as applicable
      Step 12, Defining the Y= f(x) of the Process
      Control Phase
      Step 13, Optimizing and Redefining Solutions
      Step 14, Control Critical X’s and Monitor Y’s
      Step 15, Verify the Change and Collect Data
      Key areas of Six Sigma
      Six Sigma levels
      Investing in Prevention Pay off!!
      Positive Changes to Corporate Culture
      Summary
      Review Chapter Questions
      References

      Appendix Q Cause and Effect Matrix

      Process Flow Diagram of Changing a Tire based on XY Matrix (Simplified)
      List the Inputs (Y’s) to the Process XY Matrix for Assessing Job Steps and Task
      List the Inputs (Y’s) to the Process XY Matrix and Assign Ranking
      List the process Job steps and inputs (Job Task) XY Matrix for Assessing Job Steps and Task
      Rank the inputs according to their effect on each output XY Matrix
      XY Matrix for Assessing Job Steps and Task, Identify the critical inputs from the totals column

      Final Words, Can You Develop a Culture that Will Sustain Itself?
      Taking a Closer Look at Reality
      Reference

      Appendix R
      OSHA Regional Offices

      Glossary
      Solutions to Chapter Questions

    Product details

    • No. of pages: 520
    • Language: English
    • Copyright: © Butterworth-Heinemann 2007
    • Published: October 15, 2007
    • Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
    • eBook ISBN: 9780080554167
    • Hardcover ISBN: 9780750683463

    About the Authors

    James Roughton

    James Roughton CSP, CRSP, R-CHMM, CET, Certified Six Sigma Black Belt, is an experienced Safety Professional with in-depth knowledge of the use of Social Media to help improve productivity. He is an accomplished speaker, author, and writer who develops and manages his websites providing a resource network for small businesses, http://www.safetycultureplusacademy.com.

    Affiliations and Expertise

    Safety professional and active member, Project Safe, Georgia Safety Advisory Board, Georgia Department of Labor, USA

    Nathan Crutchfield

    Nathan Crutchfield
    Nathan Crutchfield CPCU, ARM, ARP, has provided expertise to a broad array of clients that include public entities, associations, and general industry. He was awarded the National Safety Council’s “Distinguished Service to Safety Award” in 2001 and served on the National Safety Council Board of Directors in 1993 to 1995; and was a Vice President, with major risk management and insurance brokerage for over 20 years. He co-authored Job Hazard Analysis, A Guide for Voluntary Compliance and Beyond.

    Affiliations and Expertise

    Formerly National Safety Council Board of Director

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