Job Hazard Analysis - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9780128034415, 9780128034422

Job Hazard Analysis

2nd Edition

A Guide for Voluntary Compliance and Beyond

Authors: James Roughton Nathan Crutchfield
eBook ISBN: 9780128034422
Paperback ISBN: 9780128034415
Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
Published Date: 7th December 2015
Page Count: 504
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Description

Job Hazard Analysis: A Guide for Voluntary Compliance and Beyond, Second Edition, provides a complete reference for performing JHA and setting up a JHA program. The book identifies the basic job steps and tasks, their associated hazards and risks, and safe operating procedures and hazard controls based on this analysis.

Authors James Roughton and Nathan Crutchfield argue that the JHA should be the centerpiece of any risk control and occupational safety and health program. However, the traditional JHA has potential problems in gathering and analysis of task data and, with its focus on the sequence of steps, can miss the behavioral effects and the systems interactions between tools, equipment, materials, work environment, management and the individual worker.

The concepts are presented for the JHA, incorporating elements from Behavior-Based Safety and Six Sigma. Readers are taken through the whole process of developing tools for identifying workplace hazards, developing systems that support hazard recognition, developing an effective JHA, and managing a JHA based program that can be easily incorporated into occupational safety and health management systems, thus allowing businesses to move from mere compliance to a pro-active safety management. The book is supported by numerous examples of JHAs, end of chapter review questions, sample checklists, action plans, and forms.

Key Features

  • Provides a basic understanding of the JHA process and a more in-depth background on the human performance improvement for a successful JHA program implementation
  • Methodically develops the risk assessment basics needed within the JHA process
  • Presents expanded resources that are useful in safety systems
  • Incorporates elements from Behavior-Based Safety and Six Sigma

Readership

Safety engineers, advisors, managers, plant operators, maintenance supervisors, loss control and insurance professionals, lecturers and students in occupational safety and health courses.

Table of Contents

  • Dedication
  • About the Authors
  • Foreword
  • Preface
  • Acknowledgments
  • Acronyms
  • Introduction
  • Chapter One: Why Focus on the Job Hazard Analysis Process
    • Abstract
    • 1.1. JHAs’ main purpose
    • 1.2. Defining the value proposition case for JHA process
    • 1.3. Why is the JHA important?
    • 1.4. Benefits of developing a JHA process
    • 1.5. Building the case for a JHA process
    • 1.6. Gaining greater respect for the job
    • 1.7. Challenges to JHA process
    • 1.8. JHAs require effort and time to implement
    • Summary
    • Chapter review questions
  • Chapter Two: Understanding Human Performance in the Job Hazard Analysis Process
    • Abstract
    • 2.1. Basic overview
    • 2.2. Professional responsibility
    • 2.3. The JHA – a communication tool
    • 2.4. Implementation strategy
    • 2.5. Defining the term “job”
    • 2.6. Comparing JHA and JSA
    • 2.7. Human performance principles
    • 2.8. Error precursors
    • 2.9. Defining organizational culture
    • 2.10. Shift in perception
    • 2.11. Levels of culture Defined
    • 2.12. Organizational structure
    • 2.13. Job complexity - even for “simple jobs”
    • 2.14. Overlapping and similar job activities
    • 2.15. Types of performance
    • 2.16. Human error potential
    • 2.17. Error types
    • 2.18. Technology as a risk
    • 2.19. Politics in the organization
    • 2.20. The art of curation
    • 2.21. Questions to review about the organization
    • 2.22. Another area for consideration
    • 2.23. What contributes to an at-risk event?
    • 2.24. Behavior approach
    • 2.25. Changing behavior
    • 2.26. Understanding why employees put themselves at risk
    • 2.27. Understanding the other side of safety
    • 2.28. Behavior-based safety and integrated safety management functions
    • 2.29. Seven guiding principles of integrated safety management
    • 2.30. Five core functions of integrated safety management
    • 2.31. Will a BBS process work for you?
    • Summary
    • Chapter review questions
  • Chapter Three: Introducing JHA into the Organization
    • Abstract
    • 3.1. Organizational and peer pressures
    • 3.2. How are at-risk events developed?
    • 3.3. Ladder of inference – How beliefs lead to risk and hazard acceptance
    • 3.4. Changing beliefs
    • 3.5. Why employees accept risk
    • Summary
    • Chapter review questions
  • Chapter Four: Leadership Team and Employee Participation
    • Abstract
    • 4.1. Why should employees be involved?
    • 4.2. Benefits of employee participation
    • 4.3. Reasons employees are not involved in the JHA process
    • 4.4. Listening to employees
    • 4.5. Guidelines for employee participation in the JHA process
    • 4.6. JHA committee development
    • 4.7. Establishing the team charter
    • 4.8. Choosing JHA committee members
    • 4.9. Ad hoc sub-committees
    • Summary
    • Chapter review questions
  • Chapter Five: Preparing for the Hazard and Risk Assessment
    • Abstract
    • 5.1. Setting the stage for the JHA process
    • 5.2. Conducting a hazard and risk assessment
    • 5.3. Prioritizing the risk assessment
    • 5.4. Developing solutions to resolve hazard and risk-related issues
    • 5.5. Recommending and implementing controls
    • 5.6. Monitoring the results
    • 5.7. Company safety policy
    • 5.8. Developing a system to identify and report hazards
    • 5.9. Employee reporting systems
    • 5.10. Verbal reports
    • 5.11. Suggestion programs
    • 5.12. Maintenance work orders
    • 5.13. Checklist used to report hazards
    • 5.14. Action planning
    • 5.15. Follow-up reviews
    • Summary
    • Chapter review questions
  • Chapter Six: Hazard Analysis and Review of Associated Risk
    • Abstract
    • 6.1. Hazard review and analysis of the workplace
    • 6.2. Inspections and audits
    • 6.3. Inspections
    • 6.4. Audits
    • 6.5. Checklist
    • 6.6. Consultants and outside specialists
    • 6.7. Employee interviews and surveys
    • 6.8. Surveys
    • 6.9. Interviews
    • 6.10. Types of inspections
    • 6.11. Written inspection reports
    • 6.12. Who should review the workplace?
    • 6.13. Preventive maintenance programs
    • 6.14. Incident investigations
    • Summary
    • Chapter review questions
  • Chapter Seven: Enhancing the Safety Management System in Managing Risk
    • Abstract
    • 7.1. Organizations are dynamic and not static
    • 7.2. The centerpiece and critical link
    • 7.3. Hazard control concepts
    • 7.4. Hierarchy of controls
    • 7.5. Avoidance
    • 7.6. Substitution
    • 7.7. Engineering and design
    • 7.8. Administrative
    • 7.9. Personal protective equipment
    • 7.10. Haddon’s energy approach
    • 7.11. Other areas for consideration
    • 7.12. General safety rules
    • 7.13. Standard operating procedures
    • 7.14. Employee changes
    • 7.15. Changes in staffing
    • 7.16. Individual change
    • 7.17. Temporary workers
    • 7.18. Adapting to change
    • 7.19. Predictive versus reactive
    • 7.20. Other analytical tools for consideration
    • Summary
    • Chapter review questions
  • Chapter Eight: Defining Associated Risk
    • Abstract
    • 8.1. Risk management concepts
    • 8.2. Risk
    • 8.3. JHA integration with risk management concepts
    • 8.4. First steps
    • 8.5. General risk management theories and models
    • 8.6. The American Society of Safety Engineers (ASSE) Risk Assessment Institute
    • 8.7. Risk management responsibilities
    • 8.8. Leadership’s risk responsibilities
    • 8.9. Employee’s risk responsibilities
    • 8.10. Risk acceptance
    • 8.11. Why are unnecessary risks taken?
    • 8.12. Hazard recognition tools, building the foundation for risk perception
    • 8.13. The risk guidance card, a potential solution
    • 8.14. Using the risk guidance card
    • Summary
    • Chapter review questions
  • Chapter Nine: Planning for the Job Hazard Analysis
    • Abstract
    • 9.1. Benefits of developing JHA’s
    • 9.2. Beginning the process
    • 9.3. The “feel” of the workplace
    • 9.4. Conducting the JHA
    • 9.5. JHA implementation obstacles
    • 9.6. The importance of employees to the JHA process
    • 9.7. Selecting the JHA administrator
    • 9.8. Selecting the JHA committee
    • 9.9. The JHA committee charter
    • 9.10. JHA as a problem solving tool
    • 9.11. Selecting the jobs for analysis
    • 9.12. Nonroutine tasks
    • Summary
    • Chapter review questions
  • Chapter Ten: Breaking the Job Down into Individual Components
    • Abstract
    • 10.1. Basic steps in developing a JHA
    • 10.2. Individual job components
    • 10.3. Determining cause and effect
    • 10.4. Using a Checklist
    • 10.5. Gathering information for breaking down the job
    • 10.6. Developing a tool kit for the JHA process?
    • 10.7. Electronic equipment
    • 10.8. Other applications
    • 10.9. Criteria for job observations
    • 10.10. Reality check
    • Summary
    • Chapter review questions
  • Chapter Eleven: Putting the Puzzle Pieces Together
    • Abstract
    • 11.1. Telling the JHA story
    • 11.2. Completing the JHA form
    • 11.3. The header
    • 11.4. Job description
    • 11.5. Department
    • 11.6. Date developed
    • 11.7. Page numbering
    • 11.8. Performed by
    • 11.9. Personal protective equipment (PPE) required
    • 11.10. Body of JHA
    • 11.11. Job steps and task-specific description
    • 11.12. Nonroutine jobs
    • 11.13. Risk Assessment
    • 11.14. Existing and potential hazards and consequences of exposure
    • 11.15. At-risk events and preventative measures
    • 11.16. Preventative measures
    • 11.17. Residual risk
    • 11.18. Final review and approvals
    • 11.19. Another area for consideration
    • 11.20. Safety meetings
    • 11.21. Daily preshift review
    • 11.22. Multishift operation
    • 11.23. Weekly meetings
    • 11.24. Monthly meetings
    • 11.25. One-on-one discussions with employees
    • 11.26. Safety walkthrough tour
    • 11.27. Machine/equipment-specific checklist
    • 11.28. Follow-up team
    • 11.29. ABSS roles and responsibilities
    • 11.30. Measuring the Success of ABSS
    • Summary
    • Chapter review questions
  • Chapter Twelve: Assessing Training Needs
    • Abstract
    • 12.1. Presenting information is not sufficient
    • 12.2. How is a good Training defined?
    • 12.3. Basic training principles
    • 12.4. Training principles
    • 12.5. Types of education
    • 12.6. General safety instruction
    • 12.7. Conducting a training needs assessment
    • 12.8. Documentation and recordkeeping
    • 12.9. Behaviors and Learning Styles
    • Summary
    • Chapter review questions
  • Chapter Thirteen: Basis Elements of a Safety System
    • Abstract
    • 13.1. General overview of a safety systems
    • 13.2. The plan, do, check, act cycle for learning and improvement
    • 13.3. The common link between safety systems
    • 13.4. Management Leadership
    • 13.5. Employee participation
    • 13.6. Defining roles and responsibilities
    • 13.7. Hazard and risk assessment identification and analysis
    • 13.8. Hazard prevention and control
    • 13.9. Information and training
    • 13.10. Performance and measurement
    • 13.11. Pros and cons of a standardized safety system
    • 13.12. Other areas for consideration
    • Summary
    • Chapter review questions
  • Chapter Fourteen: Becoming a Curator for the Safety System
    • Abstract
    • 14.1. Curating safety
    • 14.2. Using and curating information
    • 14.3. The importance of becoming an information curator
    • 14.4. Researching and curating information
    • 14.5. How to apply management matrix to curation
    • 14.6. The idea behind the matrix
    • 14.7. Managing data
    • 14.8. An approach to organizing information
    • Summary
    • Chapter review questions
  • Chapter Fifteen: Effectively Managing a JHA Process using Six Sigma
    • Abstract
    • 15.1. Brief Six Sigma overview
    • 15.2. What does process improvement mean?
    • 15.3. Beginning the Six Sigma process
    • 15.4. Improving the process using the Six Sigma methodology
    • 15.5. A basic Six Sigma process improvement model
    • 15.6. Define, measure, analyze, improve, and control
    • 15.7. Define phase
    • 15.8. Step 1, define the scope of the project
    • 15.9. Selecting the process
    • 15.10. Step 2, developing a problem statement
    • 15.11. Step 3, define the appropriate metric – how will the safety system be measured?
    • 15.12. Step 4, develop objective statement
    • 15.13. Step 5, select and organize the “right” team
    • 15.14. Measure phase
    • 15.15. Step 6, develop a macro map of current process
    • 15.16. Step 7, define the project with Pareto charts, XY matrix, etc
    • 15.17. Step 8, developing a data collection strategy
    • 15.18. Analyze phase
    • 15.19. Step 9, refine tool use (process flow, XY matrix, gauge studies, Fishbone, FMEA)
    • 15.20. Step 10, identify root cause(s) for lack of capability using specific analysis
    • 15.21. Techniques
    • 15.22. Improve phase
    • 15.23. Step 11, design and conduct an experiment, as applicable
    • 15.24. Step 12, defining the Y= f(x) of the process
    • 15.25. Control phase
    • 15.26. Step 13, optimizing and redefining solutions
    • 15.27. Step 14, control critical X’s and monitor Y’s
    • 15.28. Step 15, verify the change and collect data
    • 15.29. Positive changes to organizational culture
    • Summary
    • Chapter review questions
  • Final Words: Where Do We Go From Here?
  • Appendix 1: Job Hazard Analysis
  • Index

Details

No. of pages:
504
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Butterworth-Heinemann 2016
Published:
Imprint:
Butterworth-Heinemann
eBook ISBN:
9780128034422
Paperback ISBN:
9780128034415

About the Author

James Roughton

James Roughton MS, CSP, CRSP, R-CHMM, CIT, CET, Certified Six Sigma Black Belt

James is an experienced Safety Professional with an in-depth knowledge in the use of Social Media to help improve productivity. He is accomplished speaker, author, and writer, develops and manages his own web sites that provide a resource network for small businesses at http://www.safetycultureplusacademy.com. Three of his most notable books include, Safety Culture: An Innovative, Leadership Approach, Developing an Effective Safety Culture: A Leadership Approach, and Job Hazard Analysis and A Guide for Voluntary Compliance and Beyond. He is an active board member and web master for the Georgia Conference - www.georgiaconference.org. He is a past President of the Georgia of the ASSE; Past Chair - Gwinnett Safety Professionals, Past Adjunct Professor Safety Technology Lanier Tech, Georgia Tech, and currently adjunct Professor Columbia Southern University. He has received awards for his efforts and was named the Georgia Chapter ASSE Safety Professional of the Year 1998-1999, Project Safe Georgia Award, 2008, and received the Georgia Safety, Health, and Environmental Conference’s Earl Everett distinguished Service Award, 2014.

Affiliations and Expertise

Safety professional and active member, Project Safe, Georgia Safety Advisory Board, Georgia Department of Labor

Nathan Crutchfield

Nathan Crutchfield CSP, CPCU, ARM, ARP

Nathan is an independent consultant whose professional history encompasses a full range of risk control program design, development, implementation and evaluation. He has provided expertise to a broad array of clients that include public entities, associations, and general industry. He was awarded the National Safety Council’s “Distinguished Service to Safety Award” in 2001 and served on the National Safety Council Board of Directors in 1993 to 1995; was a Vice President, with a major risk management and insurance brokerage for over 20 years. He has been a speaker at various risk and safety conferences throughout his career. He has served on the Executive Board of the Georgia Safety, Health, and Environmental Conference. He received the Georgia Safety, Health, and Environmental Conference’s Earl Everett distinguished Service Award, 2014.

Affiliations and Expertise

Risk control consultant in the development of effective safety culture, safety management systems, and job hazard analysis, USA

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