Isotopic Tracers in Biology - 3rd Edition - ISBN: 9781483227498, 9781483274331

Isotopic Tracers in Biology

3rd Edition

An Introduction to Tracer Methodology

Authors: Martin D. Kamen
Editors: Louis F. Fieser Mary Fieser
eBook ISBN: 9781483274331
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1957
Page Count: 490
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Description

Isotopic Tracers in Biology: An Introduction to Tracer Methodology, Third Edition focuses on stable isotopes, structures, composition, and reactions of nitrogen and oxygen, and radioactive tracers.
The book first takes a look at atomic nuclei, radioactivity, and the production of radioactive isotopes and radiation characteristics of tracer atoms. Topics include nuclear reactions, general properties of nuclei, radioactivity, target techniques and radiochemistry, and beta and gamma radiations. The text also discusses isotopic assay, radiation hazards, procedures related with sample preparation for radioactive assay, and combustion of labeled materials.
The manuscript examines the biochemical, physiological, and medical aspects of tracer methodology, as well as biochemical applications, value of tracer methods for biology, intermediary metabolism, and applications to clinical research. The text also ponders on the isotopes of hydrogen, carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur. Concerns include assay of deuterium and tritium, short-lived and heavy stable carbon, and oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus isotopes.
The publication is a dependable reference for readers interested in isotopic tracers.

Table of Contents


Contents

Preface to Third Edition

I. Atomic Nuclei, Radioactivity, and the Production of Radioactive Isotopes

1. Introductory Remarks

2. General Properties of Nuclei

A. Nuclear Structure

B. Mass Number and Atomic Number

C. Isotopes

D. Nuclear Mass

E. Other Fundamental Nuclear Properties

3. Systematics of Nuclei

A. Introduction

B. Isotope Classification and Nuclear Forces

C. Isotope Ratios

D. Specific Activity and Atomic Per Cent Excess

4. Radioactivity

A. Types of Radioactive Decay

B. Fundamental Decay Law

C. Half-Life and Mean Life

D. Radioactive Chains

E. Branch Disintegrations

F. Radioactivity Units

5. Nuclear Reactions

6. Neutron-Induced Transmutations

A. General Remarks

B. Neutron Sources

C. Neutron Reactions

7. Deuteron-Induced Transmutations

A. General Remarks

B. Deuteron Reactions

8. Target Techniques and Radiochemistry

A. Target Chemistry

B. Separation of Isotopes by the Szilard-Chalmers Process

C. Survey of Radiochemistry

General References

II. Radiation Characteristics of Tracer Atoms

1. Introduction

2. Beta Radiations

A. The Nature of Beta Radiations

B. The Absorption of Beta Particles

C. Remarks on Scattering of Beta Particles

3. Gamma Radiations

A. Nature of Gamma Radiation

B. Interaction of Gamma Radiation with Matter

General References

III. Isotopic Assay

1. Introduction

2. Assay of Radioactivity

A. Basic Phenomena

B. Basic Instruments

C. Assay in Liquid and Solid Media—Scintillation Counters

D. Auxiliary Instrumentation

E. Corrections in Radioactive Assay

F. Statistical Aspects of Radioactive Assay

G. Standards in Radioactive Assay and Determination of Tracer Intensity

H. Radioautography

3. Assay of Stable Isotopes

A. Introduction

B. Density Methods

C. Assay by Electromagnetic Methods

General References

IV. Radiation Hazards

1. General Remarks

2. Health Physics Instrumentation

3. Dosage Calculations

4. Shielding

General References

V. Practical Interlude

1. General Remarks

2. Some Procedures Associated with Sample Preparation for Radioactivity Assay

3. Gas Counting

4. Some Remarks on Vacuum Technique

5. Combustion of Labeled Materials

6. Assay Apparatus for Gas Counting

General References

VI. Survey of Tracer Methodology: Biochemical Aspects, Part I

1. The Significance of Tracer Methods for Biology

2. Biochemical Applications

A. General Tracer Requirements

B. Basic Limitations

C. The Dynamic State of Cell Constituents and the Concept of the "Metabolic Pool"

D. Precursor-Product Researches

E. Metabolic Cycles and Detection of Intermediates

F. The Method of Isotopic Competition

G. Ogston's Hypothesis

H. Reversibility of Biochemical Equilibria

I. Mechanism of Enzyme Action

J. Analysis by Isotope Dilution

K. Concluding Remarks

VII. Survey of Tracer Methods: Biochemical Aspects, Part II

1. Special Topics in Intermediary Metabolism

A. CO2 Fixation in Photosynthesis

B. Biosynthesis of Cholesterol

C. Biosynthesis of Porphyrin

D. Concluding Remarks

2. Some Critical Remarks on Tracer Methodology in Studies of Intermediary Metabolism

General References (Chapters VI and VII)

VIII. Survey of Tracer Methodology: Physiological and Medical Aspects

1. Introduction

2. Physiological Applications

A. Permeability, Absorption, and Distribution Studies

B. Determination of Intracellular and Extracellular Space by Isotope Dilution Techniques

C. Metabolic Turnover in Relation to the Intact Organism

D. Transport Studies

3. Applications to Clinical Research

A. Determination of Circulation Time: Capillary Transport

B. Uptake, Retention, and Excretion, Particularly in Relation to Extension of Radiation Therapy and Diagnosis

C. Applications in Hematology

D. Immunological Studies

4. Special Topics and Concluding Remarks

A. Interaction of Vesicants with Protein

B. Mode of Action and Biosynthesis of Penicillin

C. Effect of a Metabolic Accelerator

D. Virus Metabolism and Biosynthesis

E. Enzymatic Bases for Use of Chemotherapeutic Agents

F. Concluding Remarks

General References

IX. The Isotopes of Hydrogen

1. Introduction

2. Assay of Deuterium

3. Assay of Tritium

4. Deuterium and Tritium as Tracers for Hydrogen

5. Deuterium and Tritium as Auxiliary Tracers for Carbon

6. Use of Hydrogen Isotopes in Clinical Research with Remarks on Incidental Radiation Hazards

General References

X. The Isotopes of Carbon

1. Introduction

2. Short-Lived Radioactive Carbon, C¹¹

3. Heavy Stable Carbon, C13

A. Introduction

Â. Assay

4. Long-Lived Radioactive Carbon, C14

A. History

B. Preparation and Properties

C. Assay of C14

D. Synthesis of Organic Intermediates for Tracer Carbon Studies

E. Biosynthesis of Labeled Carbon Compounds

F. Degradation Methods

G. Radiation Hazards

XI. The Isotopes of Oxygen, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Sulfur

1. The Oxygen Isotopes

A. Introduction

B. Preparation and Assay

C. The Use of O18 as a Tracer in Oxygen Metabolism

2. The Nitrogen Isotopes

A. Introduction

B. Preparation and Assay of N15

C. The Use of N16 as a Tracer for Nitrogen

3. The Phosphorus Isotopes

A. Production, Preparation, and Assay

B. The Use of P32 as a Tracer

C. Radiation Hazards

4. The Sulfur Isotopes

A. Preparation, Properties, and Assay

B. Tracer Applications of S36

C. Distribution and Retention of Sulfur, with Remarks on Radiation Tolerance Dose

D. Synthesis of S35-Labeled Compounds

E. Protein Turnover in Vivo and in Vitro

XII. Various Radioactive Nuclides of Importance in Biology

1. Introduction

2. Alkali Metal and Alkaline Earth Tracers

A. General Survey of Alkali Metal Tracers

B. Preparation, Properties, and Assay

C. The Alkaline Earth Tracers—Magnesium, Calcium, and Strontium

3. Tracer Isotopes of Halogens

A. Fluorine

B. Chlorine

C. Bromine

D. Iodine

E. Radiation Hazards

4. Trace Elements

A. Introduction

B. Manganese

C. Iron

D. Cobalt

E. Copper

F. Zinc

G. Molybdenum, Vanadium, and Tungsten

H. Arsenic

I. Selenium, Antimony, and Tellurium

J. Silver, Gold, and Mercury

K. Concluding Remarks

Bibliography

Appendixes

1. Radioactivity Units and Standards

2. Some Typical Working Rules for Radiochemistry Laboratories

3. Chromatography

4. Radioactive Nuclides of Interest in Biological Tracer Research

5. Remarks on the Use of Liquid Scintillation Detectors in Assay of Biologically Important Nuclides

Author Index

Subject Index

Details

No. of pages:
490
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1957
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9781483274331

About the Author

Martin D. Kamen

About the Editor

Louis F. Fieser

Mary Fieser