Bioinspired Legged Locomotion

Bioinspired Legged Locomotion

Models, Concepts, Control and Applications

1st Edition - November 21, 2017

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  • Editors: Maziar Sharbafi, André Seyfarth
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128037669
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128037744

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Bioinspired Legged Locomotion: Models, Concepts, Control and Applications explores the universe of legged robots, bringing in perspectives from engineering, biology, motion science, and medicine to provide a comprehensive overview of the field. With comprehensive coverage, each chapter brings outlines, and an abstract, introduction, new developments, and a summary. Beginning with bio-inspired locomotion concepts, the book's editors present a thorough review of current literature that is followed by a more detailed view of bouncing, swinging, and balancing, the three fundamental sub functions of locomotion. This part is closed with a presentation of conceptual models for locomotion. Next, the book explores bio-inspired body design, discussing the concepts of motion control, stability, efficiency, and robustness. The morphology of legged robots follows this discussion, including biped and quadruped designs. Finally, a section on high-level control and applications discusses neuromuscular models, closing the book with examples of applications and discussions of performance, efficiency, and robustness. At the end, the editors share their perspective on the future directions of each area, presenting state-of-the-art knowledge on the subject using a structured and consistent approach that will help researchers in both academia and industry formulate a better understanding of bioinspired legged robotic locomotion and quickly apply the concepts in research or products.

Key Features

  • Presents state-of-the-art control approaches with biological relevance
  • Provides a thorough understanding of the principles of organization of biological locomotion
  • Teaches the organization of complex systems based on low-dimensional motion concepts/control
  • Acts as a guideline reference for future robots/assistive devices with legged architecture
  • Includes a selective bibliography on the most relevant published articles


Control/mechanical engineering, robotics, biomechanics, corporate researchers in robotics and biorobotics, biomedical engineering

Table of Contents

  • 1. Introduction

    Maziar Sharbafi and Andre Seyfarth

    Part I : Concepts

    2. Fundamental sub-functions of locomotion

      Maziar Sharbafi, David Lee, Tim Kiemel and Andre Seyfarth

    2.1 Stance

      David Lee

    2.2 Leg swinging

      Maziar Sharbafi and Andre Seyfarth

    2.3 Balancing

      Tim Kiemel

    3. Conceptual models for locomotion

      Justin Seipel, Matthew Kvalheim, Shai Revzen, Maziar Sharbafi and Andre Seyfarth

    3.1 Conceptual models based on empirical observations

      Justin Seipel

    3.2 Templates and Anchors

      Matthew Kvalheim and Shai Revzen

    3.3 A Simple Model of Running

      Justin Seipel

    3.4 Simple Models of Walking

      Justin Seipel

    3.5 Locomotion as an oscillator

      Shai Revzen and Matthew Kvalheim

    3.6 "Model zoo" - extended conceptual models

      Maziar Sharbafi and Andre Seyfarth

    Part II: Control

    4. Control of motion and compliance

      Katja Mombaur, Heike Vallery, Yue Hu, Jonas Buchli, Pranav Bhounsule, Thiago Boaventura,   

    Patrick M. Wensing, Shai Revzen, Aaron Ames, Ioannis Poulakakis and Auke Ijspeert,

    4.1 Stability and robustness

      Katja Mombaur and H. Vallery

    4.2 Optimal control as guiding principle of locomotion

      Katja Mombaur

    4.3 Efficiency and compliance

      Katja Mombaur Yue Hu and Jonas Buchli

    4.4 Control based on passive dynamic walking

      Pranav A. Bhounsule

    4.5 Impedance control for bioinspired robots

      Jonas Buchli and Thiago Boaventura

    4.6 Template models for control

      Patrick M. Wensing and Shai Revzen

    4.7 Hybrid Zero Dynamics Control of Legged Robots

      Aaron Ames and Ioannis Poulakakis

    4.8 Locomotion control based on central pattern generators

      Auke J. Ijspeert

    5. Torque control in legged locomotion

      Juanjuan Zhang, Chien Chern Cheah and Steven H. Collins

    5.1 Introduction

    Juanjuan Zhang, Chien Chern Cheah and Steven H. Collins

    5.2 System Overview

    Juanjuan Zhang, Chien Chern Cheah and Steven H. Collins

    5.3 A Case Study with an Ankle Exoskeleton

    Juanjuan Zhang, Chien Chern Cheah and Steven H. Collins

    5.4 Discussion

    Juanjuan Zhang, Chien Chern Cheah and Steven H. Collins

    6. Neuromuscular control in locomotion

      Arthur Prochazka, Hartmut Geyer, Simon Gosgnach, and Charles Capaday

    6.1 Introduction: Feed forward vs feedback in neural control: central pattern generators versus reflexive control

      Arthur Prochazka and Hartmut Geyer

    6.2 Locomotor Central Pattern Generators

      Simon Gosgnach and Arthur Prochazka,

    6.3 Corticospinal control of human walking

      Charles Capaday

    6.4 Feedback control: interaction between centrally generated commands and sensory input

      Arthur Prochazka

    6.5 Neuromechanical control models

      Arthur Prochazka and Hartmut Geyer

    Part III: Implementation

    7. Legged robots with bio-inspired morphology

      Ioannis Poulakaki,  Madhusudhan Venkadesan, Shreyas Mandre, Mahesh M. Bandi, Jonathan Clark and Koh Hosoda, Maarten Weckx, Bram Vanderborght and Maziar A. Sharbafi

    7.1 Biological feet: Evolution, mechanics and applications

      Madhusudhan Venkadesan, Shreyas Mandre and Mahesh M. Bandi

    7.2 Bio-inspired leg design

      Jonathan Clark

    7.3 Human inspired bipeds

      Koh Hosoda, Maarten Weckx, Bram Vanderborght, Ioannis Poulakakis and Maziar A. Sharbafi

    7.4 Bioinspired Robotic Quadrupeds

      Ioannis Poulakakis

    8. Actuation in legged locomotion

      Koh Hosoda, Christian Rode and Tobias Siebert, Bram Vanderborght, Maarten Weckx and D. Lefeber

    8.1 Biological principles of actuation

      Christian Rode and Tobias Siebert

    8.2 From stiff to compliant actuation

      Bram Vanderborght, Maarten Weckx and D. Lefeber

    8.3 Actuators in robotics as artificial muscles

      Koh Hosoda

    9. Conclusions and outlook (How far are we from Nature?)

      Maziar Sharbafi, David Lee, Thomas Sugar, Jeffrey Ward, Kevin W. Hollander, Andre Seyfarth and Koh Hosoda

    9.1 Robustness Versatility, Robustness and Economy

      David Lee

    9.2 Application in daily life (Assistive systems)

      Thomas Sugar, Jeffrey Ward and Kevin W. Hollander

    9.3 Related research projects and future directions

      Maziar Sharbafi, Andre Seyfarth, Koh Hosoda and Thomas Sugar


Product details

  • No. of pages: 698
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Butterworth-Heinemann 2017
  • Published: November 21, 2017
  • Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128037669
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128037744

About the Editors

Maziar Sharbafi

Maziar Sharbafi is an assistant professor in electrical and computer engineering department of University of Tehran. He is also a guest researcher at the Locomotion Laboratory, TU Darmstadt. He studied control engineering at Sharif University of Technology and University of Tehran (UT) for his bachelor and master, respectively. He started working on bipedal robot control in his PhD at University of Tehran, from 2007 and more on bio-inspired control approaches, since he entered lauflabor in 2011. His current research interests include bio-inspired locomotion control based on conceptual and analytic approaches, postural stability and the application of dynamical systems and nonlinear control in hybrid systems like locomotion

Affiliations and Expertise

Assistant professor of control engineering, electrical and computer engineering department , School of Engineering, University of Tehran

André Seyfarth

André Seyfarth is full professor for Sports Biomechanics at the Department of Human Sciences of TU Darmstadt and head of the Lauflabor Locomotion Laboratory. After his studies in physics and his PhD in the field of biomechanics he went as a DFG “Emmy Noether” fellow to the MIT LegLab (Prof. Herr, USA) and the ParaLab at the university hospital Balgrist in Zurich (Prof. Dietz, Switzerland). His research topics include sport science, human and animal biomechanics and legged robots. Prof. Seyfarth was the organizer of the Dynamic Walking 2011 conference („Principles and concepts of legged locomotion“) and the AMAM 2013 conference (“Adaptive Motions in Animals and Machines”).

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor of Sports Biomechanics, Department of Human Sciences, and Head of the Lauflabor Locomotion Laboratory, TU Darmstadt

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