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Bioinspired Legged Locomotion - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128037669, 9780128037744

Bioinspired Legged Locomotion

1st Edition

Models, Concepts, Control and Applications

Editors: Maziar Sharbafi André Seyfarth
Paperback ISBN: 9780128037669
eBook ISBN: 9780128037744
Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
Published Date: 21st November 2017
Page Count: 698
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Bioinspired Legged Locomotion: Models, Concepts, Control and Applications explores the universe of legged robots, bringing in perspectives from engineering, biology, motion science, and medicine to provide a comprehensive overview of the field. With comprehensive coverage, each chapter brings outlines, and an abstract, introduction, new developments, and a summary.

Beginning with bio-inspired locomotion concepts, the book's editors present a thorough review of current literature that is followed by a more detailed view of bouncing, swinging, and balancing, the three fundamental sub functions of locomotion. This part is closed with a presentation of conceptual models for locomotion.

Next, the book explores bio-inspired body design, discussing the concepts of motion control, stability, efficiency, and robustness. The morphology of legged robots follows this discussion, including biped and quadruped designs.

Finally, a section on high-level control and applications discusses neuromuscular models, closing the book with examples of applications and discussions of performance, efficiency, and robustness. At the end, the editors share their perspective on the future directions of each area, presenting state-of-the-art knowledge on the subject using a structured and consistent approach that will help researchers in both academia and industry formulate a better understanding of bioinspired legged robotic locomotion and quickly apply the concepts in research or products.

Key Features

  • Presents state-of-the-art control approaches with biological relevance
  • Provides a thorough understanding of the principles of organization of biological locomotion
  • Teaches the organization of complex systems based on low-dimensional motion concepts/control
  • Acts as a guideline reference for future robots/assistive devices with legged architecture
  • Includes a selective bibliography on the most relevant published articles


Control/mechanical engineering, robotics, biomechanics, corporate researchers in robotics and biorobotics, biomedical engineering

Table of Contents

1. Introduction

Maziar Sharbafi and Andre Seyfarth

Part I : Concepts

2. Fundamental sub-functions of locomotion

  Maziar Sharbafi, David Lee, Tim Kiemel and Andre Seyfarth

2.1 Stance

  David Lee

2.2 Leg swinging

  Maziar Sharbafi and Andre Seyfarth

2.3 Balancing

  Tim Kiemel

3. Conceptual models for locomotion

  Justin Seipel, Matthew Kvalheim, Shai Revzen, Maziar Sharbafi and Andre Seyfarth

3.1 Conceptual models based on empirical observations

  Justin Seipel

3.2 Templates and Anchors

  Matthew Kvalheim and Shai Revzen

3.3 A Simple Model of Running

  Justin Seipel

3.4 Simple Models of Walking

  Justin Seipel

3.5 Locomotion as an oscillator

  Shai Revzen and Matthew Kvalheim

3.6 "Model zoo" - extended conceptual models

  Maziar Sharbafi and Andre Seyfarth

Part II: Control

4. Control of motion and compliance

  Katja Mombaur, Heike Vallery, Yue Hu, Jonas Buchli, Pranav Bhounsule, Thiago Boaventura,   

Patrick M. Wensing, Shai Revzen, Aaron Ames, Ioannis Poulakakis and Auke Ijspeert,

4.1 Stability and robustness

  Katja Mombaur and H. Vallery

4.2 Optimal control as guiding principle of locomotion

  Katja Mombaur

4.3 Efficiency and compliance

  Katja Mombaur Yue Hu and Jonas Buchli

4.4 Control based on passive dynamic walking

  Pranav A. Bhounsule

4.5 Impedance control for bioinspired robots

  Jonas Buchli and Thiago Boaventura

4.6 Template models for control

  Patrick M. Wensing and Shai Revzen

4.7 Hybrid Zero Dynamics Control of Legged Robots

  Aaron Ames and Ioannis Poulakakis

4.8 Locomotion control based on central pattern generators

  Auke J. Ijspeert

5. Torque control in legged locomotion

  Juanjuan Zhang, Chien Chern Cheah and Steven H. Collins

5.1 Introduction

Juanjuan Zhang, Chien Chern Cheah and Steven H. Collins

5.2 System Overview

Juanjuan Zhang, Chien Chern Cheah and Steven H. Collins

5.3 A Case Study with an Ankle Exoskeleton

Juanjuan Zhang, Chien Chern Cheah and Steven H. Collins

5.4 Discussion

Juanjuan Zhang, Chien Chern Cheah and Steven H. Collins

6. Neuromuscular control in locomotion

  Arthur Prochazka, Hartmut Geyer, Simon Gosgnach, and Charles Capaday

6.1 Introduction: Feed forward vs feedback in neural control: central pattern generators versus reflexive control

  Arthur Prochazka and Hartmut Geyer

6.2 Locomotor Central Pattern Generators

  Simon Gosgnach and Arthur Prochazka,

6.3 Corticospinal control of human walking

  Charles Capaday

6.4 Feedback control: interaction between centrally generated commands and sensory input

  Arthur Prochazka

6.5 Neuromechanical control models

  Arthur Prochazka and Hartmut Geyer

Part III: Implementation

7. Legged robots with bio-inspired morphology

  Ioannis Poulakaki,  Madhusudhan Venkadesan, Shreyas Mandre, Mahesh M. Bandi, Jonathan Clark and Koh Hosoda, Maarten Weckx, Bram Vanderborght and Maziar A. Sharbafi

7.1 Biological feet: Evolution, mechanics and applications

  Madhusudhan Venkadesan, Shreyas Mandre and Mahesh M. Bandi

7.2 Bio-inspired leg design

  Jonathan Clark

7.3 Human inspired bipeds

  Koh Hosoda, Maarten Weckx, Bram Vanderborght, Ioannis Poulakakis and Maziar A. Sharbafi

7.4 Bioinspired Robotic Quadrupeds

  Ioannis Poulakakis

8. Actuation in legged locomotion

  Koh Hosoda, Christian Rode and Tobias Siebert, Bram Vanderborght, Maarten Weckx and D. Lefeber

8.1 Biological principles of actuation

  Christian Rode and Tobias Siebert

8.2 From stiff to compliant actuation

  Bram Vanderborght, Maarten Weckx and D. Lefeber

8.3 Actuators in robotics as artificial muscles

  Koh Hosoda

9. Conclusions and outlook (How far are we from Nature?)

  Maziar Sharbafi, David Lee, Thomas Sugar, Jeffrey Ward, Kevin W. Hollander, Andre Seyfarth and Koh Hosoda

9.1 Robustness Versatility, Robustness and Economy

  David Lee

9.2 Application in daily life (Assistive systems)

  Thomas Sugar, Jeffrey Ward and Kevin W. Hollander

9.3 Related research projects and future directions

  Maziar Sharbafi, Andre Seyfarth, Koh Hosoda and Thomas Sugar



No. of pages:
© Butterworth-Heinemann 2017
21st November 2017
Paperback ISBN:
eBook ISBN:

About the Editors

Maziar Sharbafi

Maziar Sharbafi is an assistant professor in electrical and computer engineering department of University of Tehran. He is also a guest researcher at the Locomotion Laboratory, TU Darmstadt. He studied control engineering at Sharif University of Technology and University of Tehran (UT) for his bachelor and master, respectively. He started working on bipedal robot control in his PhD at University of Tehran, from 2007 and more on bio-inspired control approaches, since he entered lauflabor in 2011. His current research interests include bio-inspired locomotion control based on conceptual and analytic approaches, postural stability and the application of dynamical systems and nonlinear control in hybrid systems like locomotion

Affiliations and Expertise

Assistant professor of control engineering, electrical and computer engineering department , School of Engineering, University of Tehran

André Seyfarth

André Seyfarth is full professor for Sports Biomechanics at the Department of Human Sciences of TU Darmstadt and head of the Lauflabor Locomotion Laboratory. After his studies in physics and his PhD in the field of biomechanics he went as a DFG “Emmy Noether” fellow to the MIT LegLab (Prof. Herr, USA) and the ParaLab at the university hospital Balgrist in Zurich (Prof. Dietz, Switzerland). His research topics include sport science, human and animal biomechanics and legged robots. Prof. Seyfarth was the organizer of the Dynamic Walking 2011 conference („Principles and concepts of legged locomotion“) and the AMAM 2013 conference (“Adaptive Motions in Animals and Machines”).

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor of Sports Biomechanics, Department of Human Sciences, and Head of the Lauflabor Locomotion Laboratory, TU Darmstadt

Ratings and Reviews