Iron Chelation in Plants and Soil Microorganisms - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780120798704, 9780323147835

Iron Chelation in Plants and Soil Microorganisms

1st Edition

Editors: Larry Barton
eBook ISBN: 9780323147835
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 19th February 1993
Page Count: 506
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Iron Chelation in Plants and Soil Microorganisms provides an introduction to the basic biological processes of plants that require iron and those affected by iron deficiency. The book aims to stimulate research in the area of iron metabolism in plants and plant-associated microorganisms. The book is organized into three parts. Part I provides an overview of research methods used in the study of iron chelation relevant to plant biology. Key topics covered include microbial siderophores, phytosiderophores, and plant and microbial ferritins. Part II discusses the molecular approach to iron chelation, which includes molecular biology, enzymology, and iron uptake activities. Part III addresses various physiological and chemical characteristics of the iron stress response.

This book was written for scientists involved in plant physiology, agronomy, phytopathology, plant control, and soil microbiology. It may also be of interest to those studying soil chemistry, plant-mineral relationships, horticulture, in vivo and in vitro iron measurements, and microbial ecology. In addition, the book can serve as reference for specialty courses and laboratories conducting research on iron nutrition in plants as well as individuals engaged in iron-related research.

Table of Contents



Part I Production and Characteristics of Metal Chelators

1 Classes of Microbial Siderophores

I. Introduction

II. Classes of Microbial Siderophores

III. Ecological Significance of Bacterial and Fungal Siderophores


2 Biochemical and Genetic Analysis of Siderophores Produced by Plant-Associated Pseudomonas and Erwinia Species

I. Introduction

II. Methods for Biochemical and Biological Analysis for Siderophores of Pseudomonas and Erwinia Species

III. Genetic Analysis of Siderophores Produced by Erwinia and Pseudomonas Species

IV. Conclusions


3 Growth Conditions for the Demonstration of Siderophores and Iron-Repressible Outer Membrane Proteins in Soil Bacteria, with an Emphasis on Free-Living Diazotrophs

I. Iron and Aerobic Growth

II. Bacterial Siderophores: A Brief Overview

III. High Affinity and Low Affinity Iron Uptake Systems

IV. Iron-Sufficient Growth

V. Iron-Limited Growth: Deferration of the Growth Medium

VI. Iron-Limited Growth: Withholding Iron from the Cells

VII. Mineral Iron Sources to Limit Iron Availability

VIII. Use of Mineral Iron by Diazotrophic Bacteria

IX. Chelation of Other Ions by Siderophores

X. Demonstration of Iron-Repressible Outer Membrane Proteins

XI. Other Bacterial Activities Influenced by Iron Limitation


4 Production of Phytosiderophores

I. Introduction

II. Categorization and Distribution of Phytosiderophores

III. Assay Methods

IV. Method for Isolation from Barley Root Exudates

V. Overview of Iron Acquisition System in Barley Roots

VI. Conclusion


5 Plant and Microbial Ferritins

I. General Properties of the Ferritin Family

II. Ferritin Protein Coat

III. Ferritin Iron Core

IV. Ferritin Regulation and Gene Expression

V. Summary and Conclusions


6 Glutathione-Derived Metal-Binding Polypeptides and Metallothioneins

I. Introduction

II. Glutathione-Derived Metal-Binding Polypeptides

III. Metallothioneins

IV. Conclusions


Part II Enzymes and Interaction Systems

7 Overview of Bacterial Iron Transport and Siderophore Systems in Rhizobia

I. Introduction

II. Diverse Bacterial Iron Uptake Systems

III. Iron Transport Systems in Escherichia coli

IV. Iron Transport in Rhizobia

V. Discussion


8 Iron and the Nodule

I. Introductory Comments on the Role of Iron in the Symbioses

II. Iron in the Developing and Mature Nodule

III. Sources

IV. Summary


9 Kinetics, Energetics, and Mechanisms of Siderophore Iron Transport in Fungi

I. Introduction

II. Structural Aspects and Classes of Fungal Siderophores

III. Specificity of Siderophore Iron Transport

IV. Measurement of Transport

V. Siderophore Iron Transport in Selected Fungi

VI. Siderophores as Iron Storage Molecules

VII. Iron Uptake in the Absence of Siderophore Production


10 Enzymatic Reduction of Iron in Siderophores

I. Introduction

II. Ferrisiderophore Reductase Assay

III. Use of the Ferrisiderophore Reductase Assay to Analyze Column Chromatography Fractions

IV. Localization of Enzyme Activity in Polyacrylamide Gels

V. Use of DCIP as a Substrate to Monitor Enzyme Activity

VI. Study of Enzyme Kinetics with Ferrisiderophore Reductase

VII. Ferrisiderophore Reductase in Plants

VIII. Summary


11 Role of Iron in Fungal Phytopathologies

I. Introduction

II. Effect of Iron on Soilborne Fungal Diseases

III. Effect of Iron on Aerial Fungal Diseases

IV. Involvement of Iron in Phytotoxins

V. Concluding Remarks


12 Role of Iron in the Suppression of Bacterial Plant Pathogens by Fluorescent Pseudomonads

I. Introduction

II. Plant Growth Promotion by Suppression of Deleterious Rhizobacteria

III. Specificity of Pseudobactin Siderophores and Their Receptors

IV. Conclusions and Prospects


13 Ferrochelatase and Related Enzymes

I. Introduction

II. Biosynthesis of Heme and Chlorophyll

III. Ferrochelatase

IV. Enzymes Influenced by Iron

V. Perspectives


14 Three Genetically Distinct Nitrogenase Systems in Azotobacter vinelandii

I. Introduction

II. Biochemical Properties of Alternative Molybdenum-Independent Nitrogenases

III. Genetics of Alternative Nitrogen Fixation Systems

IV. Occurrence of Alternative Nitrogenases in Diazotrophs Other than the Azotobacteriaceae

V. Future Prospects


Part III Physiological and Chemical Characteristics of the Iron Stress Response

15 Iron and Plant Pigments

I. Iron and the Photosynthetic Pigments of Higher Plants

II. Measuring Plant Pigments in Iron Deficiency Studies

III. Sampling and Expression of Results in Iron Deficiency Studies

IV. Final Considerations


16 Plant Iron Uptake Physiology by Nonsiderophore Systems

I. Introduction

II. Iron Forms

III. Plant Iron Stress Responses


17 Selected Physiological Responses Associated with Fe(III) and Fe(II) Metabolism

I. Introduction

II. Role of Iron in Rhizobia-Legume Symbiosis

III. Studies with Fe(II)

IV. Visualization of Iron Metabolism

V. Perspectives


18 A Case Study with Soybeans: Iron Efficiency Evaluation in Field Tests Compared with Controlled Conditions

I. Introduction

II. Screening Techniques for Evaluation of Fe Efficiency

III. Future Approaches to Fe Efficiency Evaluation


19 Assays for Microbial Siderophores

I. Introduction

II. Siderophore Assays Based on Chemical Methods

III. Siderophore Assays Based on Biological Methods


20 Mössbauer Spectroscopy

I. Theory

II. Ferritin

III. Fungi and Bacteria

IV. Plants


21 Sample Preparation and Determination of Iron in Biological Materials

I. Decontamination of Samples

II. Oven Drying

III. Particle-Size Reduction

IV. Organic Matter Destruction

V. Methods of Iron Analysis

VI. Colorimetric Determination of Iron

VII. Interpretation of Iron Analysis Data for Biological Samples

VIII. Frequency Distribution of Iron in Plants

IX. Active Iron

X. Iron Concentrations in Biological Research Materials

XI. Visual Symptoms for Detection of Iron Deficiency

XII. Enzyme Assays to Determine Iron Status of Plants


22 Evaluation of Soil Iron

I. Introduction

II. Principal Forms of Soil Iron

III. Mechanisms of Dissolution of Soil Iron

IV. Determination of Total Soil Iron

V. Determination of Total Free Iron Oxide

VI. Determination of "Active" Iron Oxides

VII. Determination of Organically Bound

VIII. Water-Soluble and Exchangeable Soil Iron

IX. Indices for Availability of Iron to Plants and Microbes

X. Analysis of Iron in Soil Digests and Extracts

XI. Conclusions




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© Academic Press 1993
Academic Press
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About the Editor

Larry Barton

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