Ion Exchange  - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123956132, 9780323151009

Ion Exchange

1st Edition

Theory and Application

Editors: F.C. Nachod
eBook ISBN: 9780323151009
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1940
Page Count: 424
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Ion Exchange: Theory and Application focuses on the applications, complexities, and theoretical aspects of ion exchange.

This book discusses the kinetics of fixed-bed ion exchange; fundamental properties of ion exchange resins; ion exchange equipment design; and ion exchange in water treatment. The multistage systems in ion exchange; desalting sea water; applications of ion exchange to the separation of inorganic cations; and ion exchange as a tool in analytical chemistry are also elaborated. This text likewise covers the metal concentration and recovery by ion exchange; catalytic application of ion exchangers; and use of ion exchange adsorbents in biochemical and physiological studies. Other topics include the separation of amino acids by ion exchange chromatography; sugar refining and by-product recovery; and ion exchange recovery of alkaloids.

This publication is a good reference for chemists and students interested in ion exchange.

Table of Contents




Ion Exchange Equilibria

I. Cation Exchange

II. Anion Exchange


The Kinetics of Fixed-Bed Ion Exchange

I. The Equations of Conservation

II. Rate Laws for Exchange Processes

III. Column Performance with Linear Kinetics

IV. Interpretation of the Rate Constants

V. Experimental Investigations



Fundamental Properties of Ion Exchange Resins

I. Cation Exchange Resins

II. Anion Exchange Resins


Ion Exchange Equipment Design

I. Introduction

II. The Process

III. Sweetening Off-Sweetening On

IV. The Equipment

V. The Tank

VI. Distributors-Collectors

VII. The Supporting Media

VIII. The External Piping and Valves

IX. Regenerant Introduction

X. Regenerant Handling and Preparation

XI. Rinse and Backwash Controls

XII. Automatically Operated Units

XIII. Multiple Unit Plants

XIV. Miscellaneous Controls and Control Devices

XV. Regenerant Recovery

XVI. Noncolumnar Operation


Ion Exchange in Water Treatment

I. Introduction

II. Sources of Water Supplies

III. Impurities in Water Supplies

IV. Quality Tolerances of Water

V. Expression of Analytical Results

VI. Ion Exchangers Employed in Water Treatment

VII. Properties of Ion Exchangers for Water Treatment

VIII. Calcium and Magnesium Removal—Softening

IX. Iron and Manganese Removal

X. Removal of Alkalinity by Cation Exchangers

XI. Total Electrolyte Removal—Demineralization

XII. Silica Removal

XIII. Fluoride Removal

XIV. Ammonia Removal

XV. Miscellaneous Applications

XVI. Maintenance of Ion Exchange Beds


Multistage Systems in Ion Exchange

I. Introduction

II. Applications

III. Notation

IV. Multistage Process Design and Operation

V. Radium-Barium Fractionation

VI. General Process Considerations

VII. Process Examples


Desalting Sea Water

I. Introduction

II. Sea Water Desalting Process

III. Preparation of Silver Zeolite


Applications of Ion Exchange to the Separation of Inorganic Cations

I. Introductory Remarks

II. General Principles Involved in Ion Exchange Separations

III. Separation Schemes

IV. Concluding Remarks


Ion Exchange as a Tool in Analytical Chemistry

I. Biochemical Analysis

II. Inorganic Qualitative Analysis

III. Inorganic Quantitative Analysis


Metal Concentration and Recovery by Ion Exchange

I. Introduction

II. Copper

III. Silver

IV. Chromium

V. Molybdenum, Vanadium, and Iron

VI. Precious Metals — The Platinum Group and Gold

VII. Magnesium

VIII. Other Metals

IX. Separations of Metals

X. Summary


Catalytic Application of Ion Exchangers

I. Introduction

II. Inorganic Catalysts

III. Organic Catalysts — Acid Regenerated Cation Exchangers

IV. Anion Exchangers

V. Summary


The Use of Ion Exchange Adsorbents in Biochemical and Physiological Studies

I. Introduction

II. Applications to Biochemical Problems

III. Studies Involving the Use of Exchange Adsorbents in Biological Systems


The Separation of Amino Acids by Ion Exchange Chromatography

I. Introduction

II. Separation of Basic Amino Acids

III. The Use of Cation-Exchange Resins for the Large Scale Preparation of Basic Amino Acid Concentrates

IV. Separation of Dicarboxylic Amino Acids

V. Separation of the Aromatic Amino Acids

VI. Separation of Neutral Amino Acids

VII. General Comments


Sugar Refining and By-Product Recovery

I. Introduction

II. Early Work on Ion Exchange

III. Development of Adsorbents Having Ion Exchange Properties

IV. The Removal of Electrolytes

V. Aim of Demineralizing Impure Sugar Solutions

VI. Method of Applying Ion Exchange

VII. Sugar Beet Juice

VIII. Sugar Cane Juice

IX. Sorgo Juice Demineralization

X. Low Grade Syrup and Blackstrap Demineralization

XI. Starch Conversion Liquor Demineralization

XII. Sugar From Fruit Wastes

XIII. Ion Exchange Treatment of Miscellaneous Sugars and Related Compounds

XIV. Pectin Manufacture

XV. Recovery of Tartaric Acid


Ion Exchange Recovery of Alkaloids

I. Conventional Methods of Alkaloid Manufacture

II. Ion Exchange Processes


Miscellaneous Applications of Ion Exchange

I. Introduction

II. Preparation and Purification of Sols

III. Milk Treatment

IV. Refining of Hydrocarbons

V. Purification of Polyalcohols

VI. Purification of Formalin

VII. The Purification of Glucose-1-Phosphate

VIII. Soilless Growth of Plants Using Ion Exchange Materials

IX. Modification of Coagulative Properties of Blood for Transfusion Purposes

X. Purification of Biologically Active Substances

XI. Treatment of Ulcers

XII. Recovery and Purification of Vitamin B1



Author Index

Subject Index


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Academic Press
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About the Editor

F.C. Nachod

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