Ion Exchange Membranes - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9780444633194, 9780444663214

Ion Exchange Membranes, Volume 12

2nd Edition

Fundamentals and Applications

Authors: Yoshinobu Tanaka
eBook ISBN: 9780444663214
Hardcover ISBN: 9780444633194
Imprint: Elsevier Science
Published Date: 20th January 2015
Page Count: 522
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Table of Contents

  • Author Biography
  • Preface
  • Part 1. Fundamentals
    • 1. Preparation of Ion Exchange Membranes
      • 1.1. Introduction
      • 1.2. Hydrocarbon Ion Exchange Membranes
      • 1.3. Homogeneous Membranes
      • 1.4. Heterogeneous Membranes
      • 1.5. Graft Copolymerization
      • 1.6. Bipolar Membranes
      • 1.7. Fluorocarbon Membranes
    • 2. Fundamental Properties of Ion Exchange Membranes
      • 2.1. Introduction
      • 2.2. Ionic Transport Across the Membrane
      • 2.3. Membrane Potential
      • 2.4. Diffusion
      • 2.5. Perm-Selectivity
      • 2.6. Electric Conductivity
      • 2.7. Osmosis
      • 2.8. Electro-Osmosis
      • 2.9. Ion Exchange Capacity and Water Content
      • 2.10. Swelling Ratio
      • 2.11. Mechanical Strength
      • 2.12. Characteristics of Commercially Available Ion Exchange Membranes
    • 3. Theory of Teorell, Meyer, and Sievers (TMS Theory)
      • 3.1. Introduction
      • 3.2. Membrane Potential
      • 3.3. Diffusion Coefficient
      • 3.4. Electric Conductivity
      • 3.5. Transport Number
    • 4. Irreversible Thermodynamics
      • 4.1. Introduction
      • 4.2. Phenomenological Equation and Phenomenological Coefficient
      • 4.3. Membrane Phenomena
      • 4.4. Reflection Coefficient
      • 4.5. Electrodialysis Phenomena
      • 4.6. Separation of Salt and Water by Electrodialysis
    • 5. Overall Mass Transport
      • 5.1. Introduction
      • 5.2. Electrodialysis of Saline Water and Overall Mass Transport Equation
      • 5.3. Ion Exchange Membrane Pair Characteristics
      • 5.4. Overall Mass Transport and Electrodialysis of Seawater
      • 5.5. Overall Mass Transport Equation and Phenomenological Equation
      • 5.6. Reflection Coefficient of Ion Exchange Membranes
    • 6. Concentration Polarization
      • 6.1. Introduction
      • 6.2. Current–Voltage (IV) Relationship
      • 6.3. Concentration Changes in a Boundary Layer
      • 6.4. Mass Transport in a Boundary Layer
      • 6.5. Space Charge
      • 6.6. Gravitational Convection
      • 6.7. Electroconvection
      • 6.8. Fluctuation
      • 6.9. Concentration Polarization Generated on a Concentrating Surface of an Ion Exchange Membrane
    • 7. Water Dissociation
      • 7.1. Introduction
      • 7.2. Current–pH Relationship
      • 7.3. Diffusional Model
      • 7.4. Repulsion Zone
      • 7.5. Wien Effect
      • 7.6. Protonation and Deprotonation Reaction
      • 7.7. Experimental Research on the Water Dissociation Reactions
      • 7.8. Mechanism of the Water Dissociation Reaction
    • 8. Hydrodynamics
      • 8.1. Introduction
      • 8.2. Stream Lines Around a Spacer
      • 8.3. Mass Transport Effect of a Spacer
      • 8.4. Dead Space Around a Spacer and Limiting Current Density
      • 8.5. Flow Pattern Image in a Flow Channel
      • 8.6. Flow Pattern and Limiting Current Density
      • 8.7. Local Flow Distribution in a Flow Channel
      • 8.8. Solution Velocity Distribution Between Desalting Cells
      • 8.9. Air Bubble Cleaning of a Flow Channel
      • 8.10. Solution Flow and Mass Transport in a Channel without a Spacer
      • 8.11. Velocity Profile in a Flow Channel with a Spacer
      • 8.12. Spacer Mesh Step Model and Mass Transport in a Boundary Layer
      • 8.13. Spacer Geometry and Pressure Drop in a Flow Channel
      • 8.14. Friction Factor of a Solution and Solution Velocity Distribution in Each Desalting Cell (Tanaka, 2004)
      • 8.15. Pressure Distribution in a Duct in an Electrodialyzer (Tanaka, 2004)
    • 9. Limiting Current Density
      • 9.1. Introduction
      • 9.2. Nernst Diffusion Model
      • 9.3. Limiting Current Density Equation Introduced from the Nernst–Planck Equation
      • 9.4. Limiting Current Density Equation Introduced by Means of Chemical Engineering Techniques
      • 9.5. Dependence of Limiting Current Density on Salt Concentration, Solution Velocity, and Temperature
      • 9.6. Limiting Current Density of an Electrodialyzer
    • 10. Leakage
      • 10.1. Introduction
      • 10.2. Electric Current Leakage
      • 10.3. Solution Leakage (Tanaka, 2004)
    • 11. Membrane Deterioration
      • 11.1. Introduction
      • 11.2. Membrane Characteristic Stability Against Various Agents
      • 11.3. Performance Changes of Ion Exchange Membranes in Long-term Seawater Electrodialysis
      • 11.4. Surface Fouling
      • 11.5. Organic Fouling
  • Part 2. Applications
    • 12. Electrodialysis
      • 12.1. Overview of Technology
      • 12.2. Electrodialyzer
      • 12.3. Maintenance Technology
      • 12.4. Practice
    • 13. Computer Simulation Program: Single-Pass (Continuous) Program
      • 13.1. Introduction
      • 13.2. Single-Pass (Continuous) ED Process
      • 13.3. Mass Transport in Single-Pass (Continuous) Process
      • 13.4. Specifications and Operating Conditions of an Electrodialyzer
      • 13.5. Overall Mass Transport Equation and Membrane Characteristics (Sections 5.2 and 5.3)
      • 13.6. Salt Concentration and Linear Velocity in Desalting Cells
      • 13.7. Salt Concentration and Linear Velocity in Concentrating Cells
      • 13.8. Physical Properties of Solutions in Desalting and Concentrating Cells
      • 13.9. Electric Resistance of an Ion Exchange Membrane Pair and Solutions in Desalting and Concentrating Cells (Section 2.6.3)
      • 13.10. Pressure Drop in Desalting and Concentrating Cells and Slots (Section 8.13)
      • 13.11. Current Density Distribution
      • 13.12. Cell Voltage, Energy Consumption, Water Recovery, and Desalting Ratio
      • 13.13. Limiting Current Density (Sections 9.5 and 9.6)
      • 13.14. ED Program
      • 13.15. Companion Site (Chapter 24)
      • 13.16. Process Specifications and ED Conditions
      • 13.17. Computed Results
    • 14. Computer Simulation Program: Feed-and-Bleed Program
      • 14.1. Introduction
      • 14.2. Feed-and-Bleed Process
      • 14.3. Specifications and Operating Conditions of an Electrodialyzer
      • 14.4. Functions and Performance of an Electrodialyzer
      • 14.5. Mass Balance and Energy Consumption in the Feed-and-Bleed Process (Tanaka, 2014)
      • 14.6. Electrodialysis Program
      • 14.7. Companion Site (Chapter 24)
      • 14.8. Process Specifications and ED Conditions
      • 14.9. Computed Results
    • 15. Computer Simulation Program: Batch Program
      • 15.1. Introduction
      • 15.2. Batch Electrodialysis Process
      • 15.3. Specifications and Operating Conditions of an Electrodialyzer
      • 15.4. Performance of an Electrodialyzer: Step 1 (Tanaka, 2013)
      • 15.5. Relationship between Operation Time and the Performance of an Electrodialyzer in a Batch Operation: the Open/Shut Solution Feeding Operation: Step 2 (Tanaka, 2013)
      • 15.6. Program and Computation with Companion Site (Chapter 24)
    • 16. Electrodialysis Reversal
      • 16.1. Overview of Technology
      • 16.2. Spacer
      • 16.3. Water Recovery
      • 16.4. Prevention of Scale Formation
      • 16.5. Anti-Organic Fouling
      • 16.6. Colloidal Deposit Formation on the Membrane Surface and Its Removal
      • 16.7. Nitrate and Nitrite Removal
      • 16.8. Practice
    • 17. Bipolar Membrane Electrodialysis
      • 17.1. Overview of Technology
      • 17.2. Free Energy Changes in BMP Electrodialysis Process
      • 17.3. Interface Layer
      • 17.4. Structural Heterogeneity of the Membrane Surface
      • 17.5. Water Dissociation Reaction
      • 17.6. Current Efficiency
      • 17.7. Energy Consumption and Production Capacity
      • 17.8. Water Transfer
      • 17.9. Rectification Effect
      • 17.10. Desirable Properties and Operational Problems in BMP Electrodialysis Process
      • 17.11. Practice
    • 18. Electro-Deionization
      • 18.1. Overview of Technology
      • 18.2. Mixed-Bed, Layered-Bed, and Separated-Bed
      • 18.3. Structure of the Electrodeionization Unit and Energy Consumption
      • 18.4. Mass Transport and Water Dissociation
      • 18.5. Removal of Weakly Ionized Species
      • 18.6. Practice
    • 19. Electrolysis
      • 19.1. Overview of Technology
      • 19.2. Ion Exchange Membrane
      • 19.3. Mass Transport and Electrode Reactions in an Electrolysis System
      • 19.4. Electrolyzer and Its Performance
      • 19.5. Purification of Saltwater
      • 19.6. Research and Development
    • 20. Diffusion Dialysis
      • 20.1. Overview of Technology
      • 20.2. Transport Phenomena
      • 20.3. Diffusion Dialyzer and Its Operation
      • 20.4. Practice
    • 21. Donnan Dialysis
      • 21.1. Overview of Technology
      • 21.2. Mass Transport
      • 21.3. Practice
    • 22. Fuel Cell
      • 22.1. Overview of Technology
      • 22.2. Principle
      • 22.3. Parts of a Fuel Cell
      • 22.4. Performance of Fuel Cells
      • 22.5. Practice
    • 23. Redox Flow Battery
      • 23.1. Overview of Technology
      • 23.2. Principle
      • 23.3. Advantages and Disadvantages of the Redox Flow Battery
      • 23.4. Parts of the Redox Flow Battery
      • 23.5. Ion Exchange Membrane
      • 23.6. Operation
      • 23.7. Practice
    • 24. Companion Site
      • 24.1. Introduction
      • 24.2. Companion Site
      • 24.3. Web Site Address
  • Index

Description

Fundamental study and industrial application of ion exchange membranes started over half a century ago. Through ongoing research and development, ion exchange membrane technology is now applied to many fields and contributes to the improvement of our standard of living. Ion Exchange Membranes, 2nd edition states the ion exchange membrane technology from the standpoint of fundamentals and applications. It discusses not only various phenomena exhibited by membranes but also their applications in many fields with economical evaluations.

This second edition is updated and revised, featuring ten expanded chapters. New to this edition is a computer simulation program of ion-exchange membrane electrodialysis for water desalination that provides a guideline for designing, manufacturing and operating a practical-scale electrodialyzer. Meant to replace experiments, this program will be an important asset to those with time and monetary budgets.

Key Features

  • New edition features ten revised and expanded chapters, providing the latest developments in ion exchange membrane technology
  • Computer simulation program, accessible through a companion website, provides a guideline for designing, manufacturing and operating practical-scale electrodialyzers
  • Attractive visual presentation, including many figures and diagrams

Readership

Membranologists; research scientists, graduate students, plant managers and process engineers in chemical engineering, environmental engineering, biotechnology, technical chemistry, chemical technology, biotechnology, water desalination and waste water treatment, pollution control, etc.


Details

No. of pages:
522
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Elsevier Science 2015
Published:
Imprint:
Elsevier Science
eBook ISBN:
9780444663214
Hardcover ISBN:
9780444633194

About the Authors

Yoshinobu Tanaka Author

Affiliations and Expertise

Representative, IEM Research Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan