Invitation to Psychology

Invitation to Psychology

2nd Edition - January 1, 1983

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  • Authors: John P. Houston, Helen Bee, David C. Rimm
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483262970

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Description

Invitation to Psychology provides an introduction to fundamental concepts in psychology. It seeks to address the need of both teachers and students by offering two different kinds of chapters. The first variety covers the basic data and research within each of the traditional areas of psychology. In these "basic" chapters, the authors provide up-to-date and complete coverage of important developments in each area. The second type of chapter is innovative. These "exploring" chapters examine some of the practical applications and implications of the findings discussed in the basic chapters. These describe how basic psychological data are being used in the outside world, and discuss ongoing, often controversial explorations into some frontier areas of psychology. In other words, information about explorations and applications that is often scattered through the pages of other texts is brought together into systematic chapters in this text. The dual-chapter approach helps resolve the dilemma of differing expectations of teachers and students. Key topics covered include the definition of psychology; the psychological basis of behavior; sensation and perception; states of awareness; learning, memory, and cognition; motivation and emotion; abnormal psychology and social behavior.

Table of Contents


  • 1 What is Psychology?

    The Diversity of Psychology

    Areas of Specialization

    Physiological

    Sensation and Perception

    Learning and Conditioning

    Memory

    Cognition

    Motivation

    Emotion

    Development

    Personality

    Assessment

    Social

    Abnormal

    Clinical and Counseling

    School

    Industrial and Environmental

    Percentages: Who Does What?

    APA Divisions

    Defining Psychology and Its Goals

    A Definition

    Goals

    Methods of Psychology

    Experiments

    Naturalistic Observation

    Test

    Interviews and Questionnaires

    Case Histories

    Correlation

    Levels of Analysis

    Points of View

    Psychological Perspectives

    Fields versus Levels

    Two Kinds of Chapters

    Summary

    Readings

    2 The Physiological Basis of Behavior

    Level One: The Neuron

    The Neuron: The Basic Unit

    What Does a Neuron Look Like?

    How a Neuron Works

    Synaptic Events and Neurotransmitters

    Level Two: Functional Groups of Neurons

    Types of Groups

    Afferent, Efferent, and Connecting Groups

    Level Three: The Nervous System

    The Peripheral Nervous System

    The Central Nervous System: The Brain and the Spinal Cord

    The Brain

    Techniques for Brain Study

    The Hindbrain

    The Midbrain

    The Forebrain

    The Cortex and Behavior

    Our Senses and the Cortex

    Movement and the Cortex

    Learning, Thinking, and the Cortex

    Language and the Cortex

    Split-Brain Experiments

    The Endocrine System

    The Pituitary Gland

    The Thyroid Gland

    The Adrenal Glands

    Behavioral Genetics

    Chromosomes and Genes

    Dominant and Recessive Genes

    Chromosomal Abnormalities

    Twin Studies

    Selective Breeding and Inbred Strains

    Heredity, Environment, and Evolution

    Summary

    Readings

    3 Sensation and Perception

    Sensory Thresholds

    Specialized Receptors

    Absolute Threshold

    Difference Threshold

    Sensory Adaptation

    The Minor Senses

    Dominant and Minor Senses

    The Skin Sensors

    Position Sensors

    Smell

    Taste

    The Major Senses I: Hearing

    Sound Waves

    The Components of the Ear

    Functions of the Ear

    The Major Senses II: Vision

    Light

    The Eye

    The Retina: Rods and Cones

    Dark Adaptation

    Color Vision

    Perception and Experience

    Perception Isn't Perfect: Illusions

    The Ponzo Illusion

    The Moon Illusion

    The Gamma Phenomenon

    Additional Illusions

    Illusions and Delusions

    Two Perceptual Processes

    Selective Attention

    Organization

    Information Processing: The Perception of Patterns, Movement, and Space

    Pattern Recognition

    Perception of Movement

    Depth Perception

    Depth Perception: Innate or Learned?

    Perceptual Constancy

    Perceptual Expectations

    Perceptual Development

    Summary

    Readings

    4 Exploring States of Awareness

    ESP

    Definition

    Personal versus Scientific

    Observations

    Types of ESP

    Reasons for Caution

    Kirlian Photography

    Give It a Chance

    Sleep and Dreams

    Sleep as an Active Process

    Eye Movements and Brain Waves

    Patterns of Sleeping and Dreaming

    Dream Theories

    Hypnopaedia

    The Need to Sleep

    The Need to Dream

    How Long Does a Dream Take?

    Who Needs How Much Sleep?

    Hypnosis

    Entering the Hypnotic Trance

    The Hypnotic Trance

    Hypnotic Effects

    Role Playing

    Who Can Be Hypnotized?

    The Uses of Hypnosis

    Drug Use

    Types of Drugs

    The Variability of Drug Reactions

    What Kinds of People Abuse

    Drugs?

    Meditation

    What Is Meditation?

    How Do We Meditate?

    What are the Effects of Meditation?

    How Does It "Work"?

    Summary

    Readings

    5 Learning

    A Definition of Learning

    Classical Conditioning

    Pavlov's Experiments

    The Four Essential Elements of Classical Conditioning

    Temporal Arrangements of the CS and UCS

    Further Examples from the Laboratory

    Classical Conditioning of Human Emotions

    Masochism and Classical Conditioning

    Instrumental Conditioning

    Introduction

    Shaping

    Three Types of Instrumental Conditioning

    Positive Reinforcement, Negative Reinforcement, and Punishment

    Classical and Instrumental Conditioning Compared: Biofeedback and Reinforcement

    Distinction 1: Voluntary versus Involuntary

    Distinction 2: Reinforcement versus No Reinforcement

    Verbal Learning

    Free Recall

    Serial Learning

    Paired-Associate Learning

    Verbal Learning and Conditioning Compared

    Basic Conditioning and Learning Phenomena

    Acquisition

    Extinction

    Spontaneous Recovery

    Stimulus Generalization

    Discrimination

    Conclusion

    Reinforcement

    Delay of Reinforcement

    Amount of Reinforcement

    Schedules of Reinforcement

    Partial Reinforcement and the Extinction Effect

    Secondary Reinforcement

    Summary

    Readings

    6 Memory

    Learning and Memory: Intertwined Processes

    The Definition of Retention

    Learning and Retention Together

    Measures of Retention

    Recall

    Recognition

    Relearning

    A Comparison of the Three Measures

    Recognition versus Recall

    The Three Components of Memory

    Encoding

    Storage

    Retrieval

    Six Theories of Memory

    1: Interference Theory

    2: Decay Theory

    3: Motivated Forgetting

    4: Information Processing

    5: Consolidation Theory and Retrograde Amnesia

    6: Organization and the Structural Approach

    A Final Word about Memory Theory

    Summary

    Readings

    7 Cognition

    The Emerging Field of Cognition: Five Definitions

    Topics in the Field of Cognition

    Language

    The Structure of Language

    Grammar

    The Acquisition of Language

    Theories of Language Acquisition

    Chimpanzees and Language

    Language and Thought

    Concept Formation

    Definition

    Concepts and Language

    A Laboratory Example

    Theories of Concept Formation

    Problem Solving

    Definition of a Problem

    Examples of Problems

    Four Stages of Problem Solving

    Trial and Error versus Insight

    Problems in Problem Solving

    Summary

    Readings

    8 Exploring Learning, Memory, and Cognition

    Applications of Classical Conditioning

    The Control of Bed Wetting

    The Polygraph or "Lie Detector"

    The Control of Blood Pressure

    Fears, Phobias, and Systematic Desensitization

    "Bad Habits": Coyotes and People

    Applications of Instrumental Conditioning

    Train that Dog

    Behavior Modification

    Biofeedback Training

    Teaching Machines and Computer Instruction

    Improving Memory

    First: Pay Attention

    Repeat That, Please

    Organize, If You Can

    Mnemonic Techniques

    Coined Phrases

    Interacting Images

    Invent a Story

    The Method of Loci

    Rhymes and Mnemonics

    Conclusion

    Summary

    Readings

    9 Motivation

    The Definition of Motivation

    Motivation Is a Diffuse Concept

    Theories of Motivation

    Drive Theory

    Incentive Theory: Pull versus Push

    Optimal-Level-of-Arousal Theory

    Modern Instinct Theory

    Imprinting

    Unconscious Motivation

    Maslow's Need Hierarchy

    Biological Motives I: Hunger

    Homeostasis

    The Physiology of Hunger: A Two-Part Search

    Internal Stimuli for Hunger

    Hypothalamic Control

    External Stimuli

    Biological Motives II: Thirst

    Cellular Dehydration

    Reduced Blood Volume

    What about Dry Mouth

    Biological Motives III: Sex

    Sex is Different

    The Study of Sex Has Been Neglected

    Animals and Humans: The Role of Learning

    Sensory-Seeking Motives

    Complex Human Motives

    A Variety of Needs

    The Need to Achieve

    The Need to Affiliate

    Summary

    Readings

    10 Emotion

    The Study of Emotion

    Classifying and Identifying Emotions

    Reason versus Emotion

    Definitions of Emotion

    The Physiology of Emotion

    Theories of Emotion

    Dozens of Theories

    The James-Lange Theory

    Cannon's Theory

    The Cognitive Theory

    Innate versus Learned Expression

    Nonverbal Expression of Emotion

    The "Other" Language of Emotion

    Eye Contact

    Movements, Posture, and Gestures

    Personal Space

    Double-Edged Messages

    Anxiety

    Introduction

    Definitions of Anxiety

    The Causes of Anxiety

    Conclusion

    Frustration

    A Definition and Some Examples

    Frustration by Delay

    Frustration by Obstacles

    Conflict

    Definition and Examples

    Types of Conflicts

    Behavior in Conflict

    Conclusion

    Summary

    Readings

    11 Exploring Everyday Emotions and Motives

    Introduction

    Can We Be Too Motivated?

    What Does Anxiety Do to Learning?

    Anxiety and College Performance

    Conclusion

    Dealing with Anxiety

    Planned Assertive Coping

    Unplanned Coping: The Defense Mechanisms

    Conclusion

    Dealing with Frustration

    Introduction

    Planned Methods of Coping

    Assertion Training

    Coping with Unsolvable Problems

    Unplanned Reactions to Frustration I: Aggression

    The Frustration-Aggression

    Hypothesis

    Adaptive versus Maladaptive

    Aggression

    Direct versus Indirect Aggression

    Learned Aggression?

    Conclusion

    II: Helplessness and Depression

    Learned Helplessness

    Reversing Depression

    Conclusion

    III: Other Unplanned Reactions to Frustration

    Regression

    Fantasy

    Dealing with Stress

    Causes and Consequences of Stress

    Coping with Stress

    Sex

    Introduction

    What Does Pornography Do?

    The "Sexual Revolution"

    Individual Differences

    Homosexuality

    Sex Stereotypes

    Summary

    Readings

    12 Development over the Life Span

    Defining Development

    1: Development as Maturation

    2: Development as Learning

    3: Development as Synthesis

    The Prenatal Period

    External Influences during Gestation

    Infancy: The First Two Years

    Characteristics of the Infant at Birth

    Motor Development during the First Two Years

    Cognitive Development during the First Two Years

    Social and Emotional Development during the First Two Years

    Theoretical Synthesis

    The Preschooler: From Two to Five

    Physical Growth from Two to Five

    Cognition and Language from Two to Five

    Social and Emotional Development from Two to Five

    Synthesis

    The Early School Years: From Five to Twelve

    Physical Development at School Age

    Cognitive Development and Language at School Age

    Social and Emotional Development at School Age

    Synthesis

    Adolescence: From Twelve to Eighteen

    Physical Development at Adolescence

    Cognitive Development at Adolescence

    Social and Emotional Development at Adolescence

    Synthesis

    Adulthood and Aging

    Physical Development during Adulthood and Aging

    Cognitive Development during Adulthood and Aging

    Social and Emotional Development during Adulthood and Aging

    Sex and Social Class Differences in the Stages of Adulthood

    Synthesis

    Summary

    Readings

    13 Exploring Developmental Issues

    Child Abuse

    The Scope of the Problem

    Developmental and Social Issues

    The Effects of Abuse on the Child

    The Causes of Abuse

    Prediction and Treatment

    Divorce

    The Scope of the Problem

    The Developmental and Social Issues

    The Effects of Divorce on the Child

    Working Mothers

    The Scope of the Situation

    Where are the Children?

    The Developmental and Social Issues

    What are the Effects on the Children?

    Sex Differences and Sex-Role Stereotypes

    The Developmental Issues

    Are There Any Sex Differences?

    Why Is There So Much Disagreement about Sex Differences?

    How Can We Explain the Sex Differences?

    Sex-Role Stereotypes

    Basic Research and Applied Problems

    Summary

    Readings

    14 Personality Theory

    Subdivisions of the Area

    Definition of Personality

    Approaches to Personality

    1: Freudian Theory

    The Elements of Personality

    The Unconscious

    The Dynamics of Personality

    Personality Development

    Objections to Freudian Theory

    Neo-Freudians

    2: The Trait Approach

    Basic Assumptions

    Types: A Dead End

    Rating Scales and Profiles

    Self-rating versus Rating by Others

    How Many Important Traits are There?

    Additional Problems

    Rotter's I-E Scale

    3: Personality as Learned Behavior

    The General Learning Approach

    Miller and Dollard

    Skinner's Interpretation

    Bandura's Emphasis

    Rotter's Approach

    Objections

    4: Self Theories

    The Nature of the Self Approach

    Rogers' Self Theory

    Maslow's Theory

    Criticisms

    Conclusion

    Summary

    Readings

    15 Assessing Personality and Behavior

    The Problems of Reliability and Validity

    Reliability

    Validity

    Assessment of Personality

    The Traditional Assessment Procedures

    Behavioral Assessment

    Measures of Intellectual Ability

    Definitions of Intelligence

    The Measurement of Intelligence

    Reliability and Validity of IQ Tests

    Some Things IQ Tests are Not

    Achievement Tests

    The Difference between Intelligence and Achievement Tests

    Summary

    Readings

    16 Exploring the Uses and Misuses of Tests

    Personality Assessment

    Some Major Uses

    Some Problems with Personality Assessment

    Assessment of Intellectual Performance

    The Benefits of IQ and Achievement Testing in the Schools

    Some of the Problems

    Uses and Misuses of IQ Tests in the Schools: Some Conclusions

    The Special Case of Racial Differences in IQ

    The Genetic Component in IQ

    Racial Differences

    The Environmental Alternative

    Conclusions about Racial Differences in IQ

    Summary

    Readings

    17 Abnormal Psychology

    What is Abnormality?

    Contemporary Views of Abnormality

    Psychodynamic Approaches

    Behavioral Approaches

    Existential-Humanistic Approaches

    Biological-Medical Approaches

    Categories of Abnormal Behavior

    The Neuroses

    Types of Neuroses

    The Psychoses

    Schizophrenia

    Types of Schizophrenia

    What Causes Schizophrenia?

    Mood Disorders

    What Causes Mood Disorders?

    Organic Disorders

    Some Disorders Caused by Brain Damage

    Epilepsy

    Mental Retardation

    Psychophysiological Disorders

    Personality Disorders

    Summary

    Readings

    18 Treating Psychological Problems

    The Psychological Therapies

    A Psychodynamic Approach: Psychoanalysis

    Existential-Humanistic Therapies

    Behavior Therapy

    Behavioral Treatments

    The Eclectic Approach

    Group Treatment

    Medical Approaches

    The Use of Drugs

    Physical Treatments

    Psychosurgery

    Summary

    Readings

    19 Social Behavior

    What is Social Psychology?

    How Do We Form Impressions of Others?

    Nonverbal Cues

    Attribution Theory

    The Basis of Impression Formation

    How are We Attracted by Others?

    Balance Theories of Attraction

    Learning Theories of Attraction

    Some Major Findings on Attraction

    Putting the Elements of Attraction Together

    What are Attitudes, Where Do They Come from, and How Do They Change?

    How Do Attitudes Develop?

    Persuasion and Attitude Change

    Attitudes, Attribution, and Attraction

    Small Groups and Their Effects

    Some Effects of Groups on Individuals

    Leadership

    Back to the Basic Processes

    Summary

    Readings

    20 Exploring Social Psychology

    Racial Prejudice

    Is Prejudice on Its Way Out?

    Where Does Racial Prejudice Come from?

    Reducing or Eliminating Prejudice: Can It Be Done?

    Some Effects of Mass Media

    Effects of the Media on Political Attitudes and Behavior

    Effects of TV Violence on Aggression

    The Effects of TV Violence on Beliefs and Ideas

    The Effects of TV Violence on Feelings

    Putting It All Together

    The Jury

    The Jury's Impression of the Defendant

    The Persuasiveness of the Evidence and the Presentation of the Evidence

    The Deliberative Process

    A Verdict on Juries

    Summary

    Readings

    Statistics Appendix

    The Role of Statistics A-1

    Descriptive Statistics A-1

    Normal Frequency

    Distribution A-8

    Correlation Coefficient as a Descriptive Statistic A-9

    Glossary G-1

    References R-1

    Name Index I-1

    Subject Index I-8

Product details

  • No. of pages: 837
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1983
  • Published: January 1, 1983
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483262970

About the Authors

John P. Houston

Helen Bee

David C. Rimm

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