Invitation to Psychology - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9780123568700, 9781483262970

Invitation to Psychology

2nd Edition

Authors: John P. Houston Helen Bee David C. Rimm
eBook ISBN: 9781483262970
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1983
Page Count: 837
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Description

Invitation to Psychology provides an introduction to fundamental concepts in psychology. It seeks to address the need of both teachers and students by offering two different kinds of chapters. The first variety covers the basic data and research within each of the traditional areas of psychology. In these "basic" chapters, the authors provide up-to-date and complete coverage of important developments in each area. The second type of chapter is innovative. These "exploring" chapters examine some of the practical applications and implications of the findings discussed in the basic chapters. These describe how basic psychological data are being used in the outside world, and discuss ongoing, often controversial explorations into some frontier areas of psychology. In other words, information about explorations and applications that is often scattered through the pages of other texts is brought together into systematic chapters in this text. The dual-chapter approach helps resolve the dilemma of differing expectations of teachers and students. Key topics covered include the definition of psychology; the psychological basis of behavior; sensation and perception; states of awareness; learning, memory, and cognition; motivation and emotion; abnormal psychology and social behavior.

Table of Contents


1 What is Psychology?

The Diversity of Psychology

Areas of Specialization

Physiological

Sensation and Perception

Learning and Conditioning

Memory

Cognition

Motivation

Emotion

Development

Personality

Assessment

Social

Abnormal

Clinical and Counseling

School

Industrial and Environmental

Percentages: Who Does What?

APA Divisions

Defining Psychology and Its Goals

A Definition

Goals

Methods of Psychology

Experiments

Naturalistic Observation

Test

Interviews and Questionnaires

Case Histories

Correlation

Levels of Analysis

Points of View

Psychological Perspectives

Fields versus Levels

Two Kinds of Chapters

Summary

Readings

2 The Physiological Basis of Behavior

Level One: The Neuron

The Neuron: The Basic Unit

What Does a Neuron Look Like?

How a Neuron Works

Synaptic Events and Neurotransmitters

Level Two: Functional Groups of Neurons

Types of Groups

Afferent, Efferent, and Connecting Groups

Level Three: The Nervous System

The Peripheral Nervous System

The Central Nervous System: The Brain and the Spinal Cord

The Brain

Techniques for Brain Study

The Hindbrain

The Midbrain

The Forebrain

The Cortex and Behavior

Our Senses and the Cortex

Movement and the Cortex

Learning, Thinking, and the Cortex

Language and the Cortex

Split-Brain Experiments

The Endocrine System

The Pituitary Gland

The Thyroid Gland

The Adrenal Glands

Behavioral Genetics

Chromosomes and Genes

Dominant and Recessive Genes

Chromosomal Abnormalities

Twin Studies

Selective Breeding and Inbred Strains

Heredity, Environment, and Evolution

Summary

Readings

3 Sensation and Perception

Sensory Thresholds

Specialized Receptors

Absolute Threshold

Difference Threshold

Sensory Adaptation

The Minor Senses

Dominant and Minor Senses

The Skin Sensors

Position Sensors

Smell

Taste

The Major Senses I: Hearing

Sound Waves

The Components of the Ear

Functions of the Ear

The Major Senses II: Vision

Light

The Eye

The Retina: Rods and Cones

Dark Adaptation

Color Vision

Perception and Experience

Perception Isn't Perfect: Illusions

The Ponzo Illusion

The Moon Illusion

The Gamma Phenomenon

Additional Illusions

Illusions and Delusions

Two Perceptual Processes

Selective Attention

Organization

Information Processing: The Perception of Patterns, Movement, and Space

Pattern Recognition

Perception of Movement

Depth Perception

Depth Perception: Innate or Learned?

Perceptual Constancy

Perceptual Expectations

Perceptual Development

Summary

Readings

4 Exploring States of Awareness

ESP

Definition

Personal versus Scientific

Observations

Types of ESP

Reasons for Caution

Kirlian Photography

Give It a Chance

Sleep and Dreams

Sleep as an Active Process

Eye Movements and Brain Waves

Patterns of Sleeping and Dreaming

Dream Theories

Hypnopaedia

The Need to Sleep

The Need to Dream

How Long Does a Dream Take?

Who Needs How Much Sleep?

Hypnosis

Entering the Hypnotic Trance

The Hypnotic Trance

Hypnotic Effects

Role Playing

Who Can Be Hypnotized?

The Uses of Hypnosis

Drug Use

Types of Drugs

The Variability of Drug Reactions

What Kinds of People Abuse

Drugs?

Meditation

What Is Meditation?

How Do We Meditate?

What are the Effects of Meditation?

How Does It "Work"?

Summary

Readings

5 Learning

A Definition of Learning

Classical Conditioning

Pavlov's Experiments

The Four Essential Elements of Classical Conditioning

Temporal Arrangements of the CS and UCS

Further Examples from the Laboratory

Classical Conditioning of Human Emotions

Masochism and Classical Conditioning

Instrumental Conditioning

Introduction

Shaping

Three Types of Instrumental Conditioning

Positive Reinforcement, Negative Reinforcement, and Punishment

Classical and Instrumental Conditioning Compared: Biofeedback and Reinforcement

Distinction 1: Voluntary versus Involuntary

Distinction 2: Reinforcement versus No Reinforcement

Verbal Learning

Free Recall

Serial Learning

Paired-Associate Learning

Verbal Learning and Conditioning Compared

Basic Conditioning and Learning Phenomena

Acquisition

Extinction

Spontaneous Recovery

Stimulus Generalization

Discrimination

Conclusion

Reinforcement

Delay of Reinforcement

Amount of Reinforcement

Schedules of Reinforcement

Partial Reinforcement and the Extinction Effect

Secondary Reinforcement

Summary

Readings

6 Memory

Learning and Memory: Intertwined Processes

The Definition of Retention

Learning and Retention Together

Measures of Retention

Recall

Recognition

Relearning

A Comparison of the Three Measures

Recognition versus Recall

The Three Components of Memory

Encoding

Storage

Retrieval

Six Theories of Memory

1: Interference Theory

2: Decay Theory

3: Motivated Forgetting

4: Information Processing

5: Consolidation Theory and Retrograde Amnesia

6: Organization and the Structural Approach

A Final Word about Memory Theory

Summary

Readings

7 Cognition

The Emerging Field of Cognition: Five Definitions

Topics in the Field of Cognition

Language

The Structure of Language

Grammar

The Acquisition of Language

Theories of Language Acquisition

Chimpanzees and Language

Language and Thought

Concept Formation

Definition

Concepts and Language

A Laboratory Example

Theories of Concept Formation

Problem Solving

Definition of a Problem

Examples of Problems

Four Stages of Problem Solving

Trial and Error versus Insight

Problems in Problem Solving

Summary

Readings

8 Exploring Learning, Memory, and Cognition

Applications of Classical Conditioning

The Control of Bed Wetting

The Polygraph or "Lie Detector"

The Control of Blood Pressure

Fears, Phobias, and Systematic Desensitization

"Bad Habits": Coyotes and People

Applications of Instrumental Conditioning

Train that Dog

Behavior Modification

Biofeedback Training

Teaching Machines and Computer Instruction

Improving Memory

First: Pay Attention

Repeat That, Please

Organize, If You Can

Mnemonic Techniques

Coined Phrases

Interacting Images

Invent a Story

The Method of Loci

Rhymes and Mnemonics

Conclusion

Summary

Readings

9 Motivation

The Definition of Motivation

Motivation Is a Diffuse Concept

Theories of Motivation

Drive Theory

Incentive Theory: Pull versus Push

Optimal-Level-of-Arousal Theory

Modern Instinct Theory

Imprinting

Unconscious Motivation

Maslow's Need Hierarchy

Biological Motives I: Hunger

Homeostasis

The Physiology of Hunger: A Two-Part Search

Internal Stimuli for Hunger

Hypothalamic Control

External Stimuli

Biological Motives II: Thirst

Cellular Dehydration

Reduced Blood Volume

What about Dry Mouth

Biological Motives III: Sex

Sex is Different

The Study of Sex Has Been Neglected

Animals and Humans: The Role of Learning

Sensory-Seeking Motives

Complex Human Motives

A Variety of Needs

The Need to Achieve

The Need to Affiliate

Summary

Readings

10 Emotion

The Study of Emotion

Classifying and Identifying Emotions

Reason versus Emotion

Definitions of Emotion

The Physiology of Emotion

Theories of Emotion

Dozens of Theories

The James-Lange Theory

Cannon's Theory

The Cognitive Theory

Innate versus Learned Expression

Nonverbal Expression of Emotion

The "Other" Language of Emotion

Eye Contact

Movements, Posture, and Gestures

Personal Space

Double-Edged Messages

Anxiety

Introduction

Definitions of Anxiety

The Causes of Anxiety

Conclusion

Frustration

A Definition and Some Examples

Frustration by Delay

Frustration by Obstacles

Conflict

Definition and Examples

Types of Conflicts

Behavior in Conflict

Conclusion

Summary

Readings

11 Exploring Everyday Emotions and Motives

Introduction

Can We Be Too Motivated?

What Does Anxiety Do to Learning?

Anxiety and College Performance

Conclusion

Dealing with Anxiety

Planned Assertive Coping

Unplanned Coping: The Defense Mechanisms

Conclusion

Dealing with Frustration

Introduction

Planned Methods of Coping

Assertion Training

Coping with Unsolvable Problems

Unplanned Reactions to Frustration I: Aggression

The Frustration-Aggression

Hypothesis

Adaptive versus Maladaptive

Aggression

Direct versus Indirect Aggression

Learned Aggression?

Conclusion

II: Helplessness and Depression

Learned Helplessness

Reversing Depression

Conclusion

III: Other Unplanned Reactions to Frustration

Regression

Fantasy

Dealing with Stress

Causes and Consequences of Stress

Coping with Stress

Sex

Introduction

What Does Pornography Do?

The "Sexual Revolution"

Individual Differences

Homosexuality

Sex Stereotypes

Summary

Readings

12 Development over the Life Span

Defining Development

1: Development as Maturation

2: Development as Learning

3: Development as Synthesis

The Prenatal Period

External Influences during Gestation

Infancy: The First Two Years

Characteristics of the Infant at Birth

Motor Development during the First Two Years

Cognitive Development during the First Two Years

Social and Emotional Development during the First Two Years

Theoretical Synthesis

The Preschooler: From Two to Five

Physical Growth from Two to Five

Cognition and Language from Two to Five

Social and Emotional Development from Two to Five

Synthesis

The Early School Years: From Five to Twelve

Physical Development at School Age

Cognitive Development and Language at School Age

Social and Emotional Development at School Age

Synthesis

Adolescence: From Twelve to Eighteen

Physical Development at Adolescence

Cognitive Development at Adolescence

Social and Emotional Development at Adolescence

Synthesis

Adulthood and Aging

Physical Development during Adulthood and Aging

Cognitive Development during Adulthood and Aging

Social and Emotional Development during Adulthood and Aging

Sex and Social Class Differences in the Stages of Adulthood

Synthesis

Summary

Readings

13 Exploring Developmental Issues

Child Abuse

The Scope of the Problem

Developmental and Social Issues

The Effects of Abuse on the Child

The Causes of Abuse

Prediction and Treatment

Divorce

The Scope of the Problem

The Developmental and Social Issues

The Effects of Divorce on the Child

Working Mothers

The Scope of the Situation

Where are the Children?

The Developmental and Social Issues

What are the Effects on the Children?

Sex Differences and Sex-Role Stereotypes

The Developmental Issues

Are There Any Sex Differences?

Why Is There So Much Disagreement about Sex Differences?

How Can We Explain the Sex Differences?

Sex-Role Stereotypes

Basic Research and Applied Problems

Summary

Readings

14 Personality Theory

Subdivisions of the Area

Definition of Personality

Approaches to Personality

1: Freudian Theory

The Elements of Personality

The Unconscious

The Dynamics of Personality

Personality Development

Objections to Freudian Theory

Neo-Freudians

2: The Trait Approach

Basic Assumptions

Types: A Dead End

Rating Scales and Profiles

Self-rating versus Rating by Others

How Many Important Traits are There?

Additional Problems

Rotter's I-E Scale

3: Personality as Learned Behavior

The General Learning Approach

Miller and Dollard

Skinner's Interpretation

Bandura's Emphasis

Rotter's Approach

Objections

4: Self Theories

The Nature of the Self Approach

Rogers' Self Theory

Maslow's Theory

Criticisms

Conclusion

Summary

Readings

15 Assessing Personality and Behavior

The Problems of Reliability and Validity

Reliability

Validity

Assessment of Personality

The Traditional Assessment Procedures

Behavioral Assessment

Measures of Intellectual Ability

Definitions of Intelligence

The Measurement of Intelligence

Reliability and Validity of IQ Tests

Some Things IQ Tests are Not

Achievement Tests

The Difference between Intelligence and Achievement Tests

Summary

Readings

16 Exploring the Uses and Misuses of Tests

Personality Assessment

Some Major Uses

Some Problems with Personality Assessment

Assessment of Intellectual Performance

The Benefits of IQ and Achievement Testing in the Schools

Some of the Problems

Uses and Misuses of IQ Tests in the Schools: Some Conclusions

The Special Case of Racial Differences in IQ

The Genetic Component in IQ

Racial Differences

The Environmental Alternative

Conclusions about Racial Differences in IQ

Summary

Readings

17 Abnormal Psychology

What is Abnormality?

Contemporary Views of Abnormality

Psychodynamic Approaches

Behavioral Approaches

Existential-Humanistic Approaches

Biological-Medical Approaches

Categories of Abnormal Behavior

The Neuroses

Types of Neuroses

The Psychoses

Schizophrenia

Types of Schizophrenia

What Causes Schizophrenia?

Mood Disorders

What Causes Mood Disorders?

Organic Disorders

Some Disorders Caused by Brain Damage

Epilepsy

Mental Retardation

Psychophysiological Disorders

Personality Disorders

Summary

Readings

18 Treating Psychological Problems

The Psychological Therapies

A Psychodynamic Approach: Psychoanalysis

Existential-Humanistic Therapies

Behavior Therapy

Behavioral Treatments

The Eclectic Approach

Group Treatment

Medical Approaches

The Use of Drugs

Physical Treatments

Psychosurgery

Summary

Readings

19 Social Behavior

What is Social Psychology?

How Do We Form Impressions of Others?

Nonverbal Cues

Attribution Theory

The Basis of Impression Formation

How are We Attracted by Others?

Balance Theories of Attraction

Learning Theories of Attraction

Some Major Findings on Attraction

Putting the Elements of Attraction Together

What are Attitudes, Where Do They Come from, and How Do They Change?

How Do Attitudes Develop?

Persuasion and Attitude Change

Attitudes, Attribution, and Attraction

Small Groups and Their Effects

Some Effects of Groups on Individuals

Leadership

Back to the Basic Processes

Summary

Readings

20 Exploring Social Psychology

Racial Prejudice

Is Prejudice on Its Way Out?

Where Does Racial Prejudice Come from?

Reducing or Eliminating Prejudice: Can It Be Done?

Some Effects of Mass Media

Effects of the Media on Political Attitudes and Behavior

Effects of TV Violence on Aggression

The Effects of TV Violence on Beliefs and Ideas

The Effects of TV Violence on Feelings

Putting It All Together

The Jury

The Jury's Impression of the Defendant

The Persuasiveness of the Evidence and the Presentation of the Evidence

The Deliberative Process

A Verdict on Juries

Summary

Readings

Statistics Appendix

The Role of Statistics A-1

Descriptive Statistics A-1

Normal Frequency

Distribution A-8

Correlation Coefficient as a Descriptive Statistic A-9

Glossary G-1

References R-1

Name Index I-1

Subject Index I-8

Details

No. of pages:
837
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1983
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9781483262970

About the Author

John P. Houston

Helen Bee

David C. Rimm