Investigating Seafloors and Oceans - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128093573, 9780128093634

Investigating Seafloors and Oceans

1st Edition

From Mud Volcanoes to Giant Squid

Authors: Antony Joseph
eBook ISBN: 9780128093634
Paperback ISBN: 9780128093573
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 15th November 2016
Page Count: 612
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Description

Investigating Seafloors and Oceans: From Mud Volcanoes to Giant Squid offers a bottom-to-top tour of the world’s oceans, exposing the secrets hidden therein from a variety of scientific perspectives. Opening with a discussion of the earth’s formation, hot spots, ridges, plate tectonics, submarine trenches, and cold seeps, the text goes on to address such topics as the role of oceans in the origin of life, tidal bore, thermal effects, ecosystem services, marine creatures, and nutraceutical and pharmaceutical resources.

This unique reference provides insight into a wide array of questions that researchers continue to ask about the vast study of oceans and the seafloor. It is a one-of-a-kind examination of oceans that offers important perspectives for researchers, practitioners, and academics in all marine-related fields.

Key Features

  • Includes chapters addressing various scientific disciplines, offering the opportunity for readers to gain insights on diverse topics in the study of oceans
  • Provides scientific discussion on thermo-tolerant microbial life in sub-seafloor hot sediments and vent fields, as well as the origin of life debates and the puzzles revolving around how life originated
  • Includes detailed information on the origin of dreaded episodes, such as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, tsunamis, internal waves and tidal bores
  • Contains information on the contribution of the oceans in terms of providing useful nutraceutical and pharmaceutical products

Readership

Researchers in oceanography, disasters, and earth science; industry professionals in marine-related fields. Graduate and undergraduate students in various marine-related disciplines

Table of Contents

  • Dedication
  • Foreword
  • Preface
  • Acknowledgments
  • Chapter 1: The Chaotic and Vibrant Seafloor
    • Abstract
    • 1.1 Introduction
    • 1.2 Discovery of Formation of Different Continents from One Big Land Mass
    • 1.3 Evolving the Notion of Tectonic Plates Floating on Molten Lava
    • 1.4 Triple Junctions on Seafloors
    • 1.5 Rotating Microplates
    • 1.6 Formation of Submarine Mountain Chains, Seamounts, Island Arcs, Mud Volcanoes, Canyons, and Trenches
  • Chapter 2: Secrets of Bermuda Triangle and Formation of Polymetallic Nodules
    • Abstract
    • 2.1 Introduction
    • 2.2 Riddle of the Bermuda Triangle Imbroglio
    • 2.3 Gas Hydrate Emission Can Drown Ships—May’s and Monaghan’s Hypothesis
    • 2.4 Carpet of “Dark Gold” Paved Over the Seafloor
  • Chapter 3: Complex Wave Motions and Thermal Structure of the Oceans
    • Abstract
    • 3.1 Riddle of the Biblical Crossing of the Red Sea by Israelites Led by Moses
    • 3.2 Invisible Colossal Waves Below Sea Surface—Internal Waves
    • 3.3 Intricate Tidal Motions in Topographically Complex Water Bodies
    • 3.4 Subsurface Warm Water Layer Sandwiched Between Colder Waters Above and Below—Thermal Inversion
  • Chapter 4: The Role of Oceans in the Origin of Life and in Biological Evolution
    • Abstract
    • 4.1 Introduction
    • 4.2 Darwin's Theory of Natural Selection
    • 4.3 Subseafloor Microbial Life—Partial Clues to the Origin of Life
    • 4.4 Organisms Living Above 100°C Under Anaerobic Conditions
    • 4.5 Microbial Activity in Hydrothermal Fluids—The “Zinc World” Hypothesis
    • 4.6 Significance of Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vents
    • 4.7 Homochirality of Amino Acids and Sugars
    • 4.8 The 2015 Discovery of a Missing Piece of the Evolution Puzzle—Lokiarchaeota
    • 4.9 The 2015 Discovery of a New Homo Genus Species
  • Chapter 5: Astronomical and Biological Organizational Relationships
    • Abstract
    • 5.1 Fundamental Discoveries in Astronomical and Cosmological Sciences
    • 5.2 Chemical Evolution Leading to the Origin of Life—Role of Primitive Oceans
    • 5.3 Partial Clues to Origin of Life in Submarine Hydrothermal Vents
    • 5.4 Chemical Evolution of Life-Supporting Structures
    • 5.5 Origin of Life
    • 5.6 Gene and Genetic Code
    • 5.7 Horizontal Gene Transfer: A Story of Genetic Success
    • 5.8 Safeguarding Genetic Information: The 2015 Nobel Prize Winning Discovery
    • 5.9 Correlation Between Biological and Astronomical Organizations: Kumar's Hypothesis
    • 5.10 Biological Evolution: The Role of Islands
    • 5.11 Discoveries in Life Science: Cloning by Nuclear Transfer
    • 5.12 Self-Organization in the Origin of the Universe and Biological Evolution
    • 5.13 How Life Originated: A Puzzle to be Resolved
    • 5.14 Religious Beliefs and Science
  • Chapter 6: Seafloor Hot Chimneys and Cold Seeps: Mysterious Life Around Them
    • Abstract
    • 6.1 Introduction
    • 6.2 Formation of Hydrothermal Vents
    • 6.3 Tectonic and Magmatic Controls on Hydrothermal Activity
    • 6.4 Serpentinization: An Important Set of Geochemical Reactions
    • 6.5 Vent Fluid Composition and Temperature
    • 6.6 Shallow Water Hydrothermal Activity
    • 6.7 Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Activity
    • 6.8 Iron Domination and Potential for Microbial Carbon Fixation: Loihi Plume
    • 6.9 Biological Significances of Submarine Hydrothermal Vents
    • 6.10 Unique Thermostable Enzymes in Hydrothermal Vent Worm
    • 6.11 Exotic World of Marine Organisms Around Cold Seeps
    • 6.12 Understanding the History of Benthic Organisms and Their Source of Food
    • 6.13 Technologies Used for Hydrothermal Vents Studies
    • 6.14 Conclusions
  • Chapter 7: Citadel-Building: Tiny Creatures in the Oceans—Corals
    • Abstract
    • 7.1 Introduction
    • 7.2 Coral Reefs and the Exotic Life on and Around Them
    • 7.3 Coral Survey Techniques
    • 7.4 Threat to Coral Reefs
    • 7.5 Need for Conservation and Restoration of Coral Reefs
    • 7.6 Ocean Acidification-Resistant Coral Reefs
    • 7.7 Role of Tiny Crabs in Preventing Coral Death in South Pacific
    • 7.8 Ancient Coral Reef Record Gives History of El Niño
    • 7.9 Importance of Coral Reef Research and Management
    • 7.10 An Experimental Platform for Direct Microscopic Study of Live Coral Polyps
  • Chapter 8: Marine Creatures With a Difference
    • Abstract
    • 8.1 Introduction
    • 8.2 Light-Capturing Pigment in Microscopic Marine Bacteria
    • 8.3 Marine Organisms That Carry Living Light
    • 8.4 Fishes That Play Hide and Seek
    • 8.5 Marine Creatures That Mimic
    • 8.6 Gelatinous Creatures
    • 8.7 Lionfish: Decimator of Fish Populations and Threat to Coral Reef Ecosystems
    • 8.8 Deep-Sea Vampire Squid: Thriving in the Oxygen Minimum Zone
    • 8.9 Giant Squid and Colossal Squid
    • 8.10 Life at Submarine Canyons and Deep-Sea Trenches
    • 8.11 Dead Whales: Providing Deep-Sea Living Legacy
  • Chapter 9: Oceans: Abode of Nutraceuticals, Pharmaceuticals, and Biotoxins
    • Abstract
    • 9.1 Introduction
    • 9.2 Nutraceutical Products From Marine Flora and Fauna
    • 9.3 Pharmaceutical Products From Marine Flora and Fauna
    • 9.4 Immunotoxins and Biotoxins in Marine Flora and Fauna
    • 9.5 Detection of Marine Biotoxins in Seafood
    • 9.6 Conclusions
  • Chapter 10: Magic With Colors—Sea Surface Changes
    • Abstract
    • 10.1 Introduction
    • 10.2 Phytoplankton Bloom: Sea Surface Turning Green
    • 10.3 Trichodesmium Bloom: Turning Sea Surface Brown
    • 10.4 Coccolithophore Bloom: Turning Sea Surface Milky White
  • Index

Details

No. of pages:
612
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Elsevier 2017
Published:
Imprint:
Elsevier
eBook ISBN:
9780128093634
Paperback ISBN:
9780128093573

About the Author

Antony Joseph

Antony Joseph

Antony Joseph has an oceanographic career of about 36 years. He has worked at POL (UK), where part of his Ph.D work was carried out. He lead the establishment of a sea-level station at the central east Atlantic coast, the data from which, in the absence of other data from this region, became highly valuable in understanding the global extent of the December 2004 global tsunami. His contribution enables real-time Internet viewing of data in graphical format (http://inet.nio.org). He authored two Elsevier books: (1) Tsunamis, (2) Measuring Ocean Currents; published chapters in books, articles in Encyclopedias, research papers in journals; and interacted with the public through print and audiovisual communication medias.

Affiliations and Expertise

National Institute of Oceanography, Goa, India