Invertebrate Learning and Memory

Invertebrate Learning and Memory

1st Edition - June 1, 2013

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  • Editors: Randolf Menzel, Paul Benjamin
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123982605
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780124158238

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Description

Understanding how memories are induced and maintained is one of the major outstanding questions in modern neuroscience. This is difficult to address in the mammalian brain due to its enormous complexity, and invertebrates offer major advantages for learning and memory studies because of their relative simplicity. Many important discoveries made in invertebrates have been found to be generally applicable to higher organisms, and the overarching theme of the proposed will be to integrate information from different levels of neural organization to help generate a complete account of learning and memory. Edited by two leaders in the field, Invertebrate Learning and Memory will offer a current and comprehensive review, with chapters authored by experts in each topic. The volume will take a multidisciplinary approach, exploring behavioral, cellular, genetic, molecular, and computational investigations of memory. Coverage will include comparative cognition at the behavioral and mechanistic level, developments in concepts and methodologies that will underlie future advancements, and mechanistic examples from the most important vertebrate systems (nematodes, molluscs, and insects). Neuroscience researchers and graduate students with an interest in the neural control of cognitive behavior will benefit, as will as will those in the field of invertebrate learning.

Key Features

  • Presents an overview of invertebrate studies at the molecular / cellular / neural levels and correlates findings to mammalian behavioral investigations
  • Linking multidisciplinary approaches allows for full understanding of how molecular changes in neurons and circuits underpin behavioral plasticity
  • Edited work with chapters authored by leaders in the field around the globe – the broadest, most expert coverage available
  • Comprehensive coverage synthesizes widely dispersed research, serving as one-stop shopping for comparative learning and memory researchers

Readership

Neuroscientists interested in the neural control of cognitive behavior; entomologists and those in the field of invertebrate learning

Table of Contents

  • List of Contributors

    Section 1: Introduction

    Chapter 1. Beyond the Cellular Alphabet of Learning and Memory in Invertebrates

    Introduction

    Beyond the Cellular Alphabet: Circuit and Network Levels of Analysis, the Necessary Step

    Do Invertebrates have Cognitive Abilities?

    References

    Section 2: Concepts of Invertebrate Comparative Cognition

    Chapter 2. Action Selection: The Brain as a Behavioral Organizer

    Introduction

    Behavioral Modules

    Outcome Expectation

    The Active Brain

    Action Selection

    Conclusions

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 3. Cognitive Components of Insect Behavior

    Introduction

    Acting Upon the Environment: Exploration, Instrumental Learning, and Observational Learning

    Expectation

    Generalization, Categorization, and Concept Learning

    Memory Processing

    Insect Intelligence and Brain Structure

    Miniature Brains

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 4. Exploring Brain Connectivity in Insect Model Systems of Learning and Memory: Neuroanatomy Revisited

    Introduction

    Insect Brains are Small

    Methods of Analyzing Insect Microcircuits

    Discussion and Outlook

    References

    Chapter 5. ‘Decision Making’ in Larval Drosophila

    Introduction

    Architecture of the Chemobehavioral System

    A Working Hypothesis of Memory Trace Formation

    The Decision to Behaviorally Express a Memory Trace—or Not

    Aspects of Decision Making

    Conclusion

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Section 3: Developments in Methodology

    Chapter 6. Optophysiological Approaches to Learning and Memory in Drosophila melanogaster

    Introduction: Strategies to Determine Neuronal Substrates Underlying Learning and Memory

    Disruptive Alterations: Ablation, Mutation, and Block of Synaptic Transmission

    Detectability: Optical Imaging Using DNA-Encoded Fluorescence Probes

    Mimicry: Optogenetic and Thermogenetic Activation of Neurons

    Conclusions

    Acknowledgment

    References

    Chapter 7. Computational Analyses of Learning Networks

    Introduction

    Olfactory Learning in Insects

    Nonassociative and Associative Learning in Gastropods

    Conclusions

    Acknowledgment

    References

    Chapter 8. Issues in Invertebrate Learning Raised by Robot Models

    Introduction

    Robot Models of Invertebrate Learning

    What is Associated with What in Classical Conditioning?

    Conclusion

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Section 4: Mechanisms from the Most Important Systems

    Chapter 9. Mechanosensory Learning and Memory in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Introduction to Caenorhabditis Elegans Learning and Memory

    Characteristics of Short-Term Tap Habituation

    Development of Tap Habituation

    Circuitry Underlying Tap Habituation

    Neurotransmitters Involved in Tap Habituation

    Locus of Plasticity in Tap Habituation

    Genes that Play a Role in Tap Habituation

    Long-Term Memory for Tap Habituation

    Context: Short-Term and Long-Term Memory

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 10. Molecular and Cellular Circuits Underlying Caenorhabditis elegans Olfactory Plasticity

    Caenorhabditis Elegans Olfactory System

    Caenorhabditis Elegans Olfactory Plasticity

    Summary

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 11. Thermosensory Learning in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Caenorhabditis Elegans Neuroscience

    Behavioral Plasticity in C. Elegans

    Thermotaxis in C. Elegans

    Neural Circuit for Thermotaxis

    Thermosensory Signaling

    AFD Themosensory Neurons Memorize Cultivation Temperature: the Sensory Neuron Acts as a Memory Device

    Associative Learning between Temperature and Food

    Regulation of Associative Learning by Insulin and Monoamine Signaling

    Information Flow from AFD and AWC to AIY

    RIA Interneuron as an Integrator and Locomotion Controller

    Conclusion and Perspective

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 12. Age-Dependent Modulation of Learning and Memory in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Introduction

    Classification of Learning and Memory

    Reduced Plasticity but Well-Retained ‘Old Memory’

    Two Phases of AMI

    Aging-Related Changes in Associative Learning and Memory

    Endocrine Disturbance as a Cause of Early AMI

    Neural Regulation of Memory and AMI

    Midlife Crisis Theory and Epigenetic Changes

    Perspectives

    References

    Chapter 13. Salt Chemotaxis Learning in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Salt Chemotaxis in Caenorhabditis Elegans

    Salt Chemotaxis Learning: The Behavior

    The Role of ASE Neurons in Salt Chemotaxis Learning

    The Insulin/Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Pathway

    The Gq/Diacylglycerol/Protein Kinase C Pathway

    Other Genes Acting in ASER

    The EGL-8/Diacylglycerol/Protein Kinase D Pathway Acting in ASEL

    Involvement of Other Sensory Neurons

    Roles of Interneurons

    Changes in Neuronal Activities Caused by Learning

    How is the Starvation Signal Transmitted?

    Molecular Pathways for memory retention

    Long-Term Memory

    Experience-Dependent Salt Chemotaxis in Fed Animals

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 14. A Systems Analysis of Neural Networks Underlying Gastropod Learning and Memory

    Introduction

    Behavior and Model Networks

    The Complexity of Gastropod Learning

    Synaptic Mechanisms for Learning

    Nonsynaptic Cellular Mechanisms for learning

    Discussion and Conclusions

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 15. Comparison of Operant and Classical Conditioning of Feeding Behavior in Aplysia

    Introduction

    Feeding Behavior in Aplysia and its Underlying Neural Circuit

    Feeding Behavior is Modified by Associative Learning

    Cellular Analysis of Appetitive Classical and Appetitive Operant Conditioning of Feeding

    Comparison of the Molecular Mechanisms of Operant and Classical Conditioning

    Conclusions

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 16. Mechanisms of Short-Term and Intermediate-Term Memory in Aplysia

    Introduction

    Simple Forms of Learning in Aplysia

    Short-Term Plasticity

    The Relationship Between Short- and Long-Term Plasticity, and the Discovery of Intermediate-Term Plasticity

    Mechanisms of Induction, Maintenance, and Expression of Intermediate-Term Facilitation

    Pre- and Postsynaptic Mechanisms of Intermediate-Term Plasticity

    Spontaneous Transmitter Release is Critical for the Induction of Intermeditate- and Long-Term Facilitation

    Spontaneous Transmitter Release from the Presynaptic Neuron Recruits Postsynaptic Mechanisms of Intermediate- and Long-Term Facilitation

    Conclusions

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 17. Synaptic Mechanisms of Induction and Maintenance of Long-Term Sensitization Memory in Aplysia

    Introduction

    Long-Term Sensitization in Aplysia: Mechanisms of Induction

    Maintenance of LTS Memory in Aplysia

    Summary

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 18. Roles of Protein Kinase C and Protein Kinase M in Aplysia Learning

    Introduction

    The PKC Family

    Isoform-Specific Roles of PKCs during Distinct Learning Paradigms

    Interaction of PKCs with Other Signal Transduction Pathways

    Conclusion

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 19. Multisite Cellular and Synaptic Mechanisms in Hermissenda Pavlovian Conditioning

    Introduction

    Pavlovian Conditioning and the CR Complex

    Neural Network

    Long-Term Memory Following Multitrial Conditioning

    Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Short-, Intermediate-, and Long-Term Memory Formation

    One-Trial Conditioning

    Second Messengers

    Long-Term Memory Depends on Translation and Transcription

    Proteins Regulated by Pavlovian Conditioning: Proteomic Analyses

    Mechanisms of CS–US Associations in Sensory Neurons

    Summary

    References

    Chapter 20. Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Classical Conditioning in the Feeding System of Lymnaea

    Introduction

    Molecular Mechanisms of Classical Conditioning in the Feeding System of Lymnaea

    Cellular Mechanisms of Classical Conditioning in the Feeding System of Lymnaea

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 21. Operant Conditioning of Respiration in Lymnaea: The Environmental Context

    Introduction

    Aerial Respiratory Behavior

    Operant Conditioning of Aerial Respiratory Behavior

    Ecologically Relevant Stressors and LTM Formation

    What is Stressful for a Snail?

    Resource Restriction

    Social Stress

    Thermal Stress

    Anthropogenic Stress

    Interaction between Stressors

    Population Differences

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 22. Associative Memory Mechanisms in Terrestrial Slugs and Snails

    Introduction

    Learning Solutions to Lifestyle Challenges by Terrestrial Gastropods

    Complexity of Odor Conditioning

    Neurogenesis May Contribute to Olfactory Learning

    Procerebrum as an Olfactory Learning Center

    Progress with Limax Odor Learning

    Learning of Tentacle Position

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 23. Observational and Other Types of Learning in Octopus

    Introduction

    Complexity versus Simplicity: Examples from Octopuses

    Smart versus Stupid: Learning and Other Forms of Behavioral Plasticity

    Learning from Others in Octopuses: Experimental Evidence

    Why Should Octopus Possess Social Learning Skills?

    Conclusions

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 24. The Neurophysiological Basis of Learning and Memory in Advanced Invertebrates: The Octopus and the Cuttlefish

    Introduction

    The Cephalopod Nervous System

    Anatomy of the Vertical Lobe System

    Neurophysiology of Sfl Input to the Octopus Vertical Lobe

    Neuronal Output from the Vertical Lobes of Octopus and Cuttlefish Demonstrates Activity-Dependent Long-Term Potentiation

    Synaptic Plasticity in the Vertical Lobes of Octopus and Cuttlefish

    What do the Vertical Lobes of Octopus and Cuttlefish Compute?

    Mechanism of LTP Induction in the Octopus Vertical Lobe

    Neuromodulation in the Vertical Lobe

    Are the Octopus Vertical Lobe and its LTP Involved in Behavioral Learning and Memory?

    A System Model for Octopus Learning and Memory

    Conclusion

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 25. Learning, Memory, and Brain Plasticity in Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis)

    Introduction

    The Cuttlefish Brain

    Brain and Behavioral Plasticity in Adults

    Developmental Perspectives

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 26. A Multidisciplinary Approach to Learning and Memory in the Crab Neohelice (Chasmagnathus) granulata

    Introduction: Crustaceans as Model Systems in Neurobiology

    Learning and Memory in Crustaceans

    The Crab Neohelice: Habitat and Habits

    Crab Learning in the Laboratory

    Context-Signal Memory

    Massed and Spaced Training Render Two Different Kinds of Memory

    Anatomical Description of Brain Regions Involved in Crab’s Visual Memory

    In Vivo Physiological Characterization of Brain Interneurons

    Characterization of the LG Neurons and their Role in the Crab Escape Response

    LG Neurons and their Role in Visual Learning and Memory

    Pharmacological and Molecular Characterization of CSM Formation and Processing

    Role of Protein Kinase a in Memory Consolidation

    Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases in CSM

    Rel/NF-κB, a Key Transcription Factor in Consolidation of CSM

    Epigenetic Mechanisms in CSM Formation

    CSM Reconsolidation and Extinction: A Cornerstone in the Study of Memory Reprocessing

    Conclusion

    Acknowledgment

    References

    Chapter 27. Drosophila Memory Research through Four Eras: Genetic, Molecular Biology, Neuroanatomy, and Systems Neuroscience

    Introduction

    The Genetics of Drosophila Learning

    Drosophila Learning

    The Olfactory Nervous System

    Neural Circuits underlying learning and memory

    Subcellular Signaling Dynamics

    Memory Traces

    Outlook

    References

    Chapter 28. Visual Learning and Decision Making in Drosophila melanogaster

    Introduction

    Drosophila Vision

    Classical and Operant Conditioning

    Invariant Recognition and Memory Traces

    Feature Extraction and Context Generalization

    Multisensory Perception and Cross-Modal Memory

    Spatial Learning and Working Memory

    Attention-Like Fixation Behavior and Visual Selective Attention

    Decision Making

    Perspectives

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 29. In Search of the Engram in the Honeybee Brain

    The Concept of the Engram

    The Olfactory Learning Paradigm

    The Olfactory Pathway in the Bee Brain and Potential Locations of the Engram

    The Antennal Lobe

    Intrinsic Neurons of the Mushroom Body: Kenyon Cells

    Extrinsic Neurons of the Mushroom Body

    The Lateral Horn

    Memory Traces in the Reward Pathway

    The Distributed Nature of the Engram

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 30. Neural Correlates of Olfactory Learning in the Primary Olfactory Center of the Honeybee Brain: The Antennal Lobe

    Introduction

    Studied Forms of Olfactory Learning in Honeybees

    The Olfactory System

    The Search for Experience-Induced Plasticity in the Antennal Lobe

    Where Do We Go from Here? The Multifactorial Quality of the Search for Neural Plasticity

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 31. Memory Phases and Signaling Cascades in Honeybees

    Appetitive Olfactory Learning in Honeybees: Behavior and Neuronal Circuitry

    Reward and Odor Stimuli Induce Fast and Transient Activation of the cAMP- and Ca2+-Dependent Signaling Cascades in the Antennal Lobes

    The Link between Training Parameters and Memory Formation: The Specific Role of Second Messenger-Regulated Signaling Cascades

    Satiation Affects Formation of Appetitive Memory via Molecular Processes during Conditioning

    Midterm Memory Requires the Interaction of a Ca2+-Regulated Protease and Protein Kinase C

    Mushroom Body Glutamate Transmission is Implicated in Memory Formation

    Parallel Signaling Processes in the ALs and the MBs Contribute to Memory Formation

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 32. Pheromones Acting as Social Signals Modulate Learning in Honeybees

    Introduction

    Pheromones and their Roles

    Pheromone Modulation of Learning Behavior

    Coincidental or Adaptive?

    Modes of Action

    A Focus for Future Studies

    References

    Chapter 33. Extinction Learning and Memory Formation in the Honeybee

    Extinction Resembles an Animal’s Adaptation to a Fluctuating Environment

    Classical Conditioning in Harnessed Honeybees

    Spontaneous Recovery from Extinction Demonstrates the Existence of Two Memories

    Reinstatement of the Extinguished Memory is Context Dependent

    Extinction of a Consolidated Long-Term Memory

    Consolidating Extinction Memory

    Extinction Memory Formation Depends on Reward Learning

    Reconsolidation of Reward Memory

    Protein Degradation Constrains the Reward Memory

    Epigenetic Mechanisms Impact on Memory Formation and the Resistance to Extinction

    Extinction in Vertebrates and Honeybees: Conserved Behavior, Conserved Molecular Mechanisms, but Different Brains?

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 34. Glutamate Neurotransmission and Appetitive Olfactory Conditioning in the Honeybee

    Introduction

    Glutamate and Components of the Glutamate Neurotransmission in the Honeybee Nervous System

    Architecture of the Glutamatergic Neurotransmission

    Glutamatergic Neurotransmission is Important for Learning and Memory

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 35. Cellular Mechanisms of Neuronal Plasticity in the Honeybee Brain

    Introduction

    Cellular Physiology of Membrane Excitability

    Synaptic Transmitters and their Receptors

    Cell Physiological Events Underlying Olfactory Learning

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 36. Behavioral and Neural Analyses of Punishment Learning in Honeybees

    Introduction

    Olfactory Conditioning of the Sting Extension Reflex

    Olfactory Conditioning of Ser is a True Case of Aversive Learning

    Olfactory Conditioning of Ser Leads to the Formation of Long-Term Memories

    The Neural Basis of Aversive Learning

    Dopaminergic Neurons in the Bee Brain

    Modularity of Reward and Punishment Systems in Honeybees

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 37. Brain Aging and Performance Plasticity in Honeybees

    Social Caste, Social Environment, and Flexible Life Histories in the Honeybee

    Behavioral Senescence in Honeybees

    Heterogeneity of Behavioral Aging

    Aging Interventions

    Negligible Senescence

    Underpinnings of Plastic Brain Aging

    Immune Defenses and Aging

    Proteome, Aging, and the Reversal of Aging Symptoms

    Application-Oriented Research: Screening for Treatments that may Extend Life Span and Improve Health

    Synthesis

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 38. Learning and Recognition of Identity in Ants

    Is Learning Involved in the Formation of the Nestmate Recognition Template?

    When Learning and Memory are Indispensable

    Tools to Study Olfactory Learning and Memory in Ants

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 39. Bounded Plasticity in the Desert Ant’s Navigational Tool Kit

    The Major Transition in the Ant’S Adult Lifetime

    Path Integration

    Interplay between Path Integration and Landmark Guidance Routines

    Plasticity of the Adult Ant’S Brain

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 40. Learning and Decision Making in a Social Context

    Introduction

    Social Learning through Teaching

    Colony-Level Learning

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 41. Olfactory and Visual Learning in Cockroaches and Crickets

    Introduction

    Olfactory and Visual Learning in Crickets

    Visual and Olfactory Learning in Cockroaches

    Conclusion and Future Perspective

    References

    Chapter 42. Individual Recognition and the Evolution of Learning and Memory in Polistes Paper Wasps

    Introduction

    Evolution of Individual Recognition

    Individual Recognition and Social Memory

    Detailed Methods for Training Wasps

    Specialized versus Generalized Visual Learning

    References

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 600
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2013
  • Published: June 1, 2013
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123982605
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780124158238

About the Editors

Randolf Menzel

Paul Benjamin

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