Introductory Statistics - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780080137834, 9781483140384

Introductory Statistics

1st Edition

Authors: M.H. Quenouille
eBook ISBN: 9781483140384
Imprint: Pergamon
Published Date: 1st January 1966
Page Count: 262
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Introductory Statistics is an elementary non-mathematical manual on statistics and provides a connected account of the more common statistical tests. It is divided into two parts: the first part introduces the reader to elementary applications of statistical methods and the line of reasoning involved in their use, and the second part covers elementary parts of statistical theory and more advanced applications. This book consists of nine chapters and opens with a discussion on the presentation of sets of measurements, touching on topics such as sampling, grouping, measures of spread, and standard deviation. The following chapters deal with normal distribution and its applications; comparison of two or several sets of measurements; attributes and comparison of proportions; and interrelations of sets of measurements. Concomitant observations are also considered, along with transformations and non-normal distributions. The final chapter is devoted to sampling methods, including the ratio method and the regression method. This monograph is written primarily for students of statistics and aims to help research workers gain a fuller understanding of the methods used in the analysis of their results.

Table of Contents



1 Presentation of Sets of Measurements

1.1 Sampling

1.2 Ordering the Sample

1.3 Grouping

1.4 Diagrammatic Representation

1.5 The Arithmetic Mean and Its Calculation

1.6 Inadequacy of Arithmetic Mean

1.7 Measures of Spread: Range and Mean Deviation

1.8 Measures of Spread: Standard Deviation and Variance

1.9 Sample Estimates

1.10 Calculation of Standard Deviation and Variance



1A.11 Other Measures: Median and Mode

1A.12 Further Measures: Quartiles and Coefficient of Variability

1A.13 Moments and Other Coefficients

1A.14 Formula for Calculation of Standard Deviation



2 Normal Distribution

2.1 Frequency Distributions

2.2 Frequency Curves

2.3 Normal Distribution

2.4 Applications of Normal Distribution

2.5 Alternative Form of Normal-Deviate Table



2A.6 Theoretical Distributions: The Binomial

2A.7 Application of Normal Approximation to Binomial Distribution

2A.8 Accuracy of an Estimated Proportion

2A.9 Theoretical Distributions: The Poisson



2A.10 A Rough Estimate of The Standard Deviation

3 Comparison of Two Sets of Measurements

3.1 Method of Comparison

3.2 Variance-Ratio Test

3.3 Examples of Use of Variance-Ratio Test

3.4 Pooling of Variances

3.5 Accuracy of Arithmetic Mean

3.6 Examples of Determination of Accuracy of Arithmetic Mean

3.7 Comparison of Arithmetic Means

3.8 Examples of Test of Difference Between Means

3.9 The t Test



3A.10 Calculation of Number of Observations Necessary for a Given Accuracy

3A.11 Relative Precision and Combination of Experimental Results

3A.12 Estimation of Variance From Observations of Differing Precision

3A.13 Proof of Formula for Variance of Sum of Independent Measurements



4 Comparison of Several Sets of Measurements

4.1 The Problem and Its Solution

4.2 Analysis of Variance

4.3 Further Examples of Analysis of Variance

4.4 Orthogonality and Interaction of Effects

4.5 Randomized Block Analysis

4.6 Examples of Randomized Block Analysis

4.7 Latin and Graeco-Latin Squares

4.8 Analysis of A Latin Square



4A.9 Testing Particular Comparisons

4A.10 Test for Interaction

4A.11. Examples of Test for Interaction

4A.12. Higher Order Interactions and Factorial Principle

4A.13. Confounding



5 Attributes and Comparison of Proportions

5.1 Measurement of Attributes

5-2 Comparison of Several Groups

5.3 The Chi-Squared Test

5.4 An Alternative Computational Procedure

5.5 Comparison of Several Proportions

5.6 Testing 2 x 2 Tables

5.7 Yates' Correction for Continuity

5.8 Testing Goodness of Fit

5.9 Goodness of Fit With Estimated Constants



5A.10 Components of Chi-Squared

5A.11 Combination of Tests of Significance

5A.12 Exact Testing of 2 x 2 Tables



6 Interrelations of Sets of Measurements

6.1 Associated Measurements

6.2 Diagrammatic Presentation

6.3 General Test for Association

6.4 Measures of Joint Variation

6.5 Fitting Straight Lines

6.6 Regression Lines

6.7 Correlation Coefficients



6A.8 Theory of Minimal Variance

6A.9 Example of Multiple Regression

6A.10 Significance of Particular Variates

6A.11 Partial Correlation Coefficients

6A.12 Curvilinear Regression



7 Concomitant Observations

7.1 Comparison of Regression Coefficients

7.2 Comparison of Regressions

7.3 Concomitant Observations

7.4 Analysis of Covariance

7.5 Use of Analysis of Covariance in Estimation of Associations

7.6 Regression of Group Means



7A.7 Analysis of Covariance With Two or More Sets of Concomitant Observations

7A.8 Dummy Variates

7A.9 Non-Orthogonality

7A.10 Non-Orthogonal Comparisons When Interaction Exists

7A.11 Discriminant Functions



8 Transformations and Non-Normal Distributions

8.1 Reasons for Transformations

8.2 Transformations To Equalize Variances

I Logarithmic Transformation

II Square Root Transformation

III Sin- 1 √P Transformation

Iv 1/ßsinh-1ß√x Transformation

V Reciprocal Transformation

8.3 Transformations To Achieve Normality

I Logarithmic, Square Root and Reciprocal Transformation

II Transformation of Ranks To Normal Scores

8.4 Numerical Presentation of Transformed Data

8.5 Graphical Presentation of Transformed Data



8A.6 Additive Transformations

I Logarithmic Transformation

II Probit Transformation

III -Log(1-p) Transformations

8A.7 Theoretical Variances of Transformed Data

8A.8 Transformations of Statistical Measures

I Estimated Variances and Standard Deviations

II Variance Ratios

III Correlation Coefficients

IV Estimated Deviate

8A.9 Test for Homogeneity of Variance

8A.10 Testing for Normality

8A.11 Serial Correlation



9 Sampling Methods

9.1 Random Selection

9.2 Use of Tables of Random Numbers

9.3 Randomization In Experimentation

9.4 Methods of Sampling

9.5 Analysis of Stratified Random Samples

9.6 Analysis of Systematic Samples

9.7 Sampling from Finite Populations

9.8 Sampling Efficiency



9.9 Multi-Stage Sampling

9.10 Ratio Method in Sampling

9.11 Regression Method in Sampling




Appendix of Statistical Tables

I Table of The Percentage of Observations Exceeding A Given Normal Deviate d

II Table of Limits for The Deviate d Corresponding to a Given Percentage

III Variance-Ratio Table 5 per cent Points

IV Variance-Ratio Table 1 per cent Points

V Table Giving The Percentage of Trials in Which a Given Estimated Deviate t is Exceeded

VI Table of χ2 Distribution

VII Table of Random Numbers

VIII Tables of Common Logarithms and Natural Logarithms

IX Values of Sin-1√p

X Values of Sinh-1√x

XI Table of Squares and Square Roots



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M.H. Quenouille

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