Introductory Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences

Introductory Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences

1st Edition - January 1, 1971

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  • Authors: Joan Welkowitz, Robert B. Ewen, Jacob Cohen
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483258157

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Introductory Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences provides an introduction to statistical concepts and principles. This book emphasizes the robustness of parametric procedures wherein such significant tests as t and F yield accurate results even if such assumptions as equal population variances and normal population distributions are not well met. Organized into three parts encompassing 16 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the rationale upon which much of behavioral science research is based, namely, drawing inferences about a population based on data obtained from a sample. This text then examines the primary goal of descriptive statistics to bring order out of chaos. Other chapters consider the concept of variability and its applications. This book discusses as well the essential characteristics of a group of scores. The final chapter deals with the chi-square analysis. This book is a valuable resource for students of statistics as well as for undergraduates majoring in psychology, sociology, and education.

Table of Contents

  • Preface


    Glossary of Symbols

    Part I. Introduction

    1. Introduction

    Descriptive and Inferential Statistics

    Populations, Samples, Parameters, and Statistics

    Summation Notation


    Part II. Descriptive Statistics

    2. Frequency Distributions and Graphs

    The Purpose of Descriptive Statistics

    Regular Frequency Distributions

    Cumulative Frequency Distributions

    Grouped Frequency Distributions

    Graphic Representations

    Shapes of Frequency Distributions


    3. Transformed Scores I: Percentiles

    Definition of Percentiles

    Deciles, Quartiles, and the Median


    4. Measures of Central Tendency

    The Mean

    The Median

    The Mode


    5. Measures of Variability

    The Concept of Variability

    The Range

    The Standard Deviation and Variance


    6. Transformed Scores II: Z and T Scores

    Rules for Changing X and σ

    Standard Scores (Z Scores)

    T Scores

    SAT Scores


    Appendix to Chapter 6: Proofs of Rules for Changing X and σ

    Part III. Inferential Statistics

    7. The General Strategy of Inferential Statistics

    The Goals of Inferential Statistics

    The Strategy of Inferential Statistics

    Statistical Models


    8. The Normal Curve Model

    Score Distributions

    Characteristics of the Normal Curve

    Illustrative Examples


    9. Inferences About the Mean of a Single Population

    The Standard Error of the Mean

    Hypothesis Testing

    The Statistical Test for the Mean of a Single Population when σ Is Known

    The Statistical Test for the Mean of a Single Population when σ Is Not Known: The t Distributions

    Interval Estimation

    The Standard Error of a Proportion

    One-Tailed Tests of Significance


    10. Testing Hypotheses About the Difference Between the Means of Two Populations

    The Standard Error of the Difference

    Estimating the Standard Error of the Difference

    The t Test for Two Sample Means

    Measures of the Strength of the Relationship Between the Two Variables

    Confidence Intervals for μ1—μ2

    Using the t Test for Two Sample Means: Some General Considerations

    The t Test for Matched Samples


    11. Linear Correlation and Prediction

    Describing the Linear Relationship Between Two Variables

    Testing the Significance of the Correlation Coefficient

    Prediction and Linear Regression

    Measuring Prediction Error: The Standard Error of Estimate


    Appendix to Chapter 11 : Equivalence of the Various Formulas for r

    12. Other Correlational Techniques

    The Relationship Between Ranked Variables: The Spearman Rank-Order Correlation Coefficient

    The Relationship Between One Dichotomous and One Continuous Variable

    The Relationship Between Two Dichotomous Variables


    13. Introduction to Power Analysis

    Concepts of Power Analysis

    The Test of the Mean of a Single Population

    The Significance Test of the Proportion of a Single Population

    The Significance Test of a Pearson r

    Testing the Significance of the Difference Between Independent Means


    14. One-Way Analysis of Variance

    The General Logic of ANOVA

    Computational Procedures

    One-Way ANOVA with Unequal Sample Sizes

    Some Comments on the Use of ANOVA


    Appendix to Chapter 14: Proof That Total Variance Is Equal to the Sum of Between-Group and within-Group Variance

    15. Introduction to Factorial Design: Two-Way Analysis of Variance

    Computational Procedures

    The Meaning of Interaction


    16. Chi Square

    Chi Square and Goodness of Fit: One-Variable Problems

    Chi Square as a Test of Independence: Two-Variable Problems

    Measures of Strength of Association in Two-Variable Tables




Product details

  • No. of pages: 288
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1971
  • Published: January 1, 1971
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483258157

About the Authors

Joan Welkowitz

Robert B. Ewen

Jacob Cohen

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