Introduction to Radioanalytical Physics - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780444997968, 9781483280042

Introduction to Radioanalytical Physics

1st Edition

Authors: G. Deconninck
Editors: T. Braun E. Bujdosó
eBook ISBN: 9781483280042
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 1st January 1978
Page Count: 242
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Description

Nuclear Methods, Volume 1: Introduction to Radioanalytical Physics provides an introduction to the physical principles of radioanalytical methods. This book discusses the nuclear reaction mechanisms, the practical formula for elemental analysis, and the interaction of charged particle beams with matter. Organized into six chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the nuclear reaction principles, including reaction mechanisms, kinematics, and cross sections. This text then explains the calculation of straggling effects that play a major role in depth profile analysis. Other chapters consider the backscattering of heavy charged particles, which is a well-established method for surface analysis of heavy atoms. This book discusses as well the possible use of nuclear reactions as an analytical tool. The final chapter deals with some examples of investigations carried out in various disciplines. This book is a valuable resource for scientists of diverse scientific backgrounds such as biologists, physicists, chemists, engineers, and metallurgists.

Table of Contents


Contents

Symbols and Abbreviations

Chapter 1. Nuclear Reactions

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Kinematics and Consequences

1.2.1 Kinematical Relations

1.2.2 Particle Detection

1.2.3 Particle Spectra

1.3 Classification of Nuclear Reactions

1.3.1 Elastic Scattering

1.3.2 Inelastic Scattering

1.3.3 Rearrangement Collisions

1.3.4 Many-Body Reactions

1.3.5 Photonuclear Reactions

1.3.6 Radiative Capture

1.4 Reaction Mechanisms

1.5 Nuclear Reaction Cross Sections

1.5.1 Definition

1.5.2 Elastic Scattering of Charged Particles

1.5.3 Resonances

1.5.4 Evaporation of Particles

1.5.5 Excitation Functions

1.5.6 Stripping Reactions

1.5.7 Photoproduction of Particles

References

Chapter 2. Interaction of Charged Particle Beams With Solid Samples

2.1 Ionization Following Charged Particle Bombardment

2.2 X-Ray Emission Following Charged Particle Bombardment

2.2.1 X-Ray Emission

2.2.2 Elemental Analysis Using X-Ray Fluorescence Induced by Charged Particles

2.2.3 Secondary Electrons

2.3 Energy Loss of Charged Particles In Matter

2.3.1 Introduction

2.3.2 Stopping Power Parameters

2.3.3 Chemical Combination and Aggregation Effects

2.3.4 Charged Particle Range

2.3.5 Energy Straggling

2.4 Channeling Effects

References

Chapter 3. Analysis by Elastic Scattering of Charged Particles

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Kinematics

3.2.1 Scattered Particle Energy

3.2.2 Transformations Between Coordinate Systems

3.2.3 Mass Resolution

3.2.4 Particle Spectra

3.3 Elastic Scattering Cross Section

3.3.1 Rutherford Scattering

3.3.2 Low Energy Limitation

3.3.3 High Energy Limitations For Heavy Ions

3.3.4 Proton Scattering

3.4 Backscattering From Solid Samples

3.4.1 Introduction

3.4.2 Calculation of the Scattered Yield

3.4.3 Energy Spreading

3.5 Applications of Backscattering to Elemental Analysis

3.5.1 Stoichiometry

3.5.2 Thin Layer Analysis

3.5.3 Depth Profile Measurements

3.5.4 Stopping Power Measurements

3.5.5 Energy Straggling Measurements

3.5.6 Resonant Reactions and Applications

3.5.7 Channeling In Single Crystal Analysis

3.5.8 Optimum Beam Characteristics For Backscattering Measurements

References

Chapter 4. Analysis by Gamma-Ray Detection

4.1 Gamma-Rays From Nuclear Reactions

4.1.1 Prompt Methods

4.1.2 Delayed Methods

4.2 Kinematical Effects

4.2.1 Recoil Effects

4.2.2 Doppler Effects

4.2.3 Thermal Motion

4.2.4 Nuclear Reactions Recoils

4.3 Nuclear Reaction Mechanisms

4.3.1 Resonant Reactions

4.3.2 Non Resonant Cross Sections (Heavy Nuclei)

4.3.3 Photonuclear Reactions

4.4 Prompt Gamma-Ray Yield From Thick Sample Bombardment

4.4.1 Thick Target Excitation Yield

4.4.2 Non Resonant Cross Sections

4.4.3 Broad Resonances

4.4.4 Narrow Resonances

4.4.5 Practical Formula

4.4.6 Experimental Determination of the Product Γα

4.5 Elemental Analysis by Prompt Gamma-Ray Detection

4.5.1 Prompt Gamma-Rays From Charged Particle Bombardment

4.5.2 Analysis by Nuclear Resonant Scattering of Gamma-Rays

4.6 Elemental Analysis by Delayed Methods

4.6.1 Charged Particle Activation

4.6.2 Photoactivation, Isomeric Metastable States

4.6.3 Photoactivation (ɤ,n), (ɤ, p) Reactions

References

Chapter 5. Analysis by Charged Particle and Neutron Spectroscopy

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Reaction Cross Sections

5.2.1 Rearrangement Collisions

5.2.2 Stripping Reactions

5.2.3 (p, n) Reactions

5.3 Kinematics of Rearrangement Collisions

5.3.1 Kinematical Formulae

5.3.2 Consequences

5.4 Particle Spectra

5.4.1 Charged Particles

5.4.2 Neutron Emission

5.5 Solid Sample Bombardment

5.5.1 Charged Particles

5.5.2 Neutrons

5.6 Analytical Applications

5.6.1 Total Weight of Thin Layers (Xµl)

5.6.2 Depth Profile Analysis (1 < X < 10µm)

5.6.3 Profile Analysis by Resonant (p, α) Reactions

5.6.4 Depth Profile Analysis by (p, n) Reactions

5.6.5 Contamination Problems

References

Chapter 6. Analytical Applications of Nuclear Reactions

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Sensitivity

6.3 Light Element Determination by Delayed Techniques

6.3.1 Charged Particle Activation

6.3.2 Photoactivation

6.4 Light Element Determination by Prompt Radiation Detection

6.5 Heavy Elements

6.5.1 Prompt Nuclear Reactions

6.5.2 Backscattering

6.5.3 X-Ray Fluorescence

6.5.4 Photonuclear Reactions

6.5.5 Charged Particle Activation (Delayed Technique)

6.5.6 Scattering of Gamma-Rays

6.5.7 Excitation of Isomeric States

6.5.8 Examples

6.6 Typical Applications

6.6.1 Biological Samples

6.6.2 Semi-Conductor System Analysis

6.6.3 Applications To Metallurgy

6.6.4 Stoichiometry Determination of Surface Layers

6.6.5 Proton Microbeams

6.6.6 Recent Developments

References

Tables

Author Index

Subject Index


Details

No. of pages:
242
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Elsevier 1978
Published:
Imprint:
Elsevier
eBook ISBN:
9781483280042

About the Author

G. Deconninck

About the Editor

T. Braun

Affiliations and Expertise

Institute of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry L. Eotvos University Budapeat, Hungary

E. Bujdosó