Introduction to Parallel Programming - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780121284701, 9781483216591

Introduction to Parallel Programming

1st Edition

Authors: Steven Brawer
eBook ISBN: 9781483216591
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th June 1989
Page Count: 436
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Introduction to Parallel Programming focuses on the techniques, processes, methodologies, and approaches involved in parallel programming.

The book first offers information on Fortran, hardware and operating system models, and processes, shared memory, and simple parallel programs. Discussions focus on processes and processors, joining processes, shared memory, time-sharing with multiple processors, hardware, loops, passing arguments in function/subroutine calls, program structure, and arithmetic expressions. The text then elaborates on basic parallel programming techniques, barriers and race conditions, and nested loops.

The manuscript takes a look at overcoming data dependencies, scheduling summary, linear recurrence relations, and performance tuning. Topics include parallel programming and the structure of programs, effect of the number of processes on overhead, loop splitting, indirect scheduling, block scheduling and forward dependency, and induction variable.

The publication is a valuable reference for researchers interested in parallel programming.

Table of Contents

1 Introduction

1.1 Who Should Read This Book

1.2 Brief Introduction to Parallel Programming

1.3 About the Text

1.4 The Context of This Book

1.5 Add-Ons

2 Tiny Fortran

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Program Structure

2.3 Identifiers

2.4 Declarations: Scalars and Arrays

2.5 I/O

2.6 Array Storage

2.7 Assignment

2.8 Arithmetic Expressions

2.9 If-Then-Else-Endif Blocks

2.10 Loops

2.11 Function/Subroutine Calls

2.12 Passing Arguments in Function/Subroutine Calls

3 Hardware and Operating System Models

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Hardware

3.3 Time-Sharing with a Single Processor

3.4 Time-Sharing with Multiple Processors

3.5 A Brief Description of Tightly Coupled Multiprocessing

3.6 Summary

4 Processes, Shared Memory, and Simple Parallel Programs

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Processes and Processors

4.3 Shared Memory—1

4.4 Forking—Creating Processes

4.5 Joining Processes

4.6 Shared Memory—2

4.7 Processes Are Randomly Scheduled—Contention

4.8 Summary

5 Basic Parallel Programming Techniques

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Loop Splitting

5.3 Ideal Speedup

5.4 Spin-Locks, Contention and Self-Scheduling

5.5 Histogram

5.6 Summary

5.7 Additional Problems

6 Barriers and Race Conditions

6.1 Introduction

6.2 The Barrier Calls

6.3 Expression Splitting

6.4 Summary

6.5 Additional Problems—Elementary Statistics

7 Introduction to Scheduling—Nested Loops

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Variations on Loop Splitting

7.3 Variation on Self-Scheduling

7.4 Indirect Scheduling

7.5 Summary

7.6 Additional Problems

8 Overcoming Data Dependencies

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Induction Variable

8.3 Forward Dependency

8.4 Block Scheduling and Forward Dependency

8.5 Backward Dependency

8.6 Break Out of Loop

8.7 Splittable Loops

8.8 Reordering Loops

8.9 Special Scheduling—Assign Based on Condition

8.10 Additional Problems

9 Scheduling Summary

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Loop Splitting

9.3 Expression Splitting

9.4 Self-Scheduling

9.5 Indirect Scheduling

9.6 Block Scheduling

9.7 Special Scheduling

10 Linear Recurrence Relations—Backward Dependencies

10.1 Introduction to Recurrence Relations

10.2 x(i) = x(i - 1) + y(i)

10.3 x(i) = a(i)x(i - 1) + y(i)

10.4 x(i) = a(i)
x(i - 1) + b(i)*x(i - 2)

10.5 Additional Problems—Other Recurrence Relations

11 Performance Tuning

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Parallel Programming and the Structure of Programs

11.3 Positioning the Process_Fork

11.4 The Effect of the Number of Processes on Overhead

11.5 Using Cache Effectively

12 Discrete Event, Discrete Time Simulation

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Description of the Model

12.3 Single-Stream Algorithm and Data Structures

12.4 Single-Stream Program

12.5 Introduction to the Parallel Version

12.6 Data Dependencies in the Parallel Algorithm

12.7 Updating Linked Lists—Contention and Deadlock

12.8 The Parallel Algorithm

12.9 Parallel Program

12.10 Summary

13 Some Applications

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Average and Mean Squared Deviation

13.3 Fitting a Line to Points

13.4 Numerical Integration

13.5 Exploring a Maze

13.6 Traveling Salesman Problem

13.7 General Gaussian Elimination

13.8 Gaussian Elimination for Tridiagonal Matrix

14 Semaphores and Events

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Semaphores

14.3 Events

14.4 Summary

15 Programming Projects

Appendix A—Equivalent C and Fortran Constructs

A.1 Program Structure

A.2 Loops

A.3 Conditionals

A.4 Branches

A.5 Functions and Subroutines

Appendix B—EPF: Fortran77 for Parallel Programming

B.1 Introduction

B.2 Parallel Regions and the Structure of an EPF Module

B.3 Sharing Memory—Private

B.4 Doall-End Doall

B.5 Critical Section-End Critical section

B.6 Barrier

B.7 Barrier Begin-End Barrier

B.8 Spin-Locks

B.9 Events

B.10 Built-In Functions

B.11 Some Subroutines Written in EPF

Appendix C—Parallel Programming on a Uniprocessor Under Unix

C.1 Introduction

C.2 Calling C Programs from Fortran and Vice Versa

C.3 Process_Fork

C.4 Spin-Locks

C.5 Barriers

C.6 Process_Join

C.7 Shared Memory

C.8 Cleanup

C.9 An Example



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© Academic Press 1989
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About the Author

Steven Brawer

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