Introduction to Modern Biochemistry - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9781483231990, 9781483267784

Introduction to Modern Biochemistry

2nd Edition

Authors: P Karlson
eBook ISBN: 9781483267784
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1965
Page Count: 456
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Introduction to Modern Biochemistry, Second Edition focuses on the methodologies, processes, reactions, and technologies involved in biochemistry.

The publication first takes a look at organic chemistry and biochemistry, amino acids, and peptides. Discussions focus on the determination of amino acid sequence in peptides, naturally occurring peptides, chemical properties, separation of amino acids, hydrocarbons as parent substances, functional groups, polymeric compounds, and reactions with biochemical significance. The text then ponders on proteins, enzymes and biocatalysis, and coenzymes.

The manuscript examines nucleic acids and protein biosynthesis, metabolism of proteins, and porphyrins and hemins. Topics include chemical constitution of heme, significance and reactions of blood pigment, metabolism of aromatic amino acids, degradation to activated fatty acids, decarboxylation of amino acids, and biosynthesis and degradation of nucleotides. The text also ponders on carbon dioxide formation in the citrate cycle, fats and fat metabolism, and phosphatides, cerebrosides, and gangliosides.

The book is a valuable reference for biochemists and researchers interested in the processes, approaches, and technologies involved in biochemistry.

Table of Contents

Foreword to the First Edition

Preface to the Second Edition

Preface to the First Edition


I Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry

1. Hydrocarbons as Parent Substances

2. Functional Groups

3. Polymeric Compounds

4. Isomerisms

5. Reactions with Biochemical Significance


II Amino Acids

1. Chemical Properties

2. Individual Amino Acids

3. Separation of Amino Acids


III Peptides

1. Structure and Nomenclature

2. Determination of Amino Acid Sequence in Peptides

3. Naturally Occurring Peptides


IV Proteins

1. Structure of Proteins

2. Primary Structure

3. Secondary Structure

4. Tertiary Structure and Denaturation

5. Molecular Weights of Proteins

6. Colloidal Nature of Proteins

7. Purification and Check of Purity

8. Classification of Globular Proteins

9. Plasma Proteins


V Enzymes and Biocatalysis

1. Chemical Nature of Enzymes

2. Chemical Equilibria and Chemical Energetics

3. Catalysts and Enzymes

4. Dynamic Equilibrium and the Steady State

5. Energetic Coupling and Energy-Rich Compounds

6. Specificity of Enzyme Catalysis

7. Michaelis' Theory

8. The Mechanism of Enzyme Catalysis

9. Conditions for Enzyme Activity

10. Classification and Nomenclature of Enzymes


VI Coenzymes

1. Coenzymes and Prosthetic Groups

2. Coenzymes and Vitamins

3. Structure and Classification of Coenzymes

4. Coenzymes of the Oxidoreductases

5. Group-Transferring Coenzymes

6. Coenzymes of Lyases, Isomerases, and Ligases


VII Nucleic Acids and Protein Biosynthesis

1. Bases, Nucleosides, and Nucleotides

2. Biosynthesis and Degradation of Nucleotides

3. Structure of Nucleic Acids

4. Deoxyribonucleic Acid as Carrier of Genetic Information

5. The Transfer of Information: Biosynthesis of DNA and RNA

6. Protein Biosynthesis

7. Mode of Action of Genes

8. Biochemistry of Viruses

9. Nucleic Acid-Cleaving Enzymes and Phosphatases


VIII Metabolism of Proteins

1. Proteolytic Enzymes

2. Endopeptidases

3. Exopeptidases and Dipeptidases

4. Outline of the Metabolism of Amino Acids

5. Decarboxylation of Amino Acids

6. Transamination

7. Oxidative Deamination

8. Urea Cycle

9. Fate of the Carbon Skeleton of Amino Acids

10. Degradation to Activated Fatty Acids: Oxidative Decarboxylation

11. Metabolism of Aromatic Amino Acids

12. Amino Acids Supplying C1 Fragments

13. Ketoglutaric Acid or C4-Dicarboxylic-Acid-Supplying Amino Acids


IX Porphyrins and Hemins

1. Biosynthesis of the Porphyrin System

2. Chemical Constitution of Heme

3. Multiplicity of Porphyrin Catalysis

4. The Significance and Reactions of Blood Pigment

5. Degradation of the Blood Pigment

6. Cytochromes, Catalases, and Peroxidases. Chlorophyll


X Biologic Oxidation—Metabolism of Oxygen

1. Combustion and Biologic Oxidation

2. Oxidation as a Loss of Electrons

3. The Redox Potential

4. The Respiratory Chain

5. The Electron-Transport Particles

6. Oxidative Phosphorylation (Respiratory Chain Phosphorylation)

7. Other Oxygen-Activating Enzymes


XI Carbon Dioxide Formation in the Citrate Cycle

1. Significance of the Citrate Cycle

2. The Individual Steps

3. Energy Yield of the Citrate Cycle

4. Relations to Synthetic Tasks. Glyoxylate Cycle


XII Fats and Fat Metabolism

1. Chemical Composition of Fats

2. Fats as Depot Material

3. β-Oxidation of Fatty Acids

4. Formation of Acetoacetate—"Ketogenesis 5. Metabolism of Branched-Chain Fatty Acids

6. Biosynthesis of Fatty Acids


XIII Phosphatides, Cerebrosides, Gangliosides

1. Occurrence and Classification

2. Glycerophosphatides

3. Biosynthesis and Degradation of Glycerophosphatides

4. Sphingolipids


XIV Isoprenoid Lipids: Steroids and Carotenoids

1. Biosynthesis of Cholesterol

2. Nomenclature and Stereochemistry of the Steroids

3. Sterols and Plant Steroids

4. Vitamin D

5. Bile Acids

6. Steroid Hormones

7. Carotenoids

8. Vitamin A and Visual Purple

9. Tocopherol, Phylloquinone, Ubiquinone, and Plastoquinone


XV Simple Sugars, Monosaccharides

1. Nomenclature and Definitions

2. Hemiacetal Formulas

3. General Reactions of Monosaccharides

4. The Individual Sugars

5. Interconversion of Sugars

6. Glucose Oxidation Through the Pentose Phosphate Cycle

7. Glycolysis and Alcoholic Fermentation

8. The Metabolism of Fructose

9. Aerobic Carbohydrate Breakdown

10. Resynthesis of Glucose: Gluconeogenesis


XVI Photosynthesis

1. Importance of Photosynthesis

2. Photophosphorylation

3. Photolysis of Water

4. Binding of CO2 and Reduction to Carbohydrate

5. Further Synthetic Activities of Plants


XVII Glycosides, Oligosaccharides, Polysaccharides

1. The Glycoside Bond

2. Disaccharides

3. Enzymic Cleavage of Oligosaccharides

4. Biosynthesis of Glycosides and Oligosaccharides

5. Polysaccharides: Homoglycanes

6. Enzymic Breakdown of Polysaccharides

7. Mucopolysaccharides


XVIII Correlations in Intermediary Metabolism

1. Metabolism of Carbohydrates

2. Metabolism of Fatty Acids

3. Citrate Cycle and Respiratory Chain

4. Metabolism of Proteins

5. The Common Pool of Intermediary Metabolism


XIX Topochemistry of the Cell

1. The Nucleus of the Cell

2. The Endoplasmic Reticulum

3. Mitochondria

4. The Cytoplasm

5. Significance of the Compartments


XX Hormones

1. Principle of Hormonal Regulation

2. Adrenocortical Hormones

3. Gonadal Hormones

4. Thryroid Hormones

5. Hormones of the Adrenal Medulla

6. The Hormone of the Pineal Gland

7. The Parathyroid Hormone

8. The Pancreatic Hormones

9. Hypophyseal Hormones

10. Hormonal Regulation of Blood Glucose

11. Hormonal Control of the Menstrual Cycle

12. Tissue Hormones

13. Hormones of Invertebrates

14. Pheromones

15. Growth Substances of Plants


XXI Mineral Metabolism

1. Water Balance

2. Water as Solvent

3. Active Transport

4. Acid-Base Equilibrium

5. Metabolism of Alkali and of Chloride

6. Calcium and Phosphate Metabolism

7. Iron and Zinc


XXII Nutrition and Vitamins

1. Caloric Value and ATP Yield

2. Essential Food Components

3. Vitamins

4. Fat-Soluble Vitamins

5. Water-Soluble Vitamins


XXIII Special Biochemical Functions of Certain Organs

1. The Digestive Tract

2. The Liver

3. Blood

4. Kidney and Urine

5. Other Excretion Products

6. Biochemistry of Muscles

7. Biochemistry of Nerve Conduction

8. Summary





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© Academic Press 1965
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:

About the Author

P Karlson

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