Introduction to Modern Biochemistry 4e

Introduction to Modern Biochemistry 4e

4th Edition - January 1, 1975

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  • Author: P Karlson
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323162173

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Description

Introduction to Modern Biochemistry, Fourth Edition provides an understanding of the chemical background of biological phenomena. This book discusses the concepts of generation and utilization of free energy. Organized into 23 chapters, this edition starts with an overview of the important role of amides in biochemistry. This text then explores the chemical structure of proteins and describes the methods of determining the amino acids sequence of proteins. Other chapters consider the role of genes in protein and enzyme synthesis. This book discusses as well the significance of the submicroscopic structure of the cell in biochemical reactions. The reader is also introduced to the chemistry of the carbohydrates. The final chapter deals with biochemical functions of various organs, including the digestive tract, liver, kidney, nervous system, muscles, and connective tissues. This book is a valuable resource for biologists, biochemists, scientists, researchers, and readers who are interested in the field of biochemistry.

Table of Contents


  • Preface

    Chapter I Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry

    1. Hydrocarbons as Parent Substances

    2. Functional Groups

    3. Polymeric Compounds

    4. Isomerisms

    5. Reactions with Biochemical Significance

    Bibliography

    Chapter II Amino Acids

    1. Chemical Properties

    2. Individual Amino Acids

    3. Separation of Amino Acids

    Bibliography

    Chapter III Peptides

    1. Structure and Nomenclature

    2. Determination of Amino Acid Sequence in Peptides

    3. Naturally Occurring Peptides

    Bibliography

    Chapter IV Proteins

    1. Structure of Proteins

    2. The Sequence of Amino Acids

    3. Principles of Chain Conformation

    4. Conformation of Scleroproteins

    5. Conformation of Globular Proteins

    6. Molecular Weights of Proteins

    7. Colloidal Nature of Proteins

    8. Purification and Check of Purity of Proteins

    9. Classification of Globular Proteins

    10. Plasma Proteins

    Bibliography

    Chapter V Enzymes and Biocatalysis

    1. Chemical Nature of Enzymes

    2. Chemical Equilibria and Chemical Energetics

    3. Catalysts and Enzymes

    4. Dynamic Equilibria and the Steady State

    5. Energetic Coupling and Energy-Rich Compounds

    6. Specificity of Enzyme Catalysis

    7. Enzyme Kinetics

    8. Conditions for Enzyme Activity

    9. The Mechanism of Enzyme Catalysis

    10. Classification and Nomenclature of Enzymes

    Bibliography

    Chapter VI Coenzymes

    1. Coenzymes and Prosthetic Groups

    2. Coenzymes and Vitamins

    3. Structure and Classification of Coenzymes

    4. Coenzymes of the Oxidoreductascs

    5. Adenosine Triphosphate as Coenzyme

    6. Coenzymes of C1 Metabolism

    7. Coenzymes of C2 Metabolism

    8. Further Group-Transferring Coenzymes

    9. Coenzymes of Lyases, Isomerases, and Ligases

    Bibliography

    Chapter VII Nucleic Acids and Protein Biosynthesis

    1. Bases, Nucleosides, and Nucleotides

    2. Biosynthesis and Degradation of Nucleotides

    3. Structure of Nucleic Acids

    4. Deoxyribonucleic Acid as Carrier of Genetic Information

    5. The Transfer of Information: Biosynthesis of DNA and RNA

    6. Protein Biosynthesis

    7. Mode of Action of Genes

    8. Biochemical Evolution

    9. Biochemistry of Viruses

    10. Nucleic Acid-Cleaving Enzymes and Phosphatases

    Bibliography

    Chapter VIII Metabolism of Proteins

    1. Proteolytic Enzymes

    2. Endopeptidases

    3. Exopeptidases and Dipeptidases

    4. Outline of the Metabolism of Amino Acids

    5. Decarboxylation of Amino Acids

    6. Transamination

    7. Deamination

    8. Urea Cycle

    9. Fate of the Carbon Skeleton of Amino Acids

    10. Degradation to Activated Fatty Acids: Oxidative Decarboxylation

    11. Metabolism of Aromatic Amino Acids

    12. Amino Acids Supplying Ci Fragments

    13. Ketoglutaric Acid or C4-Dicarboxylic Acid-Supplying Amino Acids

    Bibliography

    Chapter IX Porphyrins and Hemins

    1. Biosynthesis of the Porphyrin System

    2. Chemical Constitution of Heme

    3. Multiplicity of Porphyrin Catalysis

    4. Significance and Reactions of the Blood Pigment

    5. Degradation of Blood Pigment

    6. Cytochromes, Catalases, and Peroxidases. Chlorophyll

    Bibliography

    Chapter X Biological Oxidation — Metabolism of Oxygen

    1. Combustion and Biological Oxidation

    2. Oxidation as Loss of Electrons

    3. The Redox Potential

    4. The Respiratory Chain

    5. Oxidative Phosphorylation (Respiratory Chain Phosphorylation)

    6. Other Oxygen-Activating Enzymes

    Bibliography

    Chapter XI Carbon Dioxide Formation in the Citrate Cycle

    1. Significance of the Citrate Cycle

    2. The Individual Steps

    3. Energy Yield of the Citrate Cycle

    4. Relations to Synthetic Tasks. Glyoxylate Cycle

    Bibliography

    Chapter XII Fats and Fat Metabolism

    1. Chemical Composition of Fats

    2. Fats as Depot Material

    3. ß-Oxidation of Fatty Acids

    4. Metabolism of Unsaturated and Branched-Chain Fatty Acids

    5. Formation of Acetoacetate — "Ketogenesis"

    6. Biosynthesis of Fatty Acids

    Bibliography

    Chapter XIII Phospholipids, Glycolipids, and Membranes

    1. Structural Features

    2. Biosynthesis and Structure of Glycerophosphatides

    3. Sphingosines and Sphingomyelins

    4. Glycolipids

    5. Biological Membranes

    Bibliography

    Chapter XIV Isoprenoid Lipids: Steroids and Carotenoids

    1. Biosynthesis of Cholesterol

    2. Nomenclature and Stereochemistry of the Steroids

    3. Sterols and Plant Steroids

    4. Vitamin D

    5. Bile Acids

    6. Steroid Hormones

    7. Carotenoids

    8. Vitamin A and Visual Purple

    9. Polyprenols and Polyprenyl Quinones

    Bibliography

    Chapter XV Simple Sugars, Monosaccharides

    1. Nomenclature and Definitions

    2. Hemiacetal Formulas

    3. General Reactions of Monosaccharides

    4. The Individual Sugars

    5. Interconversion of Sugars

    6. The Pentose Phosphate Cycle

    7. Glycolysis and Alcohol Fermentation

    8. The Metabolism of Fructose

    9. Aerobic Carbohydrate Breakdown

    10. Resynthesis of Glucose: Gluconeogenesis

    Bibliography

    Chapter XVI Photosynthesis

    1. Importance of Photosynthesis

    2. The Photosynthetic Apparatus and Light Reactions

    3. Binding of CO2 and Reduction to Carbohydrate

    4. Assimilation of Nitrogen

    Bibliography

    Chapter XVII Glycosides, Oligosaccharides, Polysaccharides

    1. The Glycosidic Bond

    2. Disaccharides

    3. Enzymatic Cleavage of Oligosaccharides

    4. Biosynthesis of Glycosides and Oligosaccharides

    5. Polysaccharides: Homoglycans

    6. Enzymatic Breakdown of Polysaccharides

    7. Heteroglycans

    8. Glycoproteins

    Bibliography

    Chapter XVIII Topochemistry of the Cell

    1. The Nucleus of the Cell

    2. The Endoplasmic Reticulum

    3. Mitochondria

    4. The Cytoplasmic Space (Cytosol)

    Bibliography

    Chapter XIX Regulatory Mechanisms and Correlations in Intermediary Metabolism

    1. Principles of Metabolic Regulation

    2. Metabolism of Carbohydrates

    3. Metabolism of Fatty Acids

    4. Citrate Cycle and Respiratory Chain

    5. Metabolism of Proteins

    6. The Common Pool of Intermediary Metabolism

    Bibliography

    Chapter XX Hormones

    1. Principles of Hormonal Regulation

    2. Adrenocortical Hormones

    3. Gonadal Hormones

    4. Hormones of the Adrenal Medulla

    5. The Hormone of the Pineal Gland

    6. Thyroid Hormones

    7. The Parathyroid Hormone

    8. The Pancreatic Hormones

    9. Hypophyseal and Hypothalamic Hormones

    10. Further Proteohormones

    11. Hormone Regulation of Blood Glucose

    12. Hormonal Control of the Menstrual Cycle

    13. Tissue Hormones

    14. Hormones of Invertebrates

    15. Pheromones

    16. Growth Substances of Plants

    Bibliography

    Chapter XXI Mineral Metabolism

    1. Water Balance

    2. Water as Solvent

    3. Active Transport

    4. Acid-Base Equilibrium

    5. Metabolism of Alkali and of Chloride

    6. Calcium and Phosphate Metabolism

    7. Iron and Zinc

    Bibliography

    Chapter XXII Nutrition and Vitamins

    1. Caloric Value and ATP Yield

    2. Essential Food Components

    3. Vitamins

    4. Fat-Soluble Vitamins

    5. Water-Soluble Vitamins

    Bibliography

    Chapter XXIII Special Biochemical Functions of Certain Organs

    1. The Digestive Tract

    2. The Liver

    3. Blood

    4. Kidney and Urine

    5. Other Excretion Products

    6. Connective and Supportive Tissue

    7. Biochemistry of Muscles

    8. The Biochemistry of the Nervous System

    9. Development, Differentiation, and Malignant Degeneration

    10. Summary

    Bibliography

    Appendix

    List of Abbreviations Frequently Used in Biochemical Literature

    1. Alphabetic List

    2. Systematic List

    Chronological Table of Important Biochemical Discoveries

    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 560
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1975
  • Published: January 1, 1975
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323162173

About the Author

P Karlson

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