Introduction to Forest Genetics

Introduction to Forest Genetics

1st Edition - February 28, 1976
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  • Author: Jonathan Wright
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323148887

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Description

Introduction to Forest Genetics examines some of the basic genetic concepts typically used in forestry and tree improvement studies, including Mendelian and population genetics. It also describes techniques that are generally useful in tree improvement work, including individual tree selection and breeding, provenance testing, species and racial hybridization, and introduction of exotics. Organized into 19 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of forest genetics and problems associated with forest genetics. It then discusses concepts from basic genetics, including chromosome structure and function; DNA and RNA; nongenetic inheritance; and genotype versus phenotype. Other chapters focus on inbreeding: complete elimination of homozygous recessive trees; mutation and migration; and controlled pollination and vegetative propagation. The book also covers the establishment and measurement of test plantations; general principles and methods of selective breeding; choice of breeding method and type of seed orchard; heritability and genetic gain; geographic variation in Scotch pine and American trees; species and racial hybridization; chromosome studies; and polyploidy and haploidy breeding. This book is a valuable resource for foresters, professional tree breeders, and those with or without previous training in genetics or forestry.

Table of Contents


  • Preface

    Acknowledgments

    1 Introduction

    Problems Peculiar to Forest Genetics

    The Possibilities of Tree Improvement

    General Sources of Information

    2 Concepts from Basic Genetics

    Chromosome Structure and Function

    DNA and RNA

    Genes

    Nongenic Inheritance

    Genotype versus Phenotype

    Cell Division and the Opportunity for New Gene Combinations

    Study Questions

    Suggested Reading

    3 Additional Basic Genetic Concepts

    Inbreeding

    Hybrid Vigor

    Recovery Ratios in the F2 Generation

    Study Questions

    4 Population Genetics—Selection

    Definitions

    Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium

    Complete Elimination of Homozygous Recessive Trees

    Partial Selection against Récessives

    Selection Favoring Récessives (against Dominants)

    Selection for Genes with Additive Effects

    "Fitness" and Fisher's "Fundamental Theorem"

    Selection for and against Hétérozygotes

    Selection in Small Populations

    How to Increase Selection Pressure

    A Word Picture of Selection

    Recapitulation

    Study Questions

    5 Population Genetics—Mutation, Migration, Isolation

    Mutation

    Migration

    Isolation

    Study Questions

    6 Useful Techniques—Controlled Pollination

    Selection of Parent Trees

    Climbing

    Bagging to Prevent Outside Pollination

    Pollen Handling

    Pollination Procedures

    Indoor Controlled Pollination

    Fruit Collection and Seed Handling

    Success Expected from Controlled Pollination

    Study Questions

    7 Useful Techniques—Vegetative Propagation

    Introduction

    Grafting and Budding

    Propagation by Stem Cuttings

    Propagation by Root and Root-Stem Cuttings

    Propagation by Leaf Cuttings

    Root Suckers

    Other Methods of Occasional Interest

    Apomixis

    Topophysis or Persistent Nongenetic Effects

    Study Questions

    8 Useful Techniques—Establishment and Measurement of Test Plantations

    Introduction

    Definitions

    Commonly Used Experimental Designs

    Nonstatistical Considerations

    Statistical Considerations

    Sample Schedules for Experiment Establishment

    Hints on Measurement and Data Recording

    Study Questions

    9 Selective Breeding—General Principles and Methods

    Role of Selective Breeding in Tree Improvement

    General Principles

    Breeding Methods Described

    Study Questions

    10 Choice of Breeding Method and Type of Seed Orchard

    Factors Affecting Choice

    Thinned Natural Stands versus Planted Seed Orchards

    Mass versus Family Selection

    Half-Sib versus Full-Sib Progeny Testing

    Half-Sib versus Full-Sib Family Selection

    Progeny Test Seed Orchards versus Clonal Seed Orchards

    Earliness of Flowering on Grafts and Seedlings

    Study Questions

    11 Examples of Progress through Selective Breeding and Seed Orchard Management

    Introduction

    Examples of Simple Inheritance

    Variation and Improvement in Quantitative Traits

    Seed Orchard Management in Loblolly and Slash Pines

    Management of Seedling Seed Orchards of Red Pine

    Special Cases

    Study Questions

    12 Estimation of Heritability and Genetic Gain

    Experimental Procedures and Applicability of Estimates

    Parent-Progeny Regression

    Variance Analysis—Half-Sib Progeny Test

    Variance Analysis—Full-Sib Progeny Test

    Conversion of Family to Single Tree Heritabilities

    Variance Analysis—Clonal Test

    Genotype-Environment Interaction—Effect on Breeding Plans

    Study Questions

    13 Provenance Testing

    Role of Provenance Tests in Tree Improvement

    Factors Influencing Amount of Geographic Variability

    General Geographic Trends

    Knowns and Unknowns about Natural Selection

    Design of Provenance Tests

    Practical Use of Provenance Data

    Study Questions

    14 Geographic Variation in Scotch Pine

    Introduction

    Phenotypic versus Genetic Variation Patterns

    Amount and Pattern of Genetic Diversity

    Description of Varieties

    Practical Use of Scotch Pine Provenance Data

    Typical and Atypical Aspects of Scotch Pine

    Study Questions

    15 Geographic Variation in American Trees

    The Pacific Coast, California to Alaska

    Western United States—A Region of Great Diversity

    Boreal America—A Region of Clines and Great Genetic Diversity

    Slight to Moderate Variation in Northeastern Species

    Geographic Variation in the Central Hardwoods

    Southeastern United States—A Region of Moderate Genetic Diversity

    Study Questions

    16 Species and Racial Hybridization

    Use of Hybridization in Agriculture

    Goals of Hybridization in Trees

    Crossability Patterns

    Hybridization and Evolution

    Crossability Patterns by Genus

    Study Questions

    17 Species and Racial Hybridization—Practical Application

    Historical Background

    Mass Produced F 1 Hybrids

    Utilization of F 2 Generation Hybrids

    Hybridization and Subsequent Selection in Later Generations

    Study Questions

    18 Introduction of Exotic Species

    Introduction

    Reasons for Expecting Success from Exotics

    Factors Governing Successful Introduction

    Exchange Relationships among Regions

    Methods of Introducing and Testing New Species

    Examples of Successful and Unsuccessful Exotics

    Regional Summaries of the Use of Exotics

    Study Questions

    19 Polyploidy, Aneuploidy, and Haploidy

    Definitions

    Techniques of Chromosome Study

    Karyotypes of Pines

    Rareness of Polyploidy in Gymnosperms

    Importance of Polyploidy in Angiosperms

    Breeding Behavior of Polyploids and Aneuploids

    Induction and Recognition of Polyploidy

    Haploid Breeding

    Study Questions

    Appendix: Common and Scientific Names of Trees

    Bibliography

    Glossary

    Index






Product details

  • No. of pages: 480
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1976
  • Published: February 28, 1976
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323148887

About the Author

Jonathan Wright