Introduction to Food Toxicology

Introduction to Food Toxicology

2nd Edition - March 24, 2009

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  • Authors: Takayuki Shibamoto, Leonard Bjeldanes
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080921532
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780123742865

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The rapidly expanding field of food safety includes many new developments in the understanding of the entire range of toxic compounds found in foods -- whether naturally occurring or having been introduced by industry or food processing methods. This 2e of Introduction to Food Toxicology explores these developments while continuing to provide a core understanding of the basic principles of food toxicology.

Key Features

  • Solid-phase extraction, immunoassay, and LC/MS
  • Mechanisms of regulation of xenobiotic activation and deactivation
  • Developments in the modes of action and impact of natural toxins in food plants
  • A comprehensive review of the issues surrounding dioxins
  • The function of antioxidants and their toxicological aspects
  • Acrylamide, its occurrence, toxicity and regulation on its use
  • Phytochemicals, their beneficial effects and the modes of action of this growing group of nutraceuticals from food plants
  • Diet and drug interactions


Professionals and those in academic institutions. Upper level undergraduate students in Food Toxicology; Foodborne Hazards; Nutritional Toxicology and Food Safety;Public Health. Entry level food safety and industry professionals. Those seeking continuing education credits and independent readers as well. Educated consumer readers interested in food sources and public health issues. Course names: Food Toxicology; Foodborne Hazards; Nutritional Toxicology and Food Safety; Food Toxicology and Safety; Public Health

Table of Contents

  • Chapter 1 - Principles of Toxicology

    I. Branches of toxicology

    II. Dose-response

    III. Potency

    IV. Hormesis

    V. Margin of Safety

    VI. Biologic Factors That Influence Toxicity

    VII. Absorption

    VIII. Types of membrane transport

    IX. Toxin absorption in the alimentary tract

    X. Intestinal microflora

    XI. The Blood-Brain Barrier

    XII. Xenobiotic absorption into lymph

    XIII. Translocation

    XIV. Distribution

    XV. Storage

    A. Organ storage

    B. Lipid storage

    C. Bone storage

    XVI. Excretion

    XVII. Kidney

    XVII. Effects of maturation on kidney excretion

    A. Fecal excretion of xenobiotics

    Chapter 2 - Determination of Toxicants in Foods

    I. Sampling

    II. Qualitative and Quantitative Analyses of Toxicants in Foods

    A. Sample Preparation for Analysis of Toxicants

    B. Isolation and Identification by Chromatography

    III. Biological Determination of Toxicants

    A. Acute Toxicity

    B. Genetic Toxicity

    C. Bioassay

    D. Metabolism

    E. Subchronic Toxicity

    F. Teratogenesis

    G. Chronic Toxicity

    Chapter 3 – Biotransformation

    I. Phase I reactions

    II. Phase II reactions

    III. Phase I enzymes

    A. Cytochrome P450

    B. CYP3A4

    C. CYP1B1

    D. CYP2E1

    IV. Peroxidases V. Flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO)

    VI. Epoxide hydrolase (EH)

    VII. Esterases

    A. Carboxylesterases (CES) B. Paraoxonase

    VIII. Phase II Xenobiotic Metabolism

    A. Glucuronide Conjugation

    B. Sulfate Conjugation

    C. Glutathione Conjugation

    Chapter 4 - Chemical carcinogenesis

    I. Definitions

    II. Phases of Carcinogenesis

    A. Initiation

    B. Promotion

    C. Progression

    D. Angiogenesis

    III. Cancer Epidemiology

    IV. Dietary guidelines for cancer prevention

    Chapter 5 - Natural Toxins in Animal Foodstuffs

    I. Natural Toxins in Land Animal Foodstuffs

    A. Bile Acids

    B. Vitamin A

    II. Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) and Prions

    III. Natural Toxins in Marine Foodstuffs

    A. Tetrodotoxin - Puffer fish poison

    B. Saxitoxin – Paralytic Shellfish Poison

    C. Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning

    D. Ciguatera E. NSP - Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning

    F. Amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP)

    G. Voltage gated Na+ channels

    H. Scombroid Fish Poisoning

    Chapter 6 - Toxic phytochemicals

    I. Phytotoxins

    A. Goitrogens

    B. Environmental Antithyroid Substances

    II. Favism

    III. Neurolathyrism

    IV. Cyanogenic glycosides

    V. Lectins

    VI. Vasoactive Amines

    VII. Caffeine

    VIII. Curare

    IX. Strychnine

    X. Atropine

    A. Phytoalexins

    B. Herb-Drug Interactions

    Chapter 7 - Toxins from Fungi

    I. Mycotoxins

    A. Ergotism

    B. Alimentary Toxic Aleukia

    C. Fumonisins

    D. Aflatoxin

    E. Other mycotoxicoses

    II. Mushrooms

    Chapter 8 - Food Contaminants from Industrial Wastes

    I. Chlorinated Hydrocarbons

    A. Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs)

    B. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs)

    II. Heavy Metals

    A. Arsenic

    B. Lead

    C. Mercury

    D. Cadmium


    Chapter 9 - Pesticide Residues in Foods

    I. What is a pesticide?

    II. History

    III. Pesticides in the Food Chain

    IV. Regulations

    V. Insecticides

    A. DDT

    B. Chlorinated Cyclodiene Insecticides

    C. Organophosphate Insecticides

    D. Carbamate Insecticides

    VI. Herbicides

    A. Chlorophenoxy Acid Esters

    VII. Naturally Occurring Pesticides

    Chapter 10 - Food Additives

    I. Regulations

    II. Preservatives

    A. Benzoic Acid

    B. Sorbic Acid and Potassium Sorbate

    C. Hydrogen Peroxide

    D. AF-2 [2-(-Furyl)-3-(5-nitro-2-furyl)acrylamide]

    III. Antioxidants

    A. L-Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C)

    B. dl-a-Tocopherol (Vitamin E)

    C. Propyl Gallate

    D. Butylated Hydroxyanisol and Butylated Hydroxytoluene

    IV. Sweeteners

    A. Saccharin and Sodium Saccharin

    B. Sodium Cyclamate

    V. Coloring Agents

    A. Amaranth (FDamp;C Red No.2)

    B. Tartrazine (FDamp;C Yellow No. 4)

    VI. Flavoring Agents

    A. Methyl Anthranilate

    B. Safrole (1-Allyl-3,4-Methylenedioxybenzene)

    C. Diacetyl (2,3-butane dione)

    VII. Flavor Enhancers

    Chapter 11 - Toxicants Formed During Food Processing

    I. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)

    A. Occurrence

    B. Benzo[a]pyrene (BP)

    II. Maillard Reaction Products

    III. Polycyclic Aromatic Amines (PAA)

    A. Occurrence

    B. Toxicity

    IV. N-Nitrosamines

    A. Precursors

    B. Occurrence in Various Foods

    C. Toxicity

    D. Mode of Toxic Action

    E. General Considerations

    V. Acrylamide

    A. Formation Mechanisms of Acrylamide in Foods

    B. Toxicity

    C. Mode of Action

    D. General Considerations

    VI. Food Irradiation

    Chapter 12 - Food Factors and Health

    I. Probiotcs, Prebiotics, and Synbiotics

    A. Probiotics

    B. Prebiotics

    C. Synbiotics

    II. Antioxidants

    A. The Role of Oxygen in Living Organisms

    B. In vivo Balance between Oxidants and Antioxidants

    C. Lipid Peroxidation

    D. Toxicity of RCCs

    III. Functional Components Found in Food for Disease Prevention

Product details

  • No. of pages: 320
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2009
  • Published: March 24, 2009
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080921532
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780123742865

About the Authors

Takayuki Shibamoto

Affiliations and Expertise

University of California, Davis, USA

Leonard Bjeldanes

Affiliations and Expertise

University of California, Berkeley, USA

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