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Introduction to Food Toxicology - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9780123742865, 9780080921532

Introduction to Food Toxicology

2nd Edition

Authors: Takayuki Shibamoto Leonard Bjeldanes
eBook ISBN: 9780080921532
Hardcover ISBN: 9780123742865
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 24th March 2009
Page Count: 320
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Table of Contents

Chapter 1 - Principles of Toxicology

I. Branches of toxicology

II. Dose-response

III. Potency

IV. Hormesis

V. Margin of Safety

VI. Biologic Factors That Influence Toxicity

VII. Absorption

VIII. Types of membrane transport

IX. Toxin absorption in the alimentary tract

X. Intestinal microflora

XI. The Blood-Brain Barrier

XII. Xenobiotic absorption into lymph

XIII. Translocation

XIV. Distribution

XV. Storage

A. Organ storage

B. Lipid storage

C. Bone storage

XVI. Excretion

XVII. Kidney

XVII. Effects of maturation on kidney excretion

A. Fecal excretion of xenobiotics

Chapter 2 - Determination of Toxicants in Foods

I. Sampling

II. Qualitative and Quantitative Analyses of Toxicants in Foods

A. Sample Preparation for Analysis of Toxicants

B. Isolation and Identification by Chromatography

III. Biological Determination of Toxicants

A. Acute Toxicity

B. Genetic Toxicity

C. Bioassay

D. Metabolism

E. Subchronic Toxicity

F. Teratogenesis

G. Chronic Toxicity

Chapter 3 – Biotransformation

I. Phase I reactions

II. Phase II reactions

III. Phase I enzymes

A. Cytochrome P450




IV. Peroxidases V. Flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO)

VI. Epoxide hydrolase (EH)

VII. Esterases

A. Carboxylesterases (CES) B. Paraoxonase

VIII. Phase II Xenobiotic Metabolism

A. Glucuronide Conjugation

B. Sulfate Conjugation

C. Glutathione Conjugation

Chapter 4 - Chemical carcinogenesis

I. Definitions

II. Phases of Carcinogenesis

A. Initiation

B. Promotion

C. Progression

D. Angiogenesis

III. Cancer Epidemiology

IV. Dietary guidelines for cancer prevention

Chapter 5 - Natural Toxins in Animal Foodstuffs

I. Natural Toxins in Land Animal Foodstuffs

A. Bile Acids

B. Vitamin A

II. Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) and Prions

III. Natural Toxins in Marine Foodstuffs

A. Tetrodotoxin - Puffer fish poison

B. Saxitoxin – Paralytic Shellfish Poison

C. Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning

D. Ciguatera E. NSP - Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning

F. Amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP)

G. Voltage gated Na+ channels

H. Scombroid Fish Poisoning

Chapter 6 - Toxic phytochemicals

I. Phytotoxins

A. Goitrogens

B. Environmental Antithyroid Substances

II. Favism

III. Neurolathyrism

IV. Cyanogenic glycosides

V. Lectins

VI. Vasoactive Amines

VII. Caffeine

VIII. Curare

IX. Strychnine

X. Atropine

A. Phytoalexins

B. Herb-Drug Interactions

Chapter 7 - Toxins from Fungi

I. Mycotoxins

A. Ergotism

B. Alimentary Toxic Aleukia

C. Fumonisins

D. Aflatoxin

E. Other mycotoxicoses

II. Mushrooms

Chapter 8 - Food Contaminants from Industrial Wastes

I. Chlorinated Hydrocarbons

A. Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs)

B. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs)

II. Heavy Metals

A. Arsenic

B. Lead

C. Mercury

D. Cadmium


Chapter 9 - Pesticide Residues in Foods

I. What is a pesticide?

II. History

III. Pesticides in the Food Chain

IV. Regulations

V. Insecticides


B. Chlorinated Cyclodiene Insecticides

C. Organophosphate Insecticides

D. Carbamate Insecticides

VI. Herbicides

A. Chlorophenoxy Acid Esters

VII. Naturally Occurring Pesticides

Chapter 10 - Food Additives

I. Regulations

II. Preservatives

A. Benzoic Acid

B. Sorbic Acid and Potassium Sorbate

C. Hydrogen Peroxide

D. AF-2 [2-(-Furyl)-3-(5-nitro-2-furyl)acrylamide]

III. Antioxidants

A. L-Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C)

B. dl-a-Tocopherol (Vitamin E)

C. Propyl Gallate

D. Butylated Hydroxyanisol and Butylated Hydroxytoluene

IV. Sweeteners

A. Saccharin and Sodium Saccharin

B. Sodium Cyclamate

V. Coloring Agents

A. Amaranth (FDamp;C Red No.2)

B. Tartrazine (FDamp;C Yellow No. 4)

VI. Flavoring Agents

A. Methyl Anthranilate

B. Safrole (1-Allyl-3,4-Methylenedioxybenzene)

C. Diacetyl (2,3-butane dione)

VII. Flavor Enhancers

Chapter 11 - Toxicants Formed During Food Processing

I. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)

A. Occurrence

B. Benzo[a]pyrene (BP)

II. Maillard Reaction Products

III. Polycyclic Aromatic Amines (PAA)

A. Occurrence

B. Toxicity

IV. N-Nitrosamines

A. Precursors

B. Occurrence in Various Foods

C. Toxicity

D. Mode of Toxic Action

E. General Considerations

V. Acrylamide

A. Formation Mechanisms of Acrylamide in Foods

B. Toxicity

C. Mode of Action

D. General Considerations

VI. Food Irradiation

Chapter 12 - Food Factors and Health

I. Probiotcs, Prebiotics, and Synbiotics

A. Probiotics

B. Prebiotics

C. Synbiotics

II. Antioxidants

A. The Role of Oxygen in Living Organisms

B. In vivo Balance between Oxidants and Antioxidants

C. Lipid Peroxidation

D. Toxicity of RCCs

III. Functional Components Found in Food for Disease Prevention


The rapidly expanding field of food safety includes many new developments in the understanding of the entire range of toxic compounds found in foods -- whether naturally occurring or having been introduced by industry or food processing methods. This 2e of Introduction to Food Toxicology explores these developments while continuing to provide a core understanding of the basic principles of food toxicology.

Key Features

  • Solid-phase extraction, immunoassay, and LC/MS
  • Mechanisms of regulation of xenobiotic activation and deactivation
  • Developments in the modes of action and impact of natural toxins in food plants
  • A comprehensive review of the issues surrounding dioxins
  • The function of antioxidants and their toxicological aspects
  • Acrylamide, its occurrence, toxicity and regulation on its use
  • Phytochemicals, their beneficial effects and the modes of action of this growing group of nutraceuticals from food plants
  • Diet and drug interactions


Professionals and those in academic institutions. Upper level undergraduate students in Food Toxicology; Foodborne Hazards; Nutritional Toxicology and Food Safety;Public Health. Entry level food safety and industry professionals. Those seeking continuing education credits and independent readers as well. Educated consumer readers interested in food sources and public health issues. Course names: Food Toxicology; Foodborne Hazards; Nutritional Toxicology and Food Safety; Food Toxicology and Safety; Public Health


No. of pages:
© Academic Press 2009
24th March 2009
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
Hardcover ISBN:

Ratings and Reviews

About the Authors

Takayuki Shibamoto

Affiliations and Expertise

University of California, Davis, USA

Leonard Bjeldanes

Affiliations and Expertise

University of California, Berkeley, USA