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Introduction to Fluoropolymers - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9781455774425, 9781455775514

Introduction to Fluoropolymers

1st Edition

Materials, Technology and Applications

Author: Sina Ebnesajjad
eBook ISBN: 9781455775514
Hardcover ISBN: 9781455774425
Imprint: William Andrew
Published Date: 11th May 2013
Page Count: 344
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Table of Contents

Series Page


1. Fluorine, Fluorocarbons, and Fluoropolymers in Human Life: A Day with the Smiths


2. Fluorine and Fluorocarbons

2.1 Uniqueness of Fluorine

2.2 Fluorine Characteristics


3. Discovery and History of Fluoropolymers

3.1 Coming of Age of Polymer Science

3.2 Roy Plunkett’s Story

3.3 Commercialization of PTFE

3.4 What are Fluoropolymers?

3.5 Fundamental Properties of Fluoropolymers

3.6 Developmental History of Fluoropolymers

3.7 Fluoropolymer Consumption and Use

3.8 Examples of Uses of Fluoropolymers


Further Reading

4. History of Expanded PTFE and W.L. Gore and Associates

4.1 Early History of W.L. Gore and Associates

4.2 Discovery of Expanded PTFE

4.3 Who Invented ePTFE?

4.4 Other ePTFE Players


5. Polyvinyl Fluoride: The First Durable Replacement for Paint

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Polyvinyl Fluoride


6. Introduction to Fluoropolymers

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Fluoropolymer Classification

6.3 Fluoropolymer Products

6.4 Monomer Synthesis

6.5 Monomer Properties

6.6 Polymerization and Finishing

6.7 Structure Property Relationship

6.8 Polymer Properties

6.9 Fabrication Techniques

6.10 Applications

6.11 Safety

6.12 Ammonium Perfluorooctanoate (APFO, also C8)

6.13 Economy

6.14 Summary



7. Manufacturing Polytetrafluoroethylene

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Tetrafluoroethylene (TFE) Preparation

7.3 Properties of Tetrafluoroethylene

7.4 Polymerization of Tetrafluoroethylene

7.5 Tetrafluoroethylene Polymers

7.6 Polymerization Mechanism

7.7 Suspension Polymerization of Tetrafluoroethylene

7.8 Emulsion Polymerization of Tetrafluoroethylene

7.9 Characterization of Polytetrafluoroethylene


8. Fluorinated Additives

8.1 Polymeric Fluorinated Additives

8.2 Perfluoropolyether (PFPE) Additives

8.3 PTFE Modified Waxes

8.4 Fluorinated Graphite

8.5 Fluorination


9. Introduction to Vinylidene Fluoride Polymers

9.1 Synthesis of Vinylidene Fluoride

9.2 Preparation of Vinylidene Fluoride Polymers

9.3 Characterization of Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF)

9.4 Properties of Polyvinylidene Fluoride

9.5 Processing Polyvinylidene Fluoride

9.6 Applications


Chapter 10. Fluoroelastomers

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Fluorocarbon Elastomers

10.3 Fluorosilicone Elastomers

10.4 Fluorinated Thermoplastic Elastomers

10.5 Phosphazenes

10.6 Safety, Hygiene, and Disposal

10.7 New Developments and Current Trends

Acronyms and Abbreviations

Glossary of Terms



11. Fluorinated Coatings: Technology, History, and Applications

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Fluoropolymers Used in Coatings

11.3 Fluorocoating Compositions

11.4 Application of Fluorocoatings

11.5 Commercial Fluorocoating Producers

11.6 A Historical Chronology of Fluoropolymer Finish Technology

11.7 Food Contact

11.8 Commercial Applications of Fluorocoatings

11.9 Summary


12. Fluorinated Ionomers: History, Properties, and Applications

12.1 History

12.2 Composition

12.3 Properties


13. Safety, Disposal, and Recycling of Fluoropolymers

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Toxicology of Fluoropolymers

13.3 Thermal Properties of Fluoropolymers

13.4 Emission During Processing

13.5 Safety Measures

13.6 Food Contact and Medical Applications

13.7 Fluoropolymer Scrap and Recycling

13.8 Environmental Protection and Disposal Methods




Introduction to Fluoropolymers demystifies fluoropolymers for a wide audience of designers, engineers, sales staff and managers. This important group of high-performance polymers has applications across a wide range of market sectors, including automotive, aerospace, medical devices, high performance apparel, oil & gas, renewable energy / solar photovoltaics, electronics / semiconductor, pharmaceuticals, and chemical processing.

Dr. Ebnesajjad covers the history and applications of a wide variety of materials, including expanded polytetrafluoroethylene, polyvinyl fluoride, vinylidene fluoride polymers and fluoroelastomers, just to name a few. Properties and applications are illustrated by real-world examples as diverse as waterproof clothing, vascular grafts and coatings for aircraft interiors. The different applications of fluoropolymers show the benefits of a group of materials that are highly water-repellant and flame-retardant, with unrivalled lubrication properties and a high level of biocompatibility. Health and safety and environmental aspects are also covered throughout the book.

Key Features

  • Demystifies fluoropolymers for a broad audience of engineers in areas such as product design and manufacturing, as well as for non-engineers such as technical sales and management professionals
  • Explains the potential of fluoropolymers for a wide range of applications across sectors such as aerospace, energy and medical devices
  • Ideal for both recently qualified engineers and engineers with limited experience of fluoropolymers


Engineers, Scientists, Product Designers, Manufacturing, Technical Sales engaged in, or evaluating applications of Fluoropolymers, across sectors including: automotive, aerospace, medical devices, high performance apparel, oil & gas, renewable energy / solar photovoltaics, electronics / semiconductor, pharmaceuticals, chemical


No. of pages:
© William Andrew 2013
11th May 2013
William Andrew
eBook ISBN:
Hardcover ISBN:


"Until now, says fluoride consultant Ebnesajjad, the only sources of information about fluoropolymers and fluorocarbons have been snippets here and there in studies of other matters, and brochures from commercial manufacturers…Therefore, with occasional help from colleagues, he has compiled information from a wide range of sources to provide an introductory reference."--Reference & Research Book News, October 2013

Ratings and Reviews

About the Author

Sina Ebnesajjad

Sina Ebnesajjad

Sina Ebnesajjad is the series editor of Plastics Design Library (PDL) published in the William Andrew imprint of Elsevier. This Series is a unique series, comprising technology and applications handbooks, data books and practical guides tailored to the needs of practitioners. Sina was the editor-in-chief of William Andrew Publishing from 2005 to 2007, which was acquired by Elsevier in 2009.

He retired as a Senior Technology Associate in 2005 from the DuPont fluoropolymers after nearly 24 years of service. Sina founded of FluoroConsultants Group, LLC in 2006 where he continues to work. Sina earned his Bachelor of Science from the School of Engineering of the University of Tehran in 1976, Master of Science and PhD from the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, all in Chemical Engineering.

He is author, editor and co-author of fifteen technical and data books including five handbooks on fluoropolymers technology and applications. He is author and co-author of three books in surface preparation and adhesion of materials, two of which are in their second editions. Sina has been involved with technical writing and publishing since 1974.

His experiences include fluoropolymer technologies (polytetrafluoroethylene and its copolymers) including polymerization, finishing, fabrication, product development, failure analysis, market development and technical service. Sina holds six patents.

Affiliations and Expertise

Fluoroconsultants Group, Chadds Ford, PA, USA