Introduction to Cyber-Warfare

Introduction to Cyber-Warfare

A Multidisciplinary Approach

1st Edition - May 16, 2013

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  • Authors: Paulo Shakarian, Jana Shakarian, Andrew Ruef
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780124078147
  • eBook ISBN: 9780124079267

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Description

Introduction to Cyber-Warfare: A Multidisciplinary Approach, written by experts on the front lines, gives you an insider's look into the world of cyber-warfare through the use of recent case studies. The book examines the issues related to cyber warfare not only from a computer science perspective but from military, sociological, and scientific perspectives as well. You'll learn how cyber-warfare has been performed in the past as well as why various actors rely on this new means of warfare and what steps can be taken to prevent it.

Key Features

  • Provides a multi-disciplinary approach to cyber-warfare, analyzing the information technology, military, policy, social, and scientific issues that are in play
  • Presents detailed case studies of cyber-attack including inter-state cyber-conflict (Russia-Estonia), cyber-attack as an element of an information operations strategy (Israel-Hezbollah,) and cyber-attack as a tool against dissidents within a state (Russia, Iran)
  • Explores cyber-attack conducted by large, powerful, non-state hacking organizations such as Anonymous and LulzSec
  • Covers cyber-attacks directed against infrastructure, such as water treatment plants and power-grids, with a detailed account of Stuxent

Readership

Information security professionals, system administrators. Security managers, security analysts. defense analysts, defense personnel, U.S Cybercom staff

Table of Contents

  • Preface

    Foreword

    Introduction

    References

    Biography

    Chapter 1. Cyber Warfare: Here and Now

    Information in this Chapter

    What Is Cyber War?

    Is Cyber War a Credible Threat?

    Attribution, Deception, and Intelligence

    Information Assurance

    References

    I: Cyber Attack

    Part I Cyber Attack

    Chapter 2. Political Cyber Attack Comes of Age in 2007

    Information in this Chapter

    Reliance on Information as a Vulnerability

    Rudimentary but Effective: Denial of Service

    Leaving Unwanted Messages: Web Site Defacement

    Tools for Denial of Service

    The Difficulty of Assigning Blame: Why Attribution Is Tough in a DDoS Attack

    Estonia Is Hit by Cyber Attacks

    General Response to DDoS

    Summary

    Suggested Further Reading

    References

    Chapter 3. How Cyber Attacks Augmented Russian Military Operations

    Information in This Chapter

    The 2008 Russian Cyber Campaign Against Georgia

    What Is Interesting About the Russian Cyber Campaign

    Preparing for a Cyber-Capable Adversary

    Summary

    Suggested Further Reading

    References

    Chapter 4. When Who Tells the Best Story Wins: Cyber and Information Operations in the Middle East

    Information in this Chapter

    Hijacking Noncombatant Civilian IP Addresses to Help the War Effort: The Israel-Hezbollah “July War” of 2006

    Civilians in the Cyber Melee: Operation Cast Lead

    Summary

    Suggested Further Reading

    References

    Chapter 5. Limiting Free Speech on the Internet: Cyber Attack Against Internal Dissidents in Iran and Russia

    Information in This Chapter

    DDoS as a Censorship Tool: Why Dissident Groups Are Inherently Vulnerable to Cyber Attacks

    Silencing Novaya Gazeta and Other Russian Dissidents

    Iran—How the 2009 Elections Led to Aggressive Cyber Operations

    Summary

    References

    Chapter 6. Cyber Attacks by Nonstate Hacking Groups: The Case of Anonymous and Its Affiliates

    Information in This Chapter

    “Chaotic” Beginnings: The Chaos Computer Club, CCC

    The Roots of the Anon—4chan, 7chan, and Other Message Boards

    How We Are Influenced by 4chan: Memes

    AnonymousOn Image, Structure, and Motivation

    AnonymousExternal Connections and Spin Offs

    Your Security Is a Joke: LulzSec

    Anonymous’ Modus Operandi

    Targeting Governments, Corporations, and Individuals: Notable Hacks on Anonymous

    Software for the Legion: Anonymous Products

    Summary

    Suggested Further Reading

    References

    II: Cyber Espionage and Exploitation

    Part II Cyber Espionage and Exploitation

    Chapter 7. Enter the Dragon: Why Cyber Espionage Against Militaries, Dissidents, and Nondefense Corporations Is a Key Component of Chinese Cyber Strategy

    Information in This Chapter

    Introduction

    Why Cyber Espionage Is Important to China: A Look at Chinese Cyber Doctrine

    Leveraging Resources Beyond the Military: The Cyber Warriors of China

    Stealing Information from the U.S. Industrial-Military Complex: Titan Rain

    Cyber War Against the Corporate World: A Case Study of Cyber Intrusion Attributed to China

    Monitoring Dissidents: Gh0stNet

    Using Legitimate Web Sites for Data Exfiltration: The Shadow Network

    Cyber War Through Intellectual Property Theft: Operation Aurora

    An Example of the Current State of the Art: Sykipot

    Summary

    Suggested Further Reading

    References

    Chapter 8. Duqu, Flame, Gauss, the Next Generation of Cyber Exploitation

    Information in This Chapter

    Introduction

    Kernel Mode Rootkits

    Vulnerabilities in the Operating System

    Stolen Keying Material

    Commonalities Between Stuxnet and Duqu

    Information-Stealing Trojans

    The Geography of Duqu

    TDL3 and Other Malware

    Object-Oriented Malware: Stuxnet, Duqu, Flame, and Gauss

    Summary

    Suggested Further Reading

    References

    Chapter 9. Losing Trust in Your Friends: Social Network Exploitation

    Information in This Chapter

    Introduction

    Do You Really Know All Your LinkedIn Connections? Imposters in Social Networks

    Designing Common Knowledge: Influencing a Social Network

    Summary

    Suggested Further Reading

    References

    Chapter 10. How Iraqi Insurgents Watched U.S. Predator Video—Information Theft on the Tactical Battlefield

    Information in This Chapter

    Introduction

    The Predator UAV

    Hacking the Predator Feed

    Summary

    Suggested Further Reading

    References

    III: Cyber Operations for Infrastructure Attack

    Part III Cyber Operations for Infrastructure Attack

    Chapter 11. Cyber Warfare Against Industry

    Information in This Chapter

    Introduction

    Industrial Control Systems: Critical Infrastructure for Modern Nations

    Information Technology vs. Industrial Control Systems: Why Traditional Infosec Practices May Not Apply

    How Real-World Dependencies Can Magnify an Attack: Infrastructure Attacks and Network Topology

    How a Cyber Attack Led to Water Contamination: The Maroochy Water Breach

    Summary

    Suggested Further Reading

    References

    Chapter 12. Can Cyber Warfare Leave a Nation in the Dark? Cyber Attacks Against Electrical Infrastructure

    Information in This Chapter

    Introduction

    Cyber Attacks Directed Against Power Grids

    Destroying a Generator with a Cyber Attack: The Aurora Test

    Taking the Power Grid Offline with Minimal Effort: Attacks Leveraging Network Topology

    Summary

    Suggested Further Reading

    References

    Chapter 13. Attacking Iranian Nuclear Facilities: Stuxnet

    Information in This Chapter

    Introduction

    The Alleged Target: The Natanz Fuel Enrichment Facility

    How Stuxnet Targets Industrial Control Systems

    Stuxnet Successfully Targets the Natanz Fuel Enrichment Plant

    Stuxnet Is a Significant Advancement in Malware

    Stuxnet Invalidates Several Security Assumptions

    Implications for the Future

    Summary

    Suggested Further Reading

    References

    Conclusion and the Future of Cyber Warfare

    References

    Appendix I. Chapter 6: LulzSec Hacktivities

    References

    Appendix II. Chapter 6: Anonymous Timeline

    References

    Glossary

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 336
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Syngress 2013
  • Published: May 16, 2013
  • Imprint: Syngress
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780124078147
  • eBook ISBN: 9780124079267

About the Authors

Paulo Shakarian

Paulo Shakarian
Paulo Shakarian, Ph.D. is a Major in the U.S. Army and an Assistant Professor of Computer Science at the U.S. Military Academy (West Point) teaching classes on computer science and information technology as wells as conducting research on cyber-security, social networks, and artificial intelligence. He has written over twenty papers published in scientific and military journals. Relating to cyber-warfare, he has written the paper “Stuxnet: Cyberwar Revolution in Military Affairs” published in Small Wars Journal and “The 2008 Russian Cyber-Campaign Against Georgia” published in Military Review. His scientific research has also been well received, featured in major news media such including The Economist and Nature. Previously, he has authored Geospatial Abduction: Principles and Practice published by Springer. Paulo holds a Ph.D. and M.S. in computer science from the University of Maryland, College Park, a B.S. in computer science from West Point, and a Depth of Study in Information Assurance also from West Point. Paulo has served two combat tours in Operation Iraqi Freedom. His military awards include the Bronze Star, Meritorious Service Medal, Army Commendation Medal with Valor Device, and Combat Action Badge. Paulo’s website is: http://shakarian.net/paulo.

Jana Shakarian

Jana Shakarian is a Research Fellow at the West Point Network Science Center conducting sociological research in support of various DoD-sponsored projects. Previously, Jana has worked as a research assistant at Laboratory for Computational Cultural Dynamics at the University of Maryland where she extensively studied terrorist groups in south-east Asia in addition to other research initiatives at the intersection of social and computational science applied to military and security problems. She has written numerous papers in addition to co-authoring the book Computational Analysis of Terrorist Groups: Lashkar-e-Tabia, to be published by Springer in the near future. Jana holds an M.A. in cultural and social anthropology and sociology from the Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz where her thesis was on “new war” theory. Jana’s website is: http://shakarian.net/jana.

Andrew Ruef

Andrew Ruef is a Senior Systems Engineer at the firm Trail of Bits (New York, NY) where he conducts information security analysis. Andrew has nearly a decade of industry experience in computer network security and software engineering, working on various projects including reverse-engineering of malware, analysis of computer network traffic for security purposes, system administration, and development of secure software products. Andrew has also written numerous white papers on information security and has spoken at various conferences such including a recent conference talk at the Dagstuhl computer research center in Germany. Currently, Andrew is working toward his B.S. in Computer Science at the University of Maryland, College Park. A sampling of some of Andrew’s technical work can be found here: http://www.kyrus-tech.com/tag/andrew-ruef/.

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