Introduction to Chemistry - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780127038308, 9780323145053

Introduction to Chemistry

1st Edition

Authors: Amos Turk
eBook ISBN: 9780323145053
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1968
Page Count: 591
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Description

Introduction to Chemistry is a 26-chapter introductory textbook in general chemistry.
This book deals first with the atoms and the arithmetic and energetics of their combination into molecules. The subsequent chapters consider the nature of the interactions among atoms or the so-called chemical bonding. This topic is followed by discussions on the nature of intermolecular forces and the states of matter. This text further explores the statistics and dynamics of chemistry, including the study of equilibrium and kinetics. Other chapters cover the aspects of ionic equilibrium, acids and bases, and galvanic cells. The concluding chapters focus on a descriptive study of chemistry, such as the representative and transition elements, organic and nuclear chemistry, metals, polymers, and biochemistry.
Teachers and undergraduate chemistry students will find this book of great value.

Table of Contents


Preface

Introduction

1.1 General and Historical

1.2 Definitions of Some Chemical Terms

1.3 The Purity of Compounds

1.4 Chemical Symbols, Formulas, and Equations

2 Electronic Structures of Atoms

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Quantization of Electricity

2.3 The Positive Ions (Positive Rays)

2.4 The Rutherford-Bohr Nuclear Theory of the Atom

2.5 The Nature of Light

2.6 Spectra of Elements

2.7 Quantization of the Energy of an Electron Associated with a Nucleus

2.8 Modification of the Bohr Theory

2.9 The Electron—How Shall We Think About It?

2.10 The Distribution of Electrons in Quantum Levels

2.11 The Energies of the Quantum Levels

2.12 Electron Spin

2.13 Aufbau

2.14 What Do The Quantum Numbers Represent?

2.15 Representations of the Shapes of Atomic Orbitals

2.16 Paramagnetism

3 Chemical Periodicity

3.1 Formulas and Valence

3.2 Nomenclature

3.3 Chemical Periodicity before Mendeleev

3.4 Mendeleev; Meyer

3.5 The Periodic Law and the Periodic Table. Types of Elements

3.6 The Periodicity of Chemical Properties

3.7 Atomic Structure and Periodic Properties of Atoms

4 Atomic and Molecular Weights. The Mole

4.1 The Law of Conservation of Matter

4.2 The Law of Definite Proportions

4.3 The Atomic Theory

4.4 The Law of Combining Volumes; The Avogadro Hypothesis

4.5 Approximate Molecular Weights of Gases. The Mole

4.6 Atomic Weights from Molecular Weights; The Cannizzaro Method

4.7 Molecular Formulas

4.8 Empirical Formulas; Ionic Solids

4.9 Mass Spectroscopy; Isotopes; Accurate Atomic Weights

5 Stoichiometry—The Arithmetic of Chemistry

5.1 Chemical Equations

5.2 Quantitative information from Chemical Equations

5.3 Conversion and Selectivity (Yield)

6 The First Law of Thermodynamics; Thermochemistry

6.1 Conservation of Energy

6.2 The First Law of Thermodynamics

6.3 Thermochemistry

6.4 Hess’s Law

6.5 Bond Dissociation Energy

6.6 The Interconvertibility of Matter and Energy

7 Types of Chemical Bonds

7.1 Introduction

7.2 What Type of Attractive Forces Hold Atoms Together in Chemical Bonds?

7.3 Lewis Symbols

7.4 The Ionic Bond

7.5 The Covalent Bond

7.6 The Multiple Bonds

7.7 Properties of Ionic and Covalent Compounds

7.8 Polar Covalent Bonds; Electronegativity

7.9 Exceptions to the Octet Rule

7.10 Formal Charge and Oxidation Number

7.11 Periodicity of Chemical Bonding

8 The Covalent Bond

8.1 The Molecular Orbital

8.2 Sigma (σ) Bonds and P1 (π) Bonds

8.3 Binary Covalent Molecules and Ions

8.4 Hybridization of Atomic Orbitals

8.5 Multiply Bonded Molecules

8.6 Hybrid Orbital Number

8.7 Relative Energy Levels of the s-p Type of Hybrid Orbital

8.8 Resonance and Delocalized p Electrons

9 The Shapes and Symmetry of Molecules

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Hybridization of Orbitals of Atoms with more than an Octet of Valence Electrons

9.3 Principal Factors Determining Molecular Shape

9.4 Principal Effect of a Lone Pair of Electrons

9.5 Molecules whose Central Atoms use Unhybridized p Orbitals

9.6 Shapes of Multiple-Bonded Molecules

9.7 Molecular Symmetry

9.8 Molecular Dissymmetry

10 Intermolecular Forces

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Dipole-Dipole Interaction

10.3 Ion-Dipole Attractions

10.4 Hydrogen Bonding

10.5 London Forces

10.6 London Forces and Molecular Shape

11 Gases

11.1 The States of Aggregation of Molecules in Matter

11.2 The Properties of Gases

11.3 Boyle’s Law

11.4 The Law of Charles and Gay-Lussac; Absolute Temperature

11.5 Avogadro’s Law

11.6 The Gas Law; The Mole; Gas Densities

11.7 Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures

11.8 The Pressure of a Gas Confined by a Liquid

11.9 Gas Volume Corrections in Stoichiometry

11.10 Ideal Gases. The Kinetic Molecular Hypothesis

11.11 Deviations from Ideal Behavior

12 Aggregated States of Matter

12.1 Crystalline Solids; Methods of investigation

12.2 The Space Lattice; The Unit Cell

12.3 The Tetrahedron; The Octahedron

12.4 Liquids; Glasses

12.5 Changes of State

12.6 Spontaneous Change; Entropy

12.7 Liquid-Gas Interconversion; Vapor Pressure

12.8 Critical Constants

12.9 Boiling, Melting, and Freezing Points

12.10 Colloids; Adsorbents

13 Solutions

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Liquid Solutions

13.3 Saturation: Gases in Liquids

13.4 Saturation: Solids in Liquids or Liquids in Liquids

13.5 Dependence of Solubility on Temperature

13.6 Supersaturation

13.7 Solubility and Molecular Structure

13.8 Detergency

13.9 Solid Solutions

13.10 Measures of Composition for Solutions

13.11 Vapor Pressures of Solutions; Raoult’s Law

13.12 Vapor Pressure Depression

13.13 Boiling-Point Elevation and Freezing-Point Depression

13.14 Determination of Molecular Weights

14 Chemical Equilibrium

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Equilibrium in Gases; The Equilibrium Constant

14.3 Change of K with Form of Equation

14.4 Combination of Equilibria

14.5 Principle of Le Chatelier

14.6 Heterogeneous Equilibrium

14.7 Equilibrium in Solutions

14.8 Equilibrium Calculations

15 Ionic Solutions

15.1 Electrical Conductance

15.2 Colligative Properties of Solutions of Electrolytes

15.3 Ionic Conduction

15.4 Solvation of Ions

15.5 Covalent Electrolytes

15.6 Net Ionic Equations

15.7 Balancing Oxidation-Reduction Equations by the Ion-Electron Method

15.8 Electrode Processes

15.9 Electrolysis of Fused Salts

15.10 Faraday’s Laws

15.11 Strong Electrolytes

15.12 Conductances of individual Ions

15.13 Weak Electrolytes

15.14 Degree of Dissociation

16 Galvanic Cells and the Driving Force of Chemical Reactions

16.1 Introduction

16.2 Electricity from a Chemical Reaction

16.3 A Galvanic Cell with One Solution

16.4 Electrical Work; Electromotive Force

16.5 Measurement of Electromotive Force

16.6 Free Energy and Entropy

16.7 Salt Bridges; Conventional Notation for Cells

16.8 The Effect of Concentration on EMF; Nernst Equation

16.9 Half-Cell Potentials; The Hydrogen Half-Cell

16.10 EMF, K, and ∆g

16.11 Predicting the Direction of a Reaction

16.12 Strengths of Oxidizing and Reducing Agents

16.13 Some Practical Cells

16.14 Corrosion

17 Acids and Bases

17.1 Early Definitions

17.2 Brönsted-Lowry Concept of Acid-Base Reactions

17.3 Amproterism; Autoprotolysis (Self-Ionization)

17.4 Types of Protolytic Reaction

17.5 Lewis Acid-Base Concept

17.6 Some Examples of Lewis Acids

17.7 Industrial Applications of Acid-Base Reactions

17.8 Preparation of Acids

18 Calculations of Ionic Equilibrium

18.1 The Ionization of Water

18.2 pH and pOH

18.3 Acidic, Basic, and Neutral Solutions

18.4 Ionization of Weak Acids

18.5 Ionization of Weak Bases

18.6 Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs

18.7 Polyprotic Acids

18.8 Weak Acid (or Base) in the Presence of Strong Acid (or Base)

18.9 Buffer Solutions

18.10 Indicators and Titration

18.11 Solubility Product

18.12 Effect of ph on Solubility

18.13 Complex Ions

19 Chemical Kinetics

19.1 Introduction

19.2 Conditions Affecting Reaction Rates

19.3 Theory of Reaction Rates

19.4 Mechanism of Reaction from Rate Equation

19.5 Chain Mechanism

20 The Chemistry of the Representative Elements

20.1 Introduction

20.2 Allotropy and Periodicity

20.3 Reactivity of Hydrides

20.4 The Periodicity of Properties of the Oxides

20.5 Structure of Oxyanions

20.6 The Chemistry of Some Common Oxides and Oxyanions

20.7 Peroxides

20.8 Periodicity of Properties of the Halides; Differences in Oxidation States

20.9 Properties of Sulfides

20.10 Compounds of Noble Gases

21 The Chemistry of the Transition Elements

21.1 Definition; Groups and Triads

21.2 Metallic Behavior

21.3 Oxidation States and Bonding

21.4 Color

21.5 Interstitial Compounds

21.6 Oxides and Oxyions

21.7 Complex Formation

21.8 Coordination Number or Ligancy

21.9 Werner’s Coordination Theory

21.10 Coordination Number and Shape

21.11 Bonding in Transition Metal Complexes

21.12 Crystal Field Theory

21.13 Carbonyl Complexes

21.14 Geometrical Isomerism

21.15 Stability of Complex Tons

22 Organic Chemistry

22.1 What Is Organic Chemistry?

22.2 The Bonding of Carbon

22.3 Alkane Hydrocarbons; Isomerism and Homology

22.4 The Shapes of Alkane Molecules. Conformation

22.5 Chemical Properties of the Alkanes

22.6 Alkenes and Alkynes; Unsaturated Hydrocarbons; Geometrical Isomerism

22.7 Cycloalkanes

22.8 Dienes; Benzene and Aromatic Compounds

22.9 Functional Group Derivatives

22.10 Reactions of Covalent Bonds

22.11 Decomposition

22.12 Displacement or Substitution Reactions

22.13 Rearrangements

23 Metals and Metallurgy

23.1 The Properties of Metals

23.2 The Metallic Bond; The Band Theory of Metals

23.3 Metallic Properties in Terms of the Band Theory

23.4 Insulators and Semiconductors

23.5 Sources of Metals

23.6 The Winning of Metals from Ores: General Considerations

23.7 Preliminary Physical Treatment

23.8 Physical Concentration

23.9 Chemical Leaching

23.10 Roasting

23.11 Reduction

23.12 Electrometallurgy

23.13 Refining; Electrolytic Methods

23.14 Refining; Nonelectrolytic Methods

24 Nuclear Chemistry

24.1 Radioactivity

24.2 Nuclear Energy

24.3 The Stability of Nuclei

24.4 Nuclear Reactions

24.5 Rate of Radioactive Decay Processes; Half-Life

24.6 Radiochemistry

25 Polymers

25.1 Background and Definitions

25.2 The Decomposition of Natural High Polymers; Monomeric Units (MERS)

25.3 The Production of Synthetic High Polymers; C-Polymerization

25.4 A-Polymerization

25.5 The Orientation of Monomeric Units in Macromolecules

25.6 Crystallinity of Polymers

25.7 Ionic Polymers

25.8 Properties of Polymers

26 Biochemistry

26.1 Introduction

26.2 The Hole of the Cell

26.3 Biochemicals

26.4 Biochemical Processes in the Cell

26.5 Epilogue

Appendix 1: Definitions and Review of Physical Concepts

Appendix 2: Review of Some Mathematical Operations

Appendix 3: Nomenclature

Appendix 4: Fundamental Constants

Appendix 5: Vapor Pressure of Water

Appendix 6: Abbreviations

Appendix 7: Logarithms—Natural and Common

Index




Details

No. of pages:
591
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1968
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780323145053

About the Author

Amos Turk