Introduction to Chemistry

Introduction to Chemistry

1st Edition - January 1, 1968

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  • Author: Amos Turk
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323145053

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Introduction to Chemistry is a 26-chapter introductory textbook in general chemistry. This book deals first with the atoms and the arithmetic and energetics of their combination into molecules. The subsequent chapters consider the nature of the interactions among atoms or the so-called chemical bonding. This topic is followed by discussions on the nature of intermolecular forces and the states of matter. This text further explores the statistics and dynamics of chemistry, including the study of equilibrium and kinetics. Other chapters cover the aspects of ionic equilibrium, acids and bases, and galvanic cells. The concluding chapters focus on a descriptive study of chemistry, such as the representative and transition elements, organic and nuclear chemistry, metals, polymers, and biochemistry. Teachers and undergraduate chemistry students will find this book of great value.

Table of Contents

  • Preface


    1.1 General and Historical

    1.2 Definitions of Some Chemical Terms

    1.3 The Purity of Compounds

    1.4 Chemical Symbols, Formulas, and Equations

    2 Electronic Structures of Atoms

    2.1 Introduction

    2.2 Quantization of Electricity

    2.3 The Positive Ions (Positive Rays)

    2.4 The Rutherford-Bohr Nuclear Theory of the Atom

    2.5 The Nature of Light

    2.6 Spectra of Elements

    2.7 Quantization of the Energy of an Electron Associated with a Nucleus

    2.8 Modification of the Bohr Theory

    2.9 The Electron—How Shall We Think About It?

    2.10 The Distribution of Electrons in Quantum Levels

    2.11 The Energies of the Quantum Levels

    2.12 Electron Spin

    2.13 Aufbau

    2.14 What Do The Quantum Numbers Represent?

    2.15 Representations of the Shapes of Atomic Orbitals

    2.16 Paramagnetism

    3 Chemical Periodicity

    3.1 Formulas and Valence

    3.2 Nomenclature

    3.3 Chemical Periodicity before Mendeleev

    3.4 Mendeleev; Meyer

    3.5 The Periodic Law and the Periodic Table. Types of Elements

    3.6 The Periodicity of Chemical Properties

    3.7 Atomic Structure and Periodic Properties of Atoms

    4 Atomic and Molecular Weights. The Mole

    4.1 The Law of Conservation of Matter

    4.2 The Law of Definite Proportions

    4.3 The Atomic Theory

    4.4 The Law of Combining Volumes; The Avogadro Hypothesis

    4.5 Approximate Molecular Weights of Gases. The Mole

    4.6 Atomic Weights from Molecular Weights; The Cannizzaro Method

    4.7 Molecular Formulas

    4.8 Empirical Formulas; Ionic Solids

    4.9 Mass Spectroscopy; Isotopes; Accurate Atomic Weights

    5 Stoichiometry—The Arithmetic of Chemistry

    5.1 Chemical Equations

    5.2 Quantitative information from Chemical Equations

    5.3 Conversion and Selectivity (Yield)

    6 The First Law of Thermodynamics; Thermochemistry

    6.1 Conservation of Energy

    6.2 The First Law of Thermodynamics

    6.3 Thermochemistry

    6.4 Hess’s Law

    6.5 Bond Dissociation Energy

    6.6 The Interconvertibility of Matter and Energy

    7 Types of Chemical Bonds

    7.1 Introduction

    7.2 What Type of Attractive Forces Hold Atoms Together in Chemical Bonds?

    7.3 Lewis Symbols

    7.4 The Ionic Bond

    7.5 The Covalent Bond

    7.6 The Multiple Bonds

    7.7 Properties of Ionic and Covalent Compounds

    7.8 Polar Covalent Bonds; Electronegativity

    7.9 Exceptions to the Octet Rule

    7.10 Formal Charge and Oxidation Number

    7.11 Periodicity of Chemical Bonding

    8 The Covalent Bond

    8.1 The Molecular Orbital

    8.2 Sigma (σ) Bonds and P1 (π) Bonds

    8.3 Binary Covalent Molecules and Ions

    8.4 Hybridization of Atomic Orbitals

    8.5 Multiply Bonded Molecules

    8.6 Hybrid Orbital Number

    8.7 Relative Energy Levels of the s-p Type of Hybrid Orbital

    8.8 Resonance and Delocalized p Electrons

    9 The Shapes and Symmetry of Molecules

    9.1 Introduction

    9.2 Hybridization of Orbitals of Atoms with more than an Octet of Valence Electrons

    9.3 Principal Factors Determining Molecular Shape

    9.4 Principal Effect of a Lone Pair of Electrons

    9.5 Molecules whose Central Atoms use Unhybridized p Orbitals

    9.6 Shapes of Multiple-Bonded Molecules

    9.7 Molecular Symmetry

    9.8 Molecular Dissymmetry

    10 Intermolecular Forces

    10.1 Introduction

    10.2 Dipole-Dipole Interaction

    10.3 Ion-Dipole Attractions

    10.4 Hydrogen Bonding

    10.5 London Forces

    10.6 London Forces and Molecular Shape

    11 Gases

    11.1 The States of Aggregation of Molecules in Matter

    11.2 The Properties of Gases

    11.3 Boyle’s Law

    11.4 The Law of Charles and Gay-Lussac; Absolute Temperature

    11.5 Avogadro’s Law

    11.6 The Gas Law; The Mole; Gas Densities

    11.7 Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures

    11.8 The Pressure of a Gas Confined by a Liquid

    11.9 Gas Volume Corrections in Stoichiometry

    11.10 Ideal Gases. The Kinetic Molecular Hypothesis

    11.11 Deviations from Ideal Behavior

    12 Aggregated States of Matter

    12.1 Crystalline Solids; Methods of investigation

    12.2 The Space Lattice; The Unit Cell

    12.3 The Tetrahedron; The Octahedron

    12.4 Liquids; Glasses

    12.5 Changes of State

    12.6 Spontaneous Change; Entropy

    12.7 Liquid-Gas Interconversion; Vapor Pressure

    12.8 Critical Constants

    12.9 Boiling, Melting, and Freezing Points

    12.10 Colloids; Adsorbents

    13 Solutions

    13.1 Introduction

    13.2 Liquid Solutions

    13.3 Saturation: Gases in Liquids

    13.4 Saturation: Solids in Liquids or Liquids in Liquids

    13.5 Dependence of Solubility on Temperature

    13.6 Supersaturation

    13.7 Solubility and Molecular Structure

    13.8 Detergency

    13.9 Solid Solutions

    13.10 Measures of Composition for Solutions

    13.11 Vapor Pressures of Solutions; Raoult’s Law

    13.12 Vapor Pressure Depression

    13.13 Boiling-Point Elevation and Freezing-Point Depression

    13.14 Determination of Molecular Weights

    14 Chemical Equilibrium

    14.1 Introduction

    14.2 Equilibrium in Gases; The Equilibrium Constant

    14.3 Change of K with Form of Equation

    14.4 Combination of Equilibria

    14.5 Principle of Le Chatelier

    14.6 Heterogeneous Equilibrium

    14.7 Equilibrium in Solutions

    14.8 Equilibrium Calculations

    15 Ionic Solutions

    15.1 Electrical Conductance

    15.2 Colligative Properties of Solutions of Electrolytes

    15.3 Ionic Conduction

    15.4 Solvation of Ions

    15.5 Covalent Electrolytes

    15.6 Net Ionic Equations

    15.7 Balancing Oxidation-Reduction Equations by the Ion-Electron Method

    15.8 Electrode Processes

    15.9 Electrolysis of Fused Salts

    15.10 Faraday’s Laws

    15.11 Strong Electrolytes

    15.12 Conductances of individual Ions

    15.13 Weak Electrolytes

    15.14 Degree of Dissociation

    16 Galvanic Cells and the Driving Force of Chemical Reactions

    16.1 Introduction

    16.2 Electricity from a Chemical Reaction

    16.3 A Galvanic Cell with One Solution

    16.4 Electrical Work; Electromotive Force

    16.5 Measurement of Electromotive Force

    16.6 Free Energy and Entropy

    16.7 Salt Bridges; Conventional Notation for Cells

    16.8 The Effect of Concentration on EMF; Nernst Equation

    16.9 Half-Cell Potentials; The Hydrogen Half-Cell

    16.10 EMF, K, and ∆g

    16.11 Predicting the Direction of a Reaction

    16.12 Strengths of Oxidizing and Reducing Agents

    16.13 Some Practical Cells

    16.14 Corrosion

    17 Acids and Bases

    17.1 Early Definitions

    17.2 Brönsted-Lowry Concept of Acid-Base Reactions

    17.3 Amproterism; Autoprotolysis (Self-Ionization)

    17.4 Types of Protolytic Reaction

    17.5 Lewis Acid-Base Concept

    17.6 Some Examples of Lewis Acids

    17.7 Industrial Applications of Acid-Base Reactions

    17.8 Preparation of Acids

    18 Calculations of Ionic Equilibrium

    18.1 The Ionization of Water

    18.2 pH and pOH

    18.3 Acidic, Basic, and Neutral Solutions

    18.4 Ionization of Weak Acids

    18.5 Ionization of Weak Bases

    18.6 Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs

    18.7 Polyprotic Acids

    18.8 Weak Acid (or Base) in the Presence of Strong Acid (or Base)

    18.9 Buffer Solutions

    18.10 Indicators and Titration

    18.11 Solubility Product

    18.12 Effect of ph on Solubility

    18.13 Complex Ions

    19 Chemical Kinetics

    19.1 Introduction

    19.2 Conditions Affecting Reaction Rates

    19.3 Theory of Reaction Rates

    19.4 Mechanism of Reaction from Rate Equation

    19.5 Chain Mechanism

    20 The Chemistry of the Representative Elements

    20.1 Introduction

    20.2 Allotropy and Periodicity

    20.3 Reactivity of Hydrides

    20.4 The Periodicity of Properties of the Oxides

    20.5 Structure of Oxyanions

    20.6 The Chemistry of Some Common Oxides and Oxyanions

    20.7 Peroxides

    20.8 Periodicity of Properties of the Halides; Differences in Oxidation States

    20.9 Properties of Sulfides

    20.10 Compounds of Noble Gases

    21 The Chemistry of the Transition Elements

    21.1 Definition; Groups and Triads

    21.2 Metallic Behavior

    21.3 Oxidation States and Bonding

    21.4 Color

    21.5 Interstitial Compounds

    21.6 Oxides and Oxyions

    21.7 Complex Formation

    21.8 Coordination Number or Ligancy

    21.9 Werner’s Coordination Theory

    21.10 Coordination Number and Shape

    21.11 Bonding in Transition Metal Complexes

    21.12 Crystal Field Theory

    21.13 Carbonyl Complexes

    21.14 Geometrical Isomerism

    21.15 Stability of Complex Tons

    22 Organic Chemistry

    22.1 What Is Organic Chemistry?

    22.2 The Bonding of Carbon

    22.3 Alkane Hydrocarbons; Isomerism and Homology

    22.4 The Shapes of Alkane Molecules. Conformation

    22.5 Chemical Properties of the Alkanes

    22.6 Alkenes and Alkynes; Unsaturated Hydrocarbons; Geometrical Isomerism

    22.7 Cycloalkanes

    22.8 Dienes; Benzene and Aromatic Compounds

    22.9 Functional Group Derivatives

    22.10 Reactions of Covalent Bonds

    22.11 Decomposition

    22.12 Displacement or Substitution Reactions

    22.13 Rearrangements

    23 Metals and Metallurgy

    23.1 The Properties of Metals

    23.2 The Metallic Bond; The Band Theory of Metals

    23.3 Metallic Properties in Terms of the Band Theory

    23.4 Insulators and Semiconductors

    23.5 Sources of Metals

    23.6 The Winning of Metals from Ores: General Considerations

    23.7 Preliminary Physical Treatment

    23.8 Physical Concentration

    23.9 Chemical Leaching

    23.10 Roasting

    23.11 Reduction

    23.12 Electrometallurgy

    23.13 Refining; Electrolytic Methods

    23.14 Refining; Nonelectrolytic Methods

    24 Nuclear Chemistry

    24.1 Radioactivity

    24.2 Nuclear Energy

    24.3 The Stability of Nuclei

    24.4 Nuclear Reactions

    24.5 Rate of Radioactive Decay Processes; Half-Life

    24.6 Radiochemistry

    25 Polymers

    25.1 Background and Definitions

    25.2 The Decomposition of Natural High Polymers; Monomeric Units (MERS)

    25.3 The Production of Synthetic High Polymers; C-Polymerization

    25.4 A-Polymerization

    25.5 The Orientation of Monomeric Units in Macromolecules

    25.6 Crystallinity of Polymers

    25.7 Ionic Polymers

    25.8 Properties of Polymers

    26 Biochemistry

    26.1 Introduction

    26.2 The Hole of the Cell

    26.3 Biochemicals

    26.4 Biochemical Processes in the Cell

    26.5 Epilogue

    Appendix 1: Definitions and Review of Physical Concepts

    Appendix 2: Review of Some Mathematical Operations

    Appendix 3: Nomenclature

    Appendix 4: Fundamental Constants

    Appendix 5: Vapor Pressure of Water

    Appendix 6: Abbreviations

    Appendix 7: Logarithms—Natural and Common


Product details

  • No. of pages: 591
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1968
  • Published: January 1, 1968
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323145053

About the Author

Amos Turk

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