# Introduction to Applied Thermodynamics

### The Commonwealth and International Library: Mechanical Engineering Division

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Introduction to Applied Thermodynamics is an introductory text on applied thermodynamics and covers topics ranging from energy and temperature to reversibility and entropy, the first and second laws of thermodynamics, and the properties of ideal gases. Standard air cycles and the thermodynamic properties of pure substances are also discussed, together with gas compressors, combustion, and psychrometry. This volume is comprised of 16 chapters and begins with an overview of the concept of energy as well as the macroscopic and molecular approaches to thermodynamics. The following chapters focus on temperature, entropy, and standard air cycles, along with gas compressors, combustion, psychrometry, and the thermodynamic properties of pure substances. Steam and steam engines, internal combustion engines, and refrigeration are also considered. The final chapter is devoted to heat transfer by conduction, radiation, and convection. The transfer of heat energy between fluids flowing through concentric pipes is described. This book will appeal to mechanical engineers and students as well as those interested in applied thermodynamics.

## Table of Contents

Preface

Chapter 1 Energy

Symbols

Matter

Macroscopic and Molecular Approach

Energy

Random and Non-Random Energy

Potential Energy

Kinetic Energy

Strain Energy

Electrical Energy

Thermal Energy

Chemical Energy

Radiant Energy

Nuclear Energy

Conservation of Matter and Energy

Systems

Isolated System

Closed System

Open System

Surroundings

Transfer of Energy

Internal Energy

Energy Units

Chapter 2 Temperature

An Ideal Gas

Ideal Gas Pressure

Pressure Rise

Constant Volume Gas Thermometer

Helium Gas Thermometer

Other Forms of Thermometer

Other Temperature Scales

International Temperature Scale

Two Ideal Gases at the Same Temperature

Chapter 3 Reversibility, Properties and Entropy

Reversible and Irreversible Changes

Reversible Processes

Thermal Equilibrium

Properties

Physical Changes on a Graph

Entropy

Definition of Entropy Change

Chapter 4 First Law of Thermodynamics

The First Law

Conservation of Energy Applied to a Closed System

Special Cases

Conservation of Energy Applied to an Open System

Applications of the Flow Process Energy Equation

Total Head Enthalpy, Temperature and Pressure

Chapter 5 The Properties of Ideal Gases

The Ideal Gas Laws

The Pound-Molecule

Avogadro's Law and Number

Universal Gas Constant

Identity of Behavior

Standard Temperature and Pressure

Normal Temperature and Pressure

Standard Cubic Feet

Alternative Approach to Boyle's and Charles' Laws and Avogadro's Law

Joule's Law

The Specific Heats of an Ideal Gas

Molecular Specific Heats

The p-V Diagram

Relationship between cv, cp and R

Ratio of Specific Heats

Reversible Changes of an Ideal Gas

Isometric

Isobaric

Isothermal

Isentropic

Polytropic

Gas Mixtures

Mean Molecular Mass

Gas Constant

Specific Heats

Partial Pressures

Examples and Problems

Chapter 6 Standard Air Cycles

Standard Air Cycles

Otto Cycle

Joule or Brayton Cycle

Diesel Cycle

Examples and Problems

Chapter 7 The Second Law of Thermodynamics

The Second Law

The Carnot Cycle

Thermodynamic Temperature Scale

Chapter 8 Thermodynamic Properties of Pure Substances

Thermodynamic Properties of Pure Substances

T-v Diagram

p-T Diagram

p-V Diagram

T-s Diagram

h-s Diagram

Note on Triple-point

Note on Critical Temperature

Chapter 9 Entropy Changes

Isentropic Change

Isothermal Change

Isobaric Change

Isometric Change

Change of Entropy during Irreversible Processes

Unresisted Expansion

Conduction of Heat

Adiabatic Throttling Process

Throttling Process of a Wet Vapor

Derivation of Carnot Efficiency by Entropy

Examples and Problems

Chapter 10 Gas Compressors

Gas Compressors

Piston or Reciprocating Compressors

First Method

Isothermal Efficiency

The Best Value of n

Volumetric Efficiency

Second Method

Adiabatic Compression

Isentropic Efficiency

Centrifugal Compressors

Simplified Theory

p-V and T-S Diagrams for Centrifugal Compressors

Axial Flow Compressors

Displacement Compressors

Examples and Problems

Chapter 11 Combustion

Composition of Air

Sources of Heat Energy

Calorific Value of a Fuel

Higher and Lower Calorific Values

Combustion Equations

Chemical Formula for Air

Stoichiometric Mixture

More Detailed Investigation into Combustion

Combustion at Constant Volume

Combustion at Constant Pressure

Combustion under Adiabatic Flow Process Conditions

Theoretical Temperature of Combustion

Examples and Problems

Chapter 12 Psychrometry

Humidity

Superheated Vapor

Dew Point

Relative Humidity

Psychrometric Chart

Construction

Saturation Line

Constant Relative Humidity Lines

Constant Enthalpy Lines

Constant Dew Point Lines

Examples and Problems

Chapter 13 Internal Combustion Engines

The Internal Combustion Engine

Piston Type Spark Ignition

The Carburettor

Ignition

Valve Timing

Suction Stroke

Cooling System

Detonation, Octane Number, Pre-Ignition

Piston Type Compression Ignition

Engine Performance

Fuel Horsepower

Brake Horsepower

Indicated Horsepower

Friction Horsepower

Brake Mean Effective Pressure

Cooling Water Horsepower

Exhaust Horsepower

Radiation and Error Horsepower

Power Balance

Engine Efficiencies

Specific Work

Example

Gas Turbine

Isentropic Efficiency

Examples and Problems

Chapter 14 Steam and Steam Engines

Properties of Steam and Steam Generation

Wet Steam

Dryness Fraction

Wetness Fraction

Enthalpy of Wet Steam

Specific Volume

Internal Energy

Determination of the Enthalpy of Steam

Entropy of Steam

Throttling Process for Wet Steam

Isentropic Expansion of Wet Steam

Steam Generators or Boilers

Boiler Efficiency

Equivalent Evaporation

Steam Engine Plant

Rankine Cycle

Rankine Efficiency

Efficiency Ratio

Improvements to the Rankine Cycle

Regenerative Cycle

Superheating

Raising the Boiler Pressure

Reheating

Reciprocating Steam Engines

Ideal Engine Indicator Diagram

Actual Mean Effective Pressure

Diagram Factor

Cylinder Dimensions

Nozzles

Nozzle Efficiency

Determination of ∆h

Impulse and Reaction Turbines—Basic Principles

Impulse Turbine

Velocity Diagram

Single Stage

Two Stage

Diagram Efficiency

Maximum Efficiency

Axial Thrust

Reaction Turbines

Degree of Reaction

Electric Power Generating Stations

Examples and Problems

Chapter 15 Refrigeration

Refrigeration

Vapor-Compression Refrigeration

Coefficient of Performance

p-h Diagram

Unit of Refrigeration Capacity

Maximum Value of Q1

Vapor-Absorption Refrigerator

Platen-Munters Refrigerator

Heat Pump

Examples and Problems

Chapter 16 Heat Transfer

Heat Transfer

Conduction

Applications

Infinite Flat Plate

Sandwich of Flat Plates

Thick Cylindrical Pipe

Thick Composite Pipe

Thick Spherical Vessel

Composite Spherical Vessel

Heat Flow between Fluids Flowing through Concentric Pipes

Radiation

Energy Spectrum

Reflectivity, Absorptivity and Transmissivity

Emissivity

Connection between ε and α

Heat Transfer by Convection

Examples and Problems

Answers

## Product details

- No. of pages: 202
- Language: English
- Copyright: © Pergamon 1965
- Published: January 1, 1965
- Imprint: Pergamon
- eBook ISBN: 9781483149622

## About the Author

### R. M. Helsdon

## About the Editors

### N. Hiller

### G. E. Walker

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