Introduction to Applied Thermodynamics

Introduction to Applied Thermodynamics

The Commonwealth and International Library: Mechanical Engineering Division

1st Edition - January 1, 1965

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  • Author: R. M. Helsdon
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483149622

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Description

Introduction to Applied Thermodynamics is an introductory text on applied thermodynamics and covers topics ranging from energy and temperature to reversibility and entropy, the first and second laws of thermodynamics, and the properties of ideal gases. Standard air cycles and the thermodynamic properties of pure substances are also discussed, together with gas compressors, combustion, and psychrometry. This volume is comprised of 16 chapters and begins with an overview of the concept of energy as well as the macroscopic and molecular approaches to thermodynamics. The following chapters focus on temperature, entropy, and standard air cycles, along with gas compressors, combustion, psychrometry, and the thermodynamic properties of pure substances. Steam and steam engines, internal combustion engines, and refrigeration are also considered. The final chapter is devoted to heat transfer by conduction, radiation, and convection. The transfer of heat energy between fluids flowing through concentric pipes is described. This book will appeal to mechanical engineers and students as well as those interested in applied thermodynamics.

Table of Contents


  • Preface

    Chapter 1 Energy

    Symbols

    Matter

    Macroscopic and Molecular Approach

    Energy

    Random and Non-Random Energy

    Potential Energy

    Kinetic Energy

    Strain Energy

    Electrical Energy

    Thermal Energy

    Chemical Energy

    Radiant Energy

    Nuclear Energy

    Conservation of Matter and Energy

    Systems

    Isolated System

    Closed System

    Open System

    Surroundings

    Transfer of Energy

    Internal Energy

    Energy Units

    Chapter 2 Temperature

    An Ideal Gas

    Ideal Gas Pressure

    Pressure Rise

    Constant Volume Gas Thermometer

    Helium Gas Thermometer

    Other Forms of Thermometer

    Other Temperature Scales

    International Temperature Scale

    Two Ideal Gases at the Same Temperature

    Chapter 3 Reversibility, Properties and Entropy

    Reversible and Irreversible Changes

    Reversible Processes

    Thermal Equilibrium

    Properties

    Physical Changes on a Graph

    Entropy

    Definition of Entropy Change

    Chapter 4 First Law of Thermodynamics

    The First Law

    Conservation of Energy Applied to a Closed System

    Special Cases

    Conservation of Energy Applied to an Open System

    Applications of the Flow Process Energy Equation

    Total Head Enthalpy, Temperature and Pressure

    Chapter 5 The Properties of Ideal Gases

    The Ideal Gas Laws

    The Pound-Molecule

    Avogadro's Law and Number

    Universal Gas Constant

    Identity of Behavior

    Standard Temperature and Pressure

    Normal Temperature and Pressure

    Standard Cubic Feet

    Alternative Approach to Boyle's and Charles' Laws and Avogadro's Law

    Joule's Law

    The Specific Heats of an Ideal Gas

    Molecular Specific Heats

    The p-V Diagram

    Relationship between cv, cp and R

    Ratio of Specific Heats

    Reversible Changes of an Ideal Gas

    Isometric

    Isobaric

    Isothermal

    Isentropic

    Polytropic

    Gas Mixtures

    Mean Molecular Mass

    Gas Constant

    Specific Heats

    Partial Pressures

    Examples and Problems

    Chapter 6 Standard Air Cycles

    Standard Air Cycles

    Otto Cycle

    Joule or Brayton Cycle

    Diesel Cycle

    Examples and Problems

    Chapter 7 The Second Law of Thermodynamics

    The Second Law

    The Carnot Cycle

    Thermodynamic Temperature Scale

    Chapter 8 Thermodynamic Properties of Pure Substances

    Thermodynamic Properties of Pure Substances

    T-v Diagram

    p-T Diagram

    p-V Diagram

    T-s Diagram

    h-s Diagram

    Note on Triple-point

    Note on Critical Temperature

    Chapter 9 Entropy Changes

    Isentropic Change

    Isothermal Change

    Isobaric Change

    Isometric Change

    Change of Entropy during Irreversible Processes

    Unresisted Expansion

    Conduction of Heat

    Adiabatic Throttling Process

    Throttling Process of a Wet Vapor

    Derivation of Carnot Efficiency by Entropy

    Examples and Problems

    Chapter 10 Gas Compressors

    Gas Compressors

    Piston or Reciprocating Compressors

    First Method

    Isothermal Efficiency

    The Best Value of n

    Volumetric Efficiency

    Second Method

    Adiabatic Compression

    Isentropic Efficiency

    Centrifugal Compressors

    Simplified Theory

    p-V and T-S Diagrams for Centrifugal Compressors

    Axial Flow Compressors

    Displacement Compressors

    Examples and Problems

    Chapter 11 Combustion

    Composition of Air

    Sources of Heat Energy

    Calorific Value of a Fuel

    Higher and Lower Calorific Values

    Combustion Equations

    Chemical Formula for Air

    Stoichiometric Mixture

    More Detailed Investigation into Combustion

    Combustion at Constant Volume

    Combustion at Constant Pressure

    Combustion under Adiabatic Flow Process Conditions

    Theoretical Temperature of Combustion

    Examples and Problems

    Chapter 12 Psychrometry

    Humidity

    Superheated Vapor

    Dew Point

    Relative Humidity

    Psychrometric Chart

    Construction

    Saturation Line

    Constant Relative Humidity Lines

    Constant Enthalpy Lines

    Constant Dew Point Lines

    Examples and Problems

    Chapter 13 Internal Combustion Engines

    The Internal Combustion Engine

    Piston Type Spark Ignition

    The Carburettor

    Ignition

    Valve Timing

    Suction Stroke

    Cooling System

    Detonation, Octane Number, Pre-Ignition

    Piston Type Compression Ignition

    Engine Performance

    Fuel Horsepower

    Brake Horsepower

    Indicated Horsepower

    Friction Horsepower

    Brake Mean Effective Pressure

    Cooling Water Horsepower

    Exhaust Horsepower

    Radiation and Error Horsepower

    Power Balance

    Engine Efficiencies

    Specific Work

    Example

    Gas Turbine

    Isentropic Efficiency

    Examples and Problems

    Chapter 14 Steam and Steam Engines

    Properties of Steam and Steam Generation

    Wet Steam

    Dryness Fraction

    Wetness Fraction

    Enthalpy of Wet Steam

    Specific Volume

    Internal Energy

    Determination of the Enthalpy of Steam

    Entropy of Steam

    Throttling Process for Wet Steam

    Isentropic Expansion of Wet Steam

    Steam Generators or Boilers

    Boiler Efficiency

    Equivalent Evaporation

    Steam Engine Plant

    Rankine Cycle

    Rankine Efficiency

    Efficiency Ratio

    Improvements to the Rankine Cycle

    Regenerative Cycle

    Superheating

    Raising the Boiler Pressure

    Reheating

    Reciprocating Steam Engines

    Ideal Engine Indicator Diagram

    Actual Mean Effective Pressure

    Diagram Factor

    Cylinder Dimensions

    Nozzles

    Nozzle Efficiency

    Determination of ∆h

    Impulse and Reaction Turbines—Basic Principles

    Impulse Turbine

    Velocity Diagram

    Single Stage

    Two Stage

    Diagram Efficiency

    Maximum Efficiency

    Axial Thrust

    Reaction Turbines

    Degree of Reaction

    Electric Power Generating Stations

    Examples and Problems

    Chapter 15 Refrigeration

    Refrigeration

    Vapor-Compression Refrigeration

    Coefficient of Performance

    p-h Diagram

    Unit of Refrigeration Capacity

    Maximum Value of Q1

    Vapor-Absorption Refrigerator

    Platen-Munters Refrigerator

    Heat Pump

    Examples and Problems

    Chapter 16 Heat Transfer

    Heat Transfer

    Conduction

    Applications

    Infinite Flat Plate

    Sandwich of Flat Plates

    Thick Cylindrical Pipe

    Thick Composite Pipe

    Thick Spherical Vessel

    Composite Spherical Vessel

    Heat Flow between Fluids Flowing through Concentric Pipes

    Radiation

    Energy Spectrum

    Reflectivity, Absorptivity and Transmissivity

    Emissivity

    Connection between ε and α

    Heat Transfer by Convection

    Examples and Problems

    Answers

Product details

  • No. of pages: 202
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Pergamon 1965
  • Published: January 1, 1965
  • Imprint: Pergamon
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483149622

About the Author

R. M. Helsdon

About the Editors

N. Hiller

G. E. Walker

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