Introducing, Designing and Conducting Research for Paramedics

Introducing, Designing and Conducting Research for Paramedics

1st Edition - August 2, 2022

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  • Authors: Alexander Olaussen, Kelly-Ann Bowles, Bill Lord, Brett Williams
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780729544092

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Description

The profession of paramedicine is rapidly expanding and primary research relating to prehospital interventions is exploding worldwide. This new book provides, for the first time, a meaningful and easy to understand guide to research specifically tailored for paramedics. Written by experts in research, medicine and paramedicine, Introducing, Designing and Conducting Research for Paramedics introduces the reader to the concepts of research through real-life examples. The structure follows a logical sequence from an overview of the research process to how to generate, consume and implement evidence. This book will be a valuable resource for paramedics and prehospital clinicians at any level, worldwide, who wish to contribute to the rapidly emerging body of evidence on paramedicine and understand how they can make use of this in their practice.

Table of Contents

  • Cover image
  • Title page
  • Table of Contents
  • Copyright
  • Preface
  • Contributors
  •     List of Tables
  •     List of Illustrations
  • Section 1. Introduction to Research
  •    Introduction
  • Part One. Welcome to Your Research Journey
  • 1.  Historical perspectives and the emergence of research in healthcare
  •     Introduction
  •     Milestones in the emergence of research in healthcare
  •     Conclusion
  •     Review questions
  •     Suggested further reading
  •     References
  • 2.  The importance of research for paramedicine as a profession
  •     Introduction
  •     Research-informed practice and patient outcomes in paramedicine
  •     Research and clinician education in the paramedic profession
  •     Research, professionalisation and the performance of service providers
  •     Conclusion
  •     Review questions
  •     Suggested further reading
  •     References
  • 3.  Evidence-based practice for paramedicine
  •     Introduction
  •     Strengths and weaknesses of evidence-based practice
  •     Conclusion
  •     Review questions
  •     Suggested further reading
  •     References
  • 4.  How to use this book
  •     Introduction
  •     Conclusion
  •     Review questions
  •     References
  • Part Two. Starting at the Start
  • 5.  How to determine what topic to research
  •     Definition
  •     Introduction
  •     Example
  •     Conclusion
  •     Review questions
  •     Suggested further reading
  •     References
  • 6.  Asking the answerable question
  •     Introduction
  •     Formulating the clinical question
  •     Health policy and management questions
  •     Formulating qualitative questions
  •     Conclusion
  •     Review questions
  •     Suggested further reading
  •     References
  • 7.  What to do before you start
  •     Introduction
  •     The steps to getting started successfully
  •     Conclusion
  •     Review questions
  •     References
  • 8.  Theoretical and conceptual frameworks for paramedicine research
  •     Introduction
  •     Defining the terms
  •     Why consider the use of theories, theoretical frameworks and conceptual frameworks?
  •     Example: Theoretical framework to inform deductive study
  •     Example: Conceptual framework to structure an inductive study of paramedic role
  •     Practical advice
  •     Conclusion
  •     Review questions
  •     References
  • 9.  Overview of research designs and the hierarchy of evidence
  •     Introduction
  •     Hierarchy of evidence pyramid
  •     Case study/case series
  •     Ecological study
  •     Cross-sectional study
  •     Case-control study
  •     Cohort study
  •     Randomised controlled trial (RCT)
  •     Systematic reviews and meta-analyses
  •     Conclusion
  •     Review questions
  •     Suggested further reading
  • 10.  Thinking about ethics in research
  •     Introduction
  •     The origins of human research ethics and contemporary frameworks
  •     The principles and values of human research ethics
  •     Ethics approval processes
  •     Applied example 1
  •     Applied example 2
  •     Applied example 3
  •     Conclusion
  •     Review questions
  •     Suggested further reading
  •     References
  • Section 2. Preparing the Research
  •    Introduction
  • Part Three. Finding What has Already been Done
  • 11.  Literature review process and production software
  •     Definition
  •     Introduction
  •     11 Steps to conduct your own literature review
  •     Examples of systematic reviews
  •     Conclusion
  •     Review questions
  •     Suggested further reading
  •     References
  • 12.  Sourcing the available evidence (primary, secondary and tertiary evidence)
  •     Definitions
  •     Introduction
  •     Search process
  •     Conclusion
  •     Review questions
  •     Suggested further reading
  •     References
  • 13.  Appraising and critiquing the evidence from anecdotal, observational and experimental studies relevant to paramedic clinical practice
  •     Introduction
  •     Research evidence and its relevance to paramedic practice
  •     Hierarchies of research evidence
  •     Anecdotal, observational and experimental evidence
  •     Methods for appraising and critiquing research evidence
  •     Critical appraisal tools and reporting guidelines
  •     Conclusion
  •     Review questions
  •     References
  • 14.  Structured reviews: Scoping, rapid, narrative and umbrella reviews
  •     Introduction
  •     Common review types other than the systematic review
  •     Conclusion
  •     Review questions
  •     Suggested further reading
  •     References
  • 15.  Cochrane reviews and systematic reviews (including meta-analyses and meta-synthesis)
  •     Definitions
  •     Introduction
  •     Characteristics of a systematic review
  •     Cochrane reviews
  •     What are systematic reviews used for?
  •     Conducting a systematic review
  •     How to read a forest plot
  •     Example
  •     Conclusion
  •     Review questions
  •     Suggested further reading
  •     Suggested viewing
  •     References
  • Part Four. Methodological Considerations
  • 16.  Moral principles and ethical considerations
  •     Definitions
  •     Introduction
  •     Ethics versus law
  •     Principles of bioethics
  •     Paramedical research
  •     Ethical governance and ethics applications
  •     Special populations
  •     Conclusion
  •     Review questions
  •     Suggested further reading
  •     References
  • 17.  Data collection and storage
  •     Definitions
  •     Introduction
  •     Data collection
  •     Data verification
  •     Data storage
  •     Data retention
  •     Conclusion
  •     Review questions
  •     Suggested further reading
  •     References
  • 18.  Reliability and validity in quantitative and qualitative research
  •     Introduction
  •     Reliability and validity in quantitative research
  •     Reliability and validity in qualitative research
  •     Example 1
  •     Example 2
  •     Conclusion
  •     Review questions
  •     References
  • 19.  Sampling
  •     Definitions
  •     Introduction
  •     Sampling methods
  •     Example
  •     Conclusion
  •     Review questions
  •     Suggested further reading
  •     References
  • 20.  Power and sample size calculations
  •     Introduction
  •     Hypothesis testing
  •     Statistical power
  •     Sample size calculations
  •     Example
  •     Conclusion
  •     Review questions
  •     Suggested further reading
  •     References
  • 21.  Assessing bias
  •     Introduction
  •     Tools to assess for risk of bias
  •     Common sources of bias
  •     Examples
  •     Conclusion
  •     Review questions
  •     References
  • 22.  Culturally inclusive considerations in paramedicine research
  •     Introduction
  •     Key concepts
  •     Key considerations
  •     Conclusion
  •     Review questions
  •     Suggested further reading
  •     References
  • Section 3. Explaining the What (Quantitative)
  •    Introduction
  • Part Five. Quantitative Research Designs
  • 23.  Case reports and case series
  •     Definitions
  •     Introduction
  •     Examples
  •     Strengths and weaknesses of this design
  •     Steps required to conduct your study of this design
  •     Conclusion
  •     Review questions
  •     Suggested further reading
  •     References
  • 24.  Cross-sectional studies
  •     Definition
  •     Introduction
  •     Strengths and limitations of cross-sectional study design
  •     Steps required to conduct your own cross-sectional study
  •     Conclusion
  •     Review questions
  •     Suggested further reading
  •     References
  • 25.  Case-control studies
  •     Definition
  •     Introduction
  •     Example of a case-control study in paramedicine
  •     Strengths and weaknesses of case-control studies
  •     Steps required to conduct your own case-control study
  •     Conclusion
  •     Review questions
  •     Suggested further reading
  •     References
  • 26.  Cohort studies and registry studies
  •     Definition
  •     Introduction
  •     Differences from case-control and cross-sectional studies
  •     Differences between prospective and retrospective
  •     Steps required to conduct your own study of this design
  •     Strengths and weaknesses of this design
  •     Conclusion
  •     Review questions
  •     References
  • 27.  Randomised controlled trials
  •     Definition
  •     Introduction
  •     Bias and confounding
  •     Conducting clinical trials
  •     Phases of a clinical trial
  •     Clinical trial design
  •     Random allocation
  •     Allocation concealment
  •     Blinding
  •     Explanatory versus pragmatic trials
  •     Examples
  •     Conclusion
  •     Review questions
  •     Suggested further reading
  •     References
  • 28.  Experimental studies other than randomised controlled trials
  •     Introduction
  •     Option 1: Modifications to the RCT design
  •     Conclusion
  •     Review questions
  •     Suggested further reading
  •     References
  • Part Six. Statistics/Quantitative Analysis
  • 29.  Data collection tools/approaches for quantitative research
  •     Introduction
  •     Reliability and validity
  •     Self-reported data collection tools
  •     Barriers to data collection in the out-of-hospital setting
  •     Applied data collection in out-of-hospital care research
  •     Conclusion
  •     Review questions
  •     Suggested further reading
  •     References
  • 30.  Types of quantitative data (continuous, categorical, distributions, skewness)
  •     Introduction
  •     Continuous data
  •     Categorical data
  •     Data distribution
  •     Skewness
  •     Example using cardiac arrest data
  •     Correct identification of data types
  •     Conclusion
  •     Review questions
  •     References
  • 31.  Descriptive statistics, missing data and testing assumptions
  •     Descriptive statistics
  •     Definition
  •     Introduction
  •     Examples
  •     Conclusion
  •     Review questions
  •     Suggested further reading
  •     References
  • 32.  Confidence intervals, p-values, effect size and statistical significance
  •     Definitions
  •     Introduction
  •     Examples
  •     Conclusion
  •     Review questions
  •     Suggested further reading
  •     References
  • 33.  Inferential statistics: T-tests, regression analysis and adjustments (mediation versus moderation)
  •     Introduction
  •     T-tests
  •     Regression analyses
  •     Linear regression
  •     Logistic regression
  •     General notes
  •     Examples
  •     Conclusion
  •     Review questions
  •     Suggested further reading
  •     References
  • 34.  An introduction to survival analysis
  •     Definition
  •     Introduction
  •     Tools for survival analysis
  •     Conclusion
  •     Review questions
  •     Suggested further reading
  •     References
  • Section 4. Explaining the Why (Qualitative)
  •    Introduction
  • Part Seven. Qualitative Research Designs
  • 35.  Phenomenology
  •     Introduction
  •     Transcendental phenomenology, hermeneutical phenomenology and bracketing
  •     General processes for conducting phenomenological methodology
  •     Examples
  •     Conclusion
  •     Review questions
  •     Suggested further reading
  •     References
  • 36.  Action research methodology for out-of-hospital care researchers
  •     Introduction
  •     The action research cycle
  •     Advantages and disadvantages
  •     Applying the cycle in practice
  •     Example 1
  •     Conclusion
  •     Review questions
  •     Suggested further reading
  •     References
  • 37.  Case study
  •     Definition
  •     Introduction
  •     What are the major variations of case studies?
  •     Data included in case study research
  •     Steps required to conduct your own case study research
  •     Strengths and weaknesses of case study research in paramedicine
  •     Examples
  •     Conclusion
  •     Review questions
  •     References
  • 38.  Ethnography: A process and product
  •     Definitions
  •     Introduction
  •     Strengths and weaknesses of this design
  •     Steps required to conduct your own study of this design
  •     Examples of paramedicine-focused ethnography
  •     Conclusion
  •     Review questions
  •     Suggested further reading
  •     References
  • 39.  Grounded theory: An interpretation of social reality
  •     Definition
  •     Introduction
  •     Grounded theory methodology
  •     Examples
  •     Strengths and weaknesses of this design
  •     Conclusion
  •     Review questions
  •     Suggested further reading
  •     References
  • Part Eight. Qualitative Analysis
  • 40.  Data collection methods for qualitative research
  •     Definitions
  •     Introduction
  •     Qualitative data collection approaches
  •     Conclusion
  •     Review question
  •     Suggested further reading
  •     References
  • 41.  Data management in qualitative research
  •     Definition
  •     Introduction
  •     Recruitment
  •     Preparation
  •     Collection
  •     Storage of data
  •     Predict issues that may arise
  •     Conclusion
  •     Review questions
  •     Suggested further reading
  •     References
  • 42.  Types of qualitative data
  •     Introduction
  •     Examples of qualitative data collection methods
  •     Conclusion
  •     Review questions
  •     Suggested reading
  •     References
  • 43.  Developing themes
  •     Introduction
  •     Steps to thematic analysis
  •     Limitations of thematic analysis
  •     Conclusion
  •     Review questions
  •     Suggested reading
  •     References
  • Section 5. Other Ways to Answer the Question
  •    Introduction
  • Part Nine. Combining Research Methods and Other Designs
  • 44.  Mixed methods design
  •     Definition
  •     Introduction
  •     Mixed methods design in paramedicine research
  •     Strengths and weaknesses
  •     Conclusion
  •     Review questions
  •     References
  • 45.  Consensus group methods—the Delphi technique
  •     Definition
  •     Introduction
  •     Strengths of the Delphi technique
  •     Weaknesses of the Delphi technique
  •     The Delphi technique process
  •     Example
  •     Conclusion
  •     Review questions
  •     Suggested further reading
  •     References
  • 46.  Consensus group methods—the nominal group technique
  •     Definition
  •     Introduction
  •     Strengths of the nominal group technique
  •     Weaknesses of the nominal group technique
  •     Nominal group technique process
  •     Example
  •     Conclusion
  •     Review questions
  •     References
  • 47.  Cost-effectiveness research
  •     Introduction
  •     Steps required to conduct your own study of this design
  •     Cost-effectiveness analyses
  •     Strengths and weaknesses of this design
  •     Conclusion
  •     Review questions
  •     References
  • Section 6. Sharing New Knowledge
  •    Introduction
  • Part Ten. Disseminating and Implementing Research
  • 48.  Writing and getting your research published
  •     Introduction
  •     Phase 1: Pre-writing
  •     Phase 2: Writing
  •     Phase 3: Publishing
  •     Phase 4: Peer-review
  •     Phase 5: Post-publication and dissemination
  •     Conclusion
  •     Review questions
  •     Suggested further reading
  •     References
  • 49.  Research dissemination and bibliometrics
  •     Definition
  •     Introduction
  •     Conclusion
  •     Review questions
  •     Suggested further reading
  •     References
  • 50.  The implementation (translation) process
  •     Definition
  •     Introduction
  •     Examples
  •     Conclusion
  •     Review questions
  •     References
  • 51.  Grant writing and team building
  •     Introduction
  •     Building a research team
  •     Research grants
  •     Conclusion
  •     Review questions
  •     Suggested further reading
  •     References
  • Part Eleven. The Future of Paramedicine Research, Summary and Conclusion
  • 52.  Setting up the future of paramedicine
  •     Introduction
  •     A shared place to start
  •     Being coordinated in our response
  •     Supporting moonshots
  •     Conclusion
  •     Review questions
  •     Suggested further reading
  •     References
  • 53.  Summary, recommendations and conclusions
  • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 216
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2022
  • Published: August 2, 2022
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780729544092

About the Authors

Alexander Olaussen

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Paramedicine, Monash University, Australia; National Trauma Research Institute, The Alfred, Australia; Centre for Research and Evaluation, Ambulance Victoria, Australia

Kelly-Ann Bowles

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Paramedicine, School of Primary and Allied Healthcare, Monash University, Australia

Bill Lord

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Paramedicine, Monash University, Australia

Brett Williams

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Paramedicine, Monash University, Australia

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