International Encyclopedia of Human Geography

International Encyclopedia of Human Geography

1st Edition - July 1, 2009

Write a review

  • Editors-in-Chief: Rob Kitchin, Nigel Thrift
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780080449111

Purchase options

Purchase options
Delivery may take up to 10 days
Sales tax will be calculated at check-out

Institutional Subscription

Free Global Shipping
No minimum order

Description

The International Encyclopedia of Human Geography provides an authoritative and comprehensive source of information on the discipline of human geography and its constituent, and related, subject areas. The encyclopedia includes over 1,000 detailed entries on philosophy and theory, key concepts, methods and practices, biographies of notable geographers, and geographical thought and praxis in different parts of the world. This groundbreaking project covers every field of human geography and the discipline’s relationships to other disciplines, and is global in scope, involving an international set of contributors. Given its broad, inclusive scope and unique online accessibility, it is anticipated that the International Encyclopedia of Human Geography will become the major reference work for the discipline over the coming decades. The Encyclopedia will be available in both limited edition print and online via ScienceDirect – featuring extensive browsing, searching, and internal cross-referencing between articles in the work, plus dynamic linking to journal articles and abstract databases, making navigation flexible and easy. For more information, pricing options and availability visit http://info.sciencedirect.com/content/books/ref_works/coming/

Key Features

  • Available online on ScienceDirect and in limited edition print format
  • Broad, interdisciplinary coverage across human geography: Philosophy, Methods, People, Social/Cultural, Political, Economic, Development, Health, Cartography, Urban, Historical, Regional
  • Comprehensive and unique - the first of its kind in human geography

Readership

Readers will include undergraduate and postgraduate students, researchers, teachers and lecturers, and professionals.

Given the multidisciplinary nature of human geography and the so-called spatial turn across the social sciences and humanities, the International Encyclopedia of Human Geography will also provide an invaluable source of information for scholars and students outside the discipline

Table of Contents

  • Cover image
  • Title page
  • Table of Contents
  • Senior Editors
  • Section Editors
  • Foreword by Mary Robinson
  • Foreword by Rob Kitchin and Nigel Thrift
  • The Encyclopedia
  • By Way of Conclusion
  • Further Reading
  • Permission Acknowledgments
  • Article Titles
  • A
  • Activism
  • Introduction
  • Geographies of Activism
  • Activist Geographies
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Activist Geographies
  • Introduction
  • Toward More Fully Activist Geographies
  • Activist Methodologies, Collaborations, and Everyday Life
  • Responsible Activist Geographies
  • Activism and Academia: Contradictory Spaces?
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Actor-Network Theory/Network Geographies
  • Actor-Network Theory
  • Moves into Geography – Bypassing Dualisms
  • Network Geographies
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Affect
  • Introduction
  • Modes of Thinking Affect
  • Conclusion: The Politics of Affect
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Africa
  • Introduction: Defining Africa
  • Representing Africa I: The Early Years
  • Representing Africa II: Exploration, Colonialism, and Imperialism
  • (Under)Developing Africa
  • Postcolonial Africa
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Ageing and Health
  • Introduction
  • Population Aging
  • Movements of Older Population
  • The Health of Older Populations
  • Negotiating Environments
  • Residence and Care
  • Emerging Critical Perspectives
  • Future Inquiries
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Ageing and Mobility
  • Introduction
  • Migration and Old Age
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Ageism and Age
  • Introduction
  • Children’s Geographies
  • Geographies of Older People
  • Relational Geographies of Age
  • Conclusion: Performing age
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Agglomeration
  • Introduction
  • The Core Issue of Economic Geography
  • False Paradoxes and ‘Circular Logics’
  • What Factors Make Up Agglomeration Economies?
  • How Do Agglomerations Emerge and Develop – Historical Approaches
  • Remaining Research Challenges
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Agoraphobia
  • Introduction
  • Definitions and Background
  • Embodying and Theorizing Agoraphobia
  • Managing Social Space
  • Gendered Boundaries
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Agrarian Transformations
  • Introduction
  • Early and High Medieval Europe
  • The Late Middle Ages
  • The Early Modern Period
  • The Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries
  • The Second Half of the Twentieth Century
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Agri-Environmentalism and Rural Change
  • Introduction
  • Developing an Environmentalist Critique of Modern Agriculture
  • Toward Greener Farm Policies?
  • Contested Models of Agri-Environmental Governance
  • Conclusions
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Agricultural Land Preservation
  • Why Protect Agricultural Land
  • Approaches for Preserving Agricultural Land
  • The Future of Agricultural Land Preservation
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Agriculture, Sustainable
  • High-Level Conceptualizations: Some Foundation Principles
  • Widening and Grounding Key Principles and Concepts
  • Agroecology and Ecological Modernization Perspectives
  • The Sustainable Rural Development Paradigm in Europe
  • Some Conceptual Building Blocks for the Sustainable Rural Development Paradigm
  • Conclusions: Prospects and Challenges for Sustainable Agricultural and Rural Development
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Aid
  • Different Types of Aid
  • Reasons for Giving Aid
  • Changing Trends in Development Aid
  • Aid Conditionality
  • Humanitarian Aid
  • Critical Contemporary Aid Debates
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • von Humboldt, A.
  • von Humboldt, Alexander (1769–1859)
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Aménagement du Territoire: Territorial Development
  • What Is Amenagement du Territoire or Territorial Development?
  • Which Scientific Status for Territorial Development?
  • First Experiments
  • The Five Great Dilemmas of Territorial Development
  • Few Examples of Territorial Development Policies
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Americas
  • Regional Perspectives
  • Human Antecedents
  • Cultural Commonalities
  • Contemporary Human Geography
  • Future Directions
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Anarchism/Anarchist Geography
  • What Is Anarchism?
  • The Historical Relationship of Anarchism and Geography
  • Anarchist Geographies: The Spatial Foundation of Anarchist Theory and Practice
  • Anarchist Epistemologies of Freedom: Challenging and Reconstructing Geographic Knowledge and Planning Practice
  • Charting a Course: The Potential Bricolage of Anarchism and Geography
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Anglo-American/Anglophone Hegemony
  • Introduction
  • Is There an Anglo-American Hegemony in Geography Journals? The Empirical Evidence
  • Publication Practices and the Production of the ‘Other’
  • It Is Not Only a Matter of Publishing: The Issue of Access
  • What about the Excluded? Critical Stances on the Anglo-American Hegemony Thesis
  • Conclusions
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Animal Geographies
  • Introduction
  • Histories of Animal Geographies
  • Zoogeographies
  • Early Cultural Geographies of Animals
  • New Animal Geographies
  • Sociocultural Animal Geographies: Identities and Place
  • Political-Economic Animal Geographies
  • More-than-Human, or Hybrid, Animal Geographies
  • Conclusions and Futures
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Animal Welfare, Agricultural
  • Introduction
  • The Difficulty of Animal Welfare
  • Redefining Animal Welfare
  • A Shift of Responsibility
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Antarctica
  • Introduction
  • Antarctica in the Imperial Age (1900–40)
  • Antarctica in the Cold War Ideological Geopolitics (1950s and 1960s)
  • IGY (1957–58) and the Discursive Transformation of the Antarctic
  • Antarctica as a Continent of Science and Peace: 1950s and 1960s
  • Growing Focus on the Resource Geopolitics: Southern Polar Region during 1970s and 1980s
  • ‘Question of Antarctica’ in the United Nations: The Rise and Decline of Alternative Visualization of the Antarctic
  • Antarctica as a ‘Natural Reserve’ Devoted to Peace and Science: Since the 1990s
  • Imagining Antarctica as a World Park: Regulating Tourism
  • Growing Focus on Biological Prospecting
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Anthropogeography (After Ratzel)
  • Introduction
  • Friedrich Ratzel
  • Tracing Anthropogeography in Ratzel’s Work and Life
  • ‘Is Geography an Independent Discipline?’
  • Darwinian Concepts
  • Competing Geographical Imaginations
  • Anthropogeography as Imperialist Transformation of the Classical Paradigm of Geography
  • Political Impact and Deterministic Content of Ratzel’s Geography
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Anthropology and Human Geography
  • An Attenuated Separation
  • The Bridge between Human Geography and Anthropology
  • Anthropology and the Berkeley Tradition
  • Cultural Ecology as a Reunion
  • Geoarchaeology, Environmental History, and Causality
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Anti-Geopolitics
  • Origin and Context of the Term Anti-Geopolitics
  • Anti-Geopolitics as (Radical) Politics
  • Anti-Geopolitics as Perspective
  • Critique of Anti-Geopolitics
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Anti-Urbanism
  • Introduction: 100% Urban Proof
  • Origins: The Good Life
  • Dislodging the Good Life, Disrupting the Rural
  • Case Study: Edward Hopper’s New York
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Apartheid/Post-Apartheid
  • From Segregation to Apartheid
  • The Nature of Apartheid
  • Towards Ending Apartheid
  • Post-Apartheid
  • Other Apartheids
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Applied Geography
  • The Concept of Useful Knowledge
  • The Relationship between Pure and Applied Research
  • The Value of Applied Geography
  • Values in Applied Geography
  • Applied Geography and Public Policy
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Archives
  • Introduction
  • Documents of a Material Culture
  • Archive Fever?
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Arctic
  • Introduction
  • Migration, Expedition, and Inscription
  • Science and State Colonialisms
  • ‘Nature’, the Economy, and Changing Research Initiatives
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Art and Cartography
  • Introduction
  • Symbol Saboteurs: Artists Who Use the Visual Iconography of the Map to Reference Personal, Fictional, Utopian, or Metaphorical Places
  • Agents and Actors: Artists Who Make Maps or Engage in Situated, Locational Activities in Order to Challenge the Status Quo or Change the World
  • Invisible Data Mappers: Artists Who Use Cartographic Metaphors to Visualize Informational Territories Such as the Stock Market, the Internet, or the Human Genome
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems
  • Introduction
  • Spatial Knowledge Representation and Inference
  • Expert Systems for Domain-Specific Problems
  • Acquisition of Spatial Knowledge
  • Intelligent Decision Support System – An Integration
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Asia
  • Introduction – Asia: Idea, Ideology, and Project
  • Asia as Other
  • Asia as an Asian Intellectual Project
  • Asia as Political Ideology and Populist Movement
  • Conclusion: Beyond Orientalism
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Atlases
  • Introduction
  • Historical Background
  • Types of Atlases
  • Dissemination Medium
  • Atlas Information Systems
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Australasia
  • Introduction
  • Colonial Origins and Imaginations
  • Australasia as Ecoregion
  • A Contemporary Australasia?
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Auto-Photography
  • Introduction
  • Genealogy of Auto-Photography
  • Purposes of Auto-Photography
  • Challenges
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Autobiography
  • Introduction
  • Four Forms
  • Autobiography in Geography
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Autoethnography
  • Introduction
  • Autobiography and Ethnography
  • An Autoethnographic Sensibility
  • Autoethnographies
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Avant-Garde/Avant-Garde Geographies
  • Introduction: Context and Thought
  • Avant-Garde: Translating the Esthetic into Politics
  • Conclusion: Politics
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Aviation
  • Introduction
  • Airlines
  • Airports
  • Aircraft
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • B
  • Balkans
  • The Meaning of the Word ‘Balkan’, the Border Issue
  • A Geopolitical Region Where Major Powers Meet: The East, the West, an ‘In-Between’ Europe
  • Balkan Civilization – Similarity Is Not Synonymous with Cohesion
  • Modernity and Development
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Barnes, T.
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Beaujeu-Garnier, J.
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Becoming
  • Introduction
  • A Brief Genealogy of Becoming
  • Becomings/Geographies
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Behavioral Geography
  • Introduction
  • Early Development
  • Consolidation
  • Cognitive Maps
  • Natural Hazards
  • Attachment to Place
  • Critique
  • Continuity and Marginality
  • Prospect
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Belonging
  • The Politics of Belonging
  • Locating Geographies of Belonging
  • Place, Identity, and Belonging
  • Globalization and Belonging
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Berkeley School
  • Defining the Berkeley School
  • Sauer’s Ideas
  • The Parsons Era
  • The Berkeley School and Cultural Geography
  • Assessment
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Berry, B.
  • Berry, Brian J. L. (1934–)
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Biodiversity
  • Introduction
  • The Biodiversity Crisis
  • The Geography of Biodiversity
  • Key Issues and Critical Perspectives
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Biodiversity Mapping
  • Introduction
  • History
  • Types of Biodiversity Mapping
  • Key Challenges within Biodiversity Mapping
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Biopolitics
  • Biopolitics and Place
  • Horizontal Fix
  • Geography and Biopower
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Bobek, H.
  • Bobek, Hans (1903–1990)
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Body, The
  • Introduction
  • Mind/Body Dualism
  • What Is the Body?
  • Corporeal Geographies
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Borderlands
  • The Permeability of Borders
  • The Dependency of Borderlands on Binational Relations
  • Borderlands as Normative Spaces
  • Borderlands as Functional Spaces
  • Borderlands as Everyday Spaces
  • Borderlands and Border Identities
  • Current Research Issues
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Bowman, I.
  • Bowman, Isaiah (1878–1950)
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Brain Drain
  • Introduction – Not Just Drains and Gains
  • Toward a Definition
  • Global Patterns of Brain Drain
  • The Blame Game
  • Impacts of Brain Drain
  • Feedback Effects
  • Policy Prescriptions and Possibilities
  • Global Cooperation
  • Lack of Data
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Brandt Commission
  • Introduction: Background to the Independent Commission on International Development Issues (the Brandt Commission) and Its Report (the Brandt Report)
  • Membership of the Commission and the Schedule of Meetings
  • The Principal Recommendations of the Brandt Commission
  • An Evaluation of the Recommendations of the Brandt Commission
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Brown Agenda
  • Introduction
  • What Is the Brown Agenda?
  • Tensions and Complementarities between the Green and Brown Agendas
  • Conclusion: Dichotomy or Continuum?
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Buffer Zone
  • Introduction
  • Buffer Zones as Peripheries of Territories
  • Buffer States
  • Buffer Zones and the International Frontier
  • New Issues
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Business Services
  • Introduction
  • Defining Business Services
  • Measuring Business Services in National Economies
  • Characteristics of Business Service Firms
  • Explaining the Growth of Business Service Firms
  • Business Services – the Body and Emotional Labor
  • Business Service Geographies – Global Cities, Service Offshoring, and the Second Global Shift
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • C
  • Capital and Space
  • Introduction
  • How Does Capital Work?: Mechanisms of Capital
  • Capital and Space: Capital’s ‘Normal’ Spatiality
  • Capital and Space: Capital’s Crisis-Spatiality
  • Capital’s Consumption Spatiality
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Capitalism
  • Introduction
  • Trying to Understand a Changing World
  • Contesting Abstractions
  • Capitalist Processes in the Making
  • Geographies of Accumulation and Regulation
  • Challenges … and Opportunities
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Capitalism and Division of Labor
  • Introduction
  • Theoretical and Conceptual Ideas
  • Geographies of Early Capitalism
  • Geographies of Modern Capitalism
  • Large Corporations, Political Regulation, Fordism, Mass Production, and Economies of Scale
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Care/Caregiving
  • Introduction
  • Geographies of Care and Caregiving
  • Theorizing and Conceptualizing Care and Caregiving
  • Places and Spaces of Care and Caregiving
  • Toward an Inclusive Geography of Care and Caregiving
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Cartographic Animation
  • Introduction
  • History of Animated Maps
  • Temporal Animated Maps
  • Temporal Re-Expression, Filtering, and Interpolation
  • Nontemporal Animated Maps
  • Problems and Limitations of Animation
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Cartography in Islamic Societies
  • Cultures of Mapmaking
  • Cartographic Genres and Practices
  • Functions and Purposes
  • Cartography and Surveying in Iran in the Twentieth Century
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Cartography, History of
  • Approaches to the History of Cartography
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Case Study Approach
  • Introduction
  • Types of Case Studies
  • Methods Useful in Case Study Research
  • Using the Case Study Approach to Teach Human Geography
  • Issues and Challenges of the Case Study Approach
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Cassa per il Mezzogiorno
  • Introduction
  • Rise and Decline of State Intervention in Southern Italy: The Cassa per il Mezzogiorno
  • State, Regional Policy, and Southern Development in the Cassa’s Years: An Assessment
  • Epilog
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Categorical Data Analysis
  • The Origins and Foundations of Categorical Data Methods
  • Categorical Methods: Associations and Likelihoods
  • Additional Categorical Methods and Approaches
  • A Promising Spatial Direction for Categorical Data Methods
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Cellular Automata
  • Introduction
  • Cellular Automata: A Primer
  • The Advantages of Cellular Automata Modeling in the Geographic Sciences
  • Cellular Automata and Complexity
  • Human Geography Applications
  • Physical Geography Applications
  • Geographic Applications in Other Sciences
  • The Future for Cellular Automata in Geographic Research
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Census Geography
  • Introduction
  • Census Implementation
  • Census Enumeration and Analysis
  • Population Coverage and Undercount
  • Geographies and Politics of Households and Family
  • Politics of Classification: Ethnicity and Religion
  • Data and Geography Encoding
  • Applications
  • Issues
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Census Mapping
  • Introduction
  • The Place of Censuses
  • The Role of Census Mapping
  • Techniques and Examples
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Central Business District
  • Introduction
  • Defining the Central Business District
  • Evolution of the CBD
  • Delimiting the CBD
  • The CBD and the Threat of Decentralization
  • Conclusions
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Central Place Theory
  • Introduction
  • Classical Central Place Theory
  • Impacts on Urban Geography
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Chaos and Complexity
  • Chaos and Complexity
  • The Big-Top of Complexity
  • Measuring Complexity
  • The Complexity of Complexity
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Chicago School
  • Human Geography and the Chicago School
  • Other Chicago’s
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Child Labor
  • Definitions: Child Work versus Labor
  • Legislation: Protection or Abolition?
  • Causes: Why Do Children Work?
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Children and Mapping
  • Introduction
  • Development of Cartographic Understanding
  • Understanding Spatial Representations
  • Understanding the Basic Characteristics of Maps
  • Children as Map Users in the Information Technology Era
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Children/Childhood
  • Definitions
  • Origins of Work on Children by Human Geographers
  • Theoretical Concepts
  • Children’s Geographies
  • The Spatial Construction of Childhood
  • Children’s Experiences of Place
  • Critiques and Challenges
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Chinese Urbanism
  • Introduction
  • The Persistence of the State in Chinese Urbanism
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Chinese-Language Geography
  • A Long History of Chinese Human Geography
  • Characteristics of Chinese Human Geography
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Choice Modeling
  • Introduction
  • Theoretical Foundations
  • Empirical Validation and Statistical Estimation
  • Modeling Complex Choices
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Christaller, W.
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Christian Geography
  • Introduction
  • Faith Precedes Science, Faith Precedes Geography
  • Types of Christian Geography (and Types of Christian Geographers)
  • Christian Worldview and Christian Philosophy: A Paradigm for All of Academic Geography
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Chronic Disease
  • Introduction
  • The Global Burden
  • Determinants of Chronic Disease
  • Geographies of Chronic Disease
  • Response to the Burden
  • Looking Forward
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Citation Geography
  • Distributions of Human Activity
  • Working with Statistical Distributions
  • Ordering by Citation
  • Extracting the Geography of Citation
  • Extracting Spatial Productivity from Massive Data Sets
  • Related Work
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Citizenship
  • Introduction
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Citizenship and Governmentality, Rural
  • Introduction
  • Understanding Rural Citizenship
  • Governmentality
  • Governing Rural Citizens
  • Summary
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • City Marketing
  • Introduction
  • City Marketing in Historical–Geographical Context
  • Placing City Marketing: Geographical Approaches
  • Know Your Audience: Targets of City Marketing
  • Staying on Message: The Politics of City Marketing
  • Future Directions
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • City-Region
  • Origin of the City-Region
  • Conceptions of the City-Region
  • The City-Region Interactions
  • City-Region as a Functional Economic Space
  • Mapping the City-Region
  • The Structure of the City-Region
  • City-Region as a Political-Administrative Space
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Civil Society
  • Introduction
  • Delineating Civil Society
  • Ideological Roots and Theoretical Perspectives on Civil Society
  • Civil Society and Development Policy
  • Civil Society across Space
  • How Useful Is Civil Society?
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Claval, P.
  • Claval, Paul (1932–)
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Climate Change
  • Introduction
  • Evidence from the Past
  • The Record of Climate Change
  • Natural Causes of Climate Change
  • Human Causes of Climate Change: Global Warming
  • Modeling and Future Projections
  • Impacts
  • Policy Responses and Adaptation
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Cloke, P.
  • Cloke, Paul (1956 –)
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Cognitive Geography
  • What Is Cognitive Geography?
  • Research Topics in Cognitive Geography
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Cohen, S.
  • Cohen, Saul (1925–)
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Cold War
  • European Start of the Cold War
  • Cold War Outside of Europe
  • Legacy of the Cold War
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Colonialism I
  • Introduction
  • A Brief Historical Geography of Modern European Colonialism
  • Colonial Projects and Outcomes
  • Colonial Legacies: Economy, Governance, Education
  • Colonial Cultures
  • Colonial Geographies
  • Colonialism in the Present
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Colonialism II
  • New Imperialisms, New Colonialisms, and New Political Geographies
  • Colonialism Amidst Global Closure
  • Reconfiguring the Colonial World: Redrawing Boundaries with a Politicized Geography
  • The Political Geographies and Accelerated Colonialisms of Inter-War Totalitarianism
  • Decolonization and Rethinking Colonialism
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Colonialism, Internal
  • Definition
  • Conceptual Origins
  • Mechanisms of Internal Colonialism
  • Whither Internal Colonialism?
  • Critical Assessment
  • Summary
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Color, Mapping
  • Introduction
  • Color Vision and Perception
  • Color Specification Systems
  • Choosing and Designing Color Schemes
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Commodity Chains
  • Commodity Chains: An Introduction
  • Commodity Chains: A Conceptualization
  • Commodity Chains: An Application
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Communicable Diseases, Globalization of
  • Introduction
  • Disease Ecology Model
  • Globalization and Communicable Diseases
  • Mapping Communicable Diseases
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Communist and Post-Communist Geographies
  • Definitions of Communist Geography
  • Communist Geography as an Approach Linked to the Theory of Scientific Communism
  • Communist (Socialist) Geography Supporting the Building of State Socialism
  • Geography in State Socialist Countries
  • Characteristics of the Post-Communist/Post-Socialist Geographies
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Community
  • Tying Down Communities
  • Imagining Community as Social and Spatial Organization
  • The Emptying Out of Place-Based Communities
  • Placing Communities
  • Community as an Impediment to Social and Spatial Justice
  • Reflexive Communities
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Competitiveness
  • Introduction
  • Contradictory Geographies of Competitiveness
  • From Industrial Geography to Global Shifts
  • Industrial Districts and the New Regionalism
  • Postindustrial Spaces
  • Social Networks Facilitating ‘Global Shifts’
  • Learning and the Sociality of Competitiveness
  • Political Economy and Political Agency
  • Diverse Economies
  • Relational Geographies of Competitiveness
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Complementary and Alternative Medicine
  • Introduction
  • The Organization of CAM Research
  • Social Scientific Fact Finding
  • The Origins of a Geographical Perspective
  • Consumer and Provider Geographies
  • Place and Presence
  • Calls for Future Inquiry
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Complexity Theory, Nonlinear Dynamic Spatial Systems
  • Origins
  • Structure and Dynamics
  • Interaction Networks
  • The Role of Computer Models and Simulation
  • Impacts in Human Geography
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Computational Human Geography
  • Introduction
  • Computation in Human Geography
  • Issues and Critiques
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Concentrated Deconcentration
  • Introduction
  • Background and Origins of the Concept
  • A Multipurpose Concept
  • Achievements and Flaws
  • Concentrated Deconcentration Today
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Conservation and Ecology
  • Introduction
  • Ecology
  • Conservation: A Very Brief Overview
  • The Rise of Global Conservation Institutions
  • The Contribution of Human Geography
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Consumption
  • Introduction
  • Defining Consumption
  • Theorizing Consumption
  • Spatializing Consumption
  • Politicizing Consumption
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Content Analysis
  • Introduction – Content Analysis in the Social Sciences
  • Quantitative Content Analysis
  • Qualitative (Hermeneutic) Content Analysis
  • Content Analysis in Human Geography
  • Debates
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Corbridge, S.
  • Corbridge, Stuart E. (1957–)
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Core-Periphery Models
  • Intranational Models
  • International Models
  • Contemporary Discussions
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Corporate Responsibilities
  • Overview of Corporate Responsibilities
  • Concepts and Tools of Corporate Responsibility
  • Globalization, Development, and Corporate Responsibility
  • Critiques of the Corporate Responsibility Movement
  • Corporate Responsibilities: An Economic–Geographical Research Agenda
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Corridor and Axis Development
  • Introduction
  • Brief History of the Development of the Concepts of Corridor and Axis: Birth of the Idea of Linearity in Urban Utopias
  • Criticism of Corridor and Axis Development: Linearity versus Compactness
  • Types and Different Interpretations of Corridor and Axis development
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Cosgrove, D.
  • Denis Cosgrove (1948–2008)
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Cosmopolitanism
  • Introduction
  • Definitions of Cosmopolitanism
  • Critiques of Cosmopolitanism
  • Cosmopolitanism, Sociocultural Identity, and Space
  • Cosmopolitan Futures?
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Counter-Mapping
  • Introduction
  • Origin, Current Usage, and Similar Terms
  • Theoretical Status
  • The Diffusion of Counter-Mapping
  • Benefits: Rights, Possession, and Sustainability
  • Pitfalls: Transformation, Reification, and Illegitimacy
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Counterurbanization
  • Conceptualization
  • Evidence
  • Explanation
  • Implications
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Cox, K.
  • Cox, Kevin R. (1939–)
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Creativity
  • The Geographically Bounded Nature of Creativity
  • Creativity and Economic Development
  • The Economic Governance of Creativity
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Crime/Fear of Crime
  • Crime Is a Social Construct
  • Fear Is a Social Construct (with Spatial Consequences)
  • Gender Makes a Difference
  • A Vicious Circle of Defence
  • The Globalization of Fear
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Critical Cartography
  • Early Critique in the History of Mapmaking
  • Critique within the Profession of Cartography
  • The Outside Critique
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Critical Geography
  • Introduction
  • What Does ‘Critical’ in Critical Geography Mean?
  • Revolutionary and Counter-Revolutionary Theory
  • Geography as Critical Social Science
  • Critical Geography as a Standpoint Epistemology
  • Geography and Critical Practice
  • National/International Critical Traditions
  • Critical Geography in France
  • Critical Geography in Germany
  • Critical Geography in North America and the United Kingdom
  • International Critical Geography
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Critical Geopolitics
  • Introduction
  • Post-Structural Critical Geopolitics
  • Critical Geopolitics and Identity
  • The Critical Geopolitics of the Cold War
  • Popular Critical Geopolitics
  • Embodying Geopolitics
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Critical GIS
  • Definition: Critical GIS
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Critical Rationalism (After Popper)
  • Popper
  • Popper and the Positivists
  • Critical Rationalism
  • Popper’s Political and Social Philosophies
  • Popper’s Theory of Objective Knowledge: Three Worlds
  • Popper and (Human) Geography
  • Legacies: Philosophical, Scientific, and Geographical
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Critical Realism/Critical Realist Geographies
  • Realism: A Conceptual Introduction
  • Critical Realism in Human Geography and Cognate Social Sciences
  • Critical Realist Method
  • Critical Realism’s Challenges
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Critical Theory (After Habermas)
  • Introducing Habermas, Critical Theory, and the Frankfurt School
  • Habermas and Geography: Initial Engagements
  • Geography and Habermas: Signs of Disengagement
  • Habermas Post ‘Human Interests’
  • Concluding Remarks
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Cross-Cultural Research
  • Introduction
  • What Is Cross-Cultural Research?
  • Doing Cross-Cultural Research
  • The Politics of Cross-Cultural Research and Methods
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Cultural Capital
  • Introduction
  • Uses of the Concept of Cultural Capital
  • Spatial Dimensions of Cultural Capital
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Cultural Economy
  • The Cultural Mode of Economic Action: The Cultural Economy
  • The Economy of Cultural Products and Services: The Cultural Economy
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Cultural Geography
  • An Introductory Note on the Meaning of ‘Culture’
  • Cultural Geography, Take One: In the Beginning
  • Cultural Geography, Take Two: …The More Things Stay the Same
  • Cultural Geography, Take 3: Re-Placing ‘the Human’
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Cultural Materialism
  • Introduction
  • Historical Materialism and the Problem of Culture
  • Politics, Pedagogies, and Cultural Materialism
  • The Sociology of Culture: Applying Cultural Materialism
  • Cultural Materialism and Human Geography
  • Beyond 2000 and Towards the Future?
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Cultural Politics
  • Introduction
  • Hegemony, Culture, and the Political Economy
  • The Geographies of Cultural Politics
  • Recent Developments
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Cultural Studies and Human Geography
  • Introduction
  • Cultural Studies
  • The Cultural Turn
  • The Spatial Turn
  • Doing Cultural Geography and Cultural Studies
  • Other Cultural Turns
  • Last Thoughts
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Cultural Turn
  • Introduction: A ‘Cultural Turn’?
  • Three Senses of the Cultural Turn in Human Geography
  • The Cultural Turn in British Human Geography
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Culture
  • Introduction
  • Ideas Associated with Culture in Contemporary Human Geography
  • How Geographers Use Culture
  • Postscript
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Culture/Natures
  • Introduction
  • Origins and Legacy of the Nature/Culture Divide
  • Interior Topographies and Exterior Terrains: Nature/Culture Formations
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Cumulative Causation
  • Microeconomic Origins
  • Myrdal: Social and Macroeconomic Development
  • Hirschman: Inter-Industry Linkages
  • Kaldor: Income Elasticity
  • Similar Concepts in Marxist Theory and Modern Economics
  • Summary
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Cyberspace/Cyberculture
  • Introduction
  • Economic Geographies of Cyberspace
  • Cultural Geographies of Cyberspace
  • Cyberculture Studies
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • D
  • Darby, H. C.
  • Darby, Henry Clifford (1909–1992)
  • See also
  • Further reading
  • Darwinism (and Social Darwinism)
  • Darwinism: Definition
  • Origins of The Origin
  • Natural Selection
  • Social Darwinism: Definition
  • Forms of Social Darwinism
  • Geographies of Darwinism
  • Darwinism in Geography
  • Darwinism in the Current Landscape of Discipline
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • De-Industrialization
  • Introduction
  • Defining and Explaining De-industrialization
  • Uneven Histories and Geographies of De-industrialization
  • The Politics of De-industrialization
  • Coda: Manufacturing (Still) Matters
  • Further Reading
  • De-Localization
  • Introduction
  • The changing Geographies of Production
  • A Conceptual Framework
  • Implications of Delocalisation
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Dear, M. J.
  • See also
  • Further reading
  • Debt
  • Introduction
  • Anatomy of Debt
  • Response of the Global Regulators
  • Tackling the Debt Crisis
  • Conclusions
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Deconstruction
  • Introduction: What’s in a Name?
  • Deconstruction: The Basics
  • Deconstruction and Politics
  • Deconstruction in Geography
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Defensible Space
  • The Concept of Defensible Space
  • The Dimensions of Defensible Space
  • The Emergence of Defensible Space from Various Disciplines
  • In and out of Favor: The Investigation and Practical Application of Defensible Space in the US and the UK over the Last 30 Years
  • Suspicion and Criticism of the Idea
  • Defensible Space Has Been Blamed for Many Things
  • Designing Safe Spaces Where People Want to Live
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Deforestation
  • Introduction
  • What Is a Forest? What Is Deforestation?
  • Patterns of Forest Conversion and Degradation
  • Environmental and Social Costs of Deforestation
  • Causes of Forest Conversion and Degradation
  • Policies to Preserve Forests and Forest Services
  • Conclusions
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Democracy
  • Introduction
  • Geographies of Liberal Democracy
  • Alternative Democratic Spaces
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Demography
  • Definitions
  • Population Characteristics
  • Demographic Models
  • Main Components of Change and Associated Indicators
  • Processes of Population Change and Their Implications
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Dependency
  • Introduction
  • Maps of the World
  • Dependency Theory
  • Exceptions to Dependency
  • Dependency Reasserted
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Statistics, Descriptive
  • Descriptive and Spatial Statistics
  • Descriptive Statistics
  • Minimum and Maximum
  • Range
  • Percentile
  • Mean
  • Median
  • Mode
  • Mean Deviation
  • Variance
  • Standard Deviation
  • Skewness
  • Kurtosis
  • Grouped Data
  • Spatial Descriptive Statistics
  • Mean Center
  • Median Center
  • Standard Distance
  • Standard Deviational Ellipse
  • Concluding Remarks
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Readings
  • Desertification
  • Introduction
  • The Process of Desertification
  • Causation
  • Impacts
  • Extent
  • Monitoring and Predicting Desertification
  • Combating Desertification and Rehabilitating Desertified Land
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Determinism/Environmental Determinism
  • Introduction
  • (Environmental) Determinism in Geography: Roots and Branches
  • Science, Evolutionary Theory, and an Environmentally Determinist Human Geography
  • Softening Environmental Determinism
  • Determinism, Spatial Science, and Agency-Structure
  • Determinism in Physics: An Addendum
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Development I
  • Introduction
  • Development as Modernization
  • Marxist and Structuralist Approaches to Development
  • Neoliberalism as a Route to Development
  • Participation and Development at the Grassroots
  • Sustainable Development
  • Postdevelopment and Postcolonialism
  • Summary
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Development II
  • Introduction
  • State, Violence, and Development
  • Development and Security
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevent Websites
  • Developmentalism
  • Meanings and Origins
  • Third World Developmentalism: From Interwar to Postwar Constructions
  • Alternatives to Developmentalism (‘Postdevelopmentalism’)
  • The Genealogy of Postdevelopmentalism
  • Debating Alternatives
  • Developmentalism and the Rise of Neoliberalism
  • Developmentalism and Development Geography
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Devolution
  • What Is Devolution?
  • Why Devolution?
  • Devolution Models
  • Powers and Competences
  • Devolution and Beyond
  • The Research Agenda
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Dialectical Reasoning and Dialectical Materialism
  • Introducing Dialectics
  • The Dance of the Dialectic
  • The Dialectics of Place and Space: A Historical–Geographical Materialist Perspective
  • Doing Dialectics in Geography
  • See also
  • Further Readings
  • Dialogism (After Bakhtin)
  • Introduction
  • Inspecting Bakhtin’s Key Concepts
  • Carnival and the Carnivalesque
  • Dialogism and Human Geography
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Diaries (Video, Audio or Written)
  • Introduction
  • The Dominance of Written Contributions and the Rise of ‘Alternative Techniques’
  • Issues Arising Out of Using Different Techniques
  • Solicited or Unsolicited? A Crucial Distinction
  • The Politics of Diary Keeping – The Potential for Empowerment?
  • Combining Diaries with Other Methodological Approaches
  • Interpretation and Analysis
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Diaspora
  • Introduction to Diaspora: Exiles and Displacements
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Dicken, P.
  • Dicken, Peter (1947–)
  • See also
  • Further reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Difference/Politics of Difference
  • Introduction
  • Liberalism, Difference, and the Politics of Difference
  • Difference and (Geographical) Knowledge
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Diffusion
  • The Cultural Geography Tradition of Diffusion Research
  • Hagerstrand on the Diffusion of Innovation
  • Diffusion Research since Hagerstrand: Efforts Related to the Operational Model
  • Diffusion Research since Hagerstrand: Third World Development as a Diffusion Process
  • Diffusion Research since Hagerstrand: Efforts Related to the Conceptual Model
  • Diffusion Research in Geography as a Mirror of the Discipline
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Digital Data, Historical Geography and
  • Digitization
  • Gazetteers
  • Geo-Referencing
  • Historical GIS: Principles
  • Historical GIS: National Systems
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Digital Divide
  • Introduction
  • Spatial Representations of Digital Inequality
  • Shaping the Digital Divide
  • Making a Difference
  • Solutions in Search of a Problem
  • Conclusions
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Digital Earth
  • Introduction
  • An Intellectual History of Digital Earth
  • Digital Earth and Technology
  • Development and Realization of Digital Earth
  • Space and Scale in the Context of Digital Spatial Information
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Disability and Chronic Illness
  • Definitions and Key Concepts
  • Disability/Chronic Illness Research in Human Geography
  • Ethics and Empowerment in Disability Research
  • Future Directions
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Discourse
  • Defining Discourse
  • Discourse and Sexuality
  • The Example of the Tramp
  • Geographies of Discourse
  • Lines of Critique
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Discourse Analysis
  • Introduction
  • Foucauldian Conceptualizations of Discourse
  • ‘Doing’ Discourse Analysis
  • Summary
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Disease Diffusion
  • Introduction
  • Disease Occurrence – Disease Distribution
  • Diffusion Process
  • Epidemiological Landscapes
  • Epidemiological Transition and Future Prospects
  • Tools for Understanding Disease Diffusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Disease Mapping
  • Maps as a Medium for Medical Science
  • Yellow Fever: Valentine Seaman
  • Taxonomies and Topographies
  • Topographies of Disease
  • Modern Dot Maps
  • Disease as Mapped Statistic
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Distance
  • Introduction
  • Discourses of Distance
  • Dimensions of Distance
  • Relative Distance
  • The Significance of Distance
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Dudley Stamp, L.
  • Dudley Stamp, Lawrence (1898–1966)
  • See also
  • Further reading
  • Dutch Human Geography
  • Introduction
  • Development of Dutch Human Geography
  • Addendum
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Dwelling
  • Introduction
  • Foundations
  • Post-Heideggerian Dwelling. Temporalities, Landscapes, Taskscapes, and Politics
  • Dwelling and Geography
  • Final Points
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Website
  • E
  • e-Business and e-Commerce
  • Introduction
  • Scope and Scale of e-Business
  • Functions and Content of e-Business
  • Spatial Organization of e-Business
  • What Does the Future Hold for e-Business?
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • East Asian Miracle
  • Introduction
  • The World Bank and the Selling of the East Asian Miracle
  • The Developmental State View
  • The Impact of the 1997 Crisis
  • Rethinking the Miracle
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • East/West
  • Historical Context
  • The Rise of the West
  • Light from the East
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Ecological Fallacy
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Ecology
  • Introduction
  • History
  • Tensions in Ecology
  • Normative Ecology – Sub-areas
  • The Influence of Ecology in Human Geography
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Economic Crises
  • What Is an Economic Crisis? The Case of East Asia
  • Explaining the East Asian Crisis
  • Theory of Crisis
  • Finance
  • Conclusions
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Economic Development, Rural
  • Rural Socioeconomic Change
  • Integration, Participation, and Partnership
  • Contemporary Examples
  • The Contested Nature of ‘Community’
  • Partnerships and Power
  • Incorporation, Co-Option, and De-Radicalization
  • Conclusions
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Economic Geography
  • Introduction
  • History and Approaches to Economic Geography
  • Contemporary Economic Geography
  • Conclusion and Future Direction
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Economic Geography, Quantitative
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Economics and Human Geography
  • Introduction
  • Changing Times, Changing Relationships
  • Locating the ‘Economy’ in Contemporary Human Geography
  • Disciplinary Identities, Relevance, and Reproduction
  • Future Directions
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Economies, Alternative
  • Introduction
  • The Trouble with Alternatives
  • Theorizing Economic Difference
  • Spatialities of Alterity and Difference
  • Performativity, Economic Difference, and the Politics of Research
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossasry
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Economies, Borderland
  • Concepts
  • Theoretical Arguments: A Border as a Hindrance or an Opportunity
  • Borderlands and Welfare
  • Impacts of the Closing and Opening Up of Borders
  • Economic Projects for Boosting Borderland Economies
  • Conditions of Networking in Borderlands
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Economies, Branch Plant
  • Introduction
  • Branch Plants and Branch Plant Economies
  • Identifying Branch Plant Economies
  • Emergence of Branch Plant Economies
  • Measurement of Impacts
  • The Post-Branch Plant Economy
  • Policy
  • Research Agenda
  • Summary
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Economies, Imagined
  • Introduction
  • Social and Economic Imaginaries
  • Imagining the ‘National’ Economy
  • Imagining Economic Citizens
  • Imagining Economic Globalization
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Further reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Economy, Informal
  • Introduction
  • Approaches to the Informal Economy
  • The Causes of the Informal Economy
  • Geographical Perspectives
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Ecotourism
  • Introduction
  • Origins and Definition
  • Issues
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Edge Cities
  • Introduction
  • Edge City
  • Lineages of Edge City
  • Paradoxes of Edge City
  • California Über Alles?
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Edge Effects
  • Edge Effects: Definition
  • Types of Edge Effects
  • Magnitude of Edge Effects
  • Edge-Correction Techniques
  • Comparison of Edge-Correction Techniques
  • Discussion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Education
  • Introduction
  • Politics of Education
  • Political Geographies of Education: Welfare State Systems as Example
  • Written Geographies
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Electoral Cartography
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Electoral Districts
  • Definition and Purpose of Electoral Districts
  • Variation in Population Size of Electoral Districts
  • Adjustments to Electoral Districts
  • Issues in Electoral Districting
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Electoral Geography
  • Introduction
  • Origins
  • Methodological Issues
  • Social Bases of the Vote
  • The Neighborhood Effect
  • Valence Politics: Economic Geography and Electoral Geography
  • The Geography of Electoral Campaigning
  • From Votes to Seats: Geography and Electoral Systems
  • Scale and Electoral Geography
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Embeddedness
  • Introduction
  • Intellectual Origins of the Concept
  • Economic Geography and Embeddedness
  • Spaces and Scales of Embeddedness
  • Whither Embeddedness?
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Embodied Knowing
  • Introduction
  • Feminist Critiques
  • The Body as Other
  • Embodying Knowledge as a Methodology
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Emigration
  • A Brief History of Emigration
  • Emigration Dynamics
  • Changing Discourses on Emigration
  • Consequences of Emigration
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Emotional Geographies
  • Introduction: Why on Earth Study Emotions?
  • Cartesian Coordinates and Emotionally Empty Space
  • Current Trends in Emotional Geographies
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Emotional Knowing
  • Introduction
  • Passionate Traditions
  • Integrating, Embodying, and Narrating Emotion: Feminist Perspectives on Emotional Knowing
  • Enlivening, Affecting, and Rethinking Emotion: Emotional Knowing Beyond Representation
  • Relating, Flowing, and Connecting Emotion: Psychoanalytic Approaches to Emotional Knowing
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Empire
  • Introduction: Geography and Empire
  • Defining Empire and Imperialism
  • Empire State Building: British Imperialism
  • Toward the Colonial Present and the ‘New’ Imperialism
  • Conclusions: Imperialisms ‘Old’ and ‘New’
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Empowerment
  • Introduction
  • Definitions
  • Consciousness Raising and Empowerment
  • Changing Approaches to Empowerment within Development Geography
  • Empowerment Applied in Other Areas of Human Geography
  • Empowerment through Claiming Space
  • Empowerment as a Process and a Goal
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Enlightenment Geography
  • Introduction
  • Geographies of the Enlightenment
  • Geographical Knowledge and the Enlightenment World
  • Geography in the Enlightenment
  • Enlightenment’s Geography: Matters of Continuing Significance
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Enterprise Discourse
  • Introduction
  • Enterprise Discourse and the Nature of the Firm
  • Types of Enterprise Discourses
  • Legal
  • Alternate Discourses of Responsibility
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Entrepreneurship
  • Introduction
  • Definitions and Measurement of Entrepreneurship
  • Entrepreneurship as a Regional Event
  • Demand and Supply of Entrepreneurship
  • Industry Structure
  • Entrepreneurship as an Organizational Product
  • Clusters
  • Urbanization
  • Culture
  • Unemployment
  • Growth in (Scientific) Knowledge
  • Financial Capital
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Website
  • Entropy-Maximising Models
  • Data Paucity and Ecological Inference
  • Entropy
  • The Entropy-Maximizing Procedure
  • Gravity Models and Transportation Flows
  • Geographies of Voting
  • Conclusions
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Environment
  • Environment
  • Other Themes in Environmental Thinking
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Environment, Historical Geography of
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Environmental Hazards
  • Hazard Definition
  • Temporal and Spatial Trends
  • Modeling Environmental Hazards
  • Vulnerability
  • Physical Dimensions
  • Human Dimensions: From Society to the Individual
  • From Mitigation to Resilience
  • Integration
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Environmental Health
  • Introduction
  • From Medical to Health
  • From Health to Environment
  • Natural Hazards
  • Technological Hazards
  • Design, Measurement, and Evaluation
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Environmental Justice
  • The Environmental Justice Movement in the USA
  • The Sense of Environmental Justice in Europe
  • Global Environmentalism and Justice
  • Human Geography and Environmental Justice
  • Late Modern Communities of Justice
  • Just Geography
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Environmental Policy
  • Introduction
  • Environmental Policy and Sustainability
  • The Internationalization of Environmental Policy
  • From Government to Governance
  • Policy Cultures and Styles
  • Policy Instruments
  • See also
  • Further reading
  • Environmental Regulation
  • Introduction
  • History
  • Challenges for Environmental Regulation
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Environmental Security
  • The Environment and Security
  • Environmental Change and National Security
  • Environmental Change and Violent Conflict
  • Environmental Change and Human Security
  • Conclusions
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Environmental Studies and Human Geography
  • Introduction
  • The Historical Roots of Disciplinary Identities
  • Converging Identities and Themes
  • Diverging Identities and Approaches
  • Lessons and Opportunities
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Environmentalism
  • Environmentalism
  • Eras of Environmentalism
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Epidemiological Transition
  • Introduction
  • Omran’s Original Formulation of Epidemiological Transition Theory
  • Critiques and Extensions of the Theory
  • Epidemiological Transition and Health Planning
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Equity
  • What Is Equity?
  • Measuring Equity
  • Achieving Equity?
  • Equity and Geography
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Error (Propagation and Modeling)
  • Introduction
  • Error Modeling
  • Error Propagation Modeling
  • Visualization of Error and Uncertainty in GIS
  • Managing Error in GIS Practice
  • Conclusion and Future Directions of Error Research
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Ethical Issues in Research
  • Introduction
  • Background History and Context
  • Governance of the Ethical Basis of Research in Human Geography
  • Summary
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Ethnic Conflict
  • Introduction
  • Defining Ethnicity
  • The Call of South Africa
  • Colonizing Ethnicity
  • Nationalizing Ethnicity
  • Marginalizing (Minority) Ethnicities
  • Urbanizing and Globalizing Ethnicity
  • Overview
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Ethnic Economies
  • Introduction
  • Origin of Interest in Social Sciences and Human Geography
  • A Typology
  • The Geography of Ethnic Economy
  • Ethnic Economies and Ethnic Entrepreneurship
  • The Two Sides of Ethnic Economy
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Ethnicity
  • Introduction
  • The Role of Migration in Ethnic Identity Formation
  • Ethnicity and Race
  • Ethnicity, Space, and Place
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Ethnicity and Resistance, Historical Geographies of
  • Introduction
  • Colonialism and Ethnic Identities
  • Globalization and Ethnicity
  • Multiculturalism, Diasporic Cultures, and Ethnicity
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Ethnography
  • Ethnography
  • From Traditional to Critical Ethnography
  • Ethnographic Fields as Contexts for Social Interaction
  • New Directions: Transnational, Collaborative, and Creative Analytical Ethnographies
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Ethnomethodology/Ethnomethodological Geography
  • Definitions
  • Origins
  • Key Concepts
  • Programs
  • Central Misunderstandings
  • Future Directions
  • Critiques
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Eurocentrism
  • Introduction
  • Critiques of Eurocentrism and Their Limitations in Geography
  • Undoing Eurocentrism
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Website
  • Europe
  • Introduction
  • The Borders of Europe
  • The Nation-State in European Political Identity
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Europe of Regions
  • Introduction
  • Europe of Regions as a Political and Sociospatial Project
  • Regionalization Processes and Patterns
  • Criticism of the ‘Europe of Regions’ Concept
  • Conclusions: Where does the Europe of Regions Stand Today?
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Evans, E. E.
  • Evans, Estyn E (1905–1989)
  • See also
  • Further reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Evolutionary Algorithms
  • Introduction
  • Design of Evolutionary Algorithms
  • Representation and Evolutionary Operations
  • Fitness Evaluation and Selection
  • Constraint Handling
  • Exploitation, Exploration, and Diversification
  • Schema Theorem
  • Multiobjective Evolutionary Algorithms
  • Spatial Optimization Using Evolutionary Algorithms
  • Critics and Future Research
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Transnational Elites
  • Introduction
  • The Evolving Nature of the Transnational Elite Concept in Economic Geography
  • Broadening Out and Focusing In
  • Concluding Comments
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Existentialism/Existential Geography
  • Introduction
  • Existentialism and Phenomenology
  • Central Existential Claims
  • Existential Perspectives in Geography
  • Major Themes in Existential Geography
  • Criticisms of Existential Geography
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Experimental Design
  • Introduction
  • Developing and Stating a Testable Hypothesis
  • Experimental Variables
  • Direct and Indirect Measurement
  • Within and between Case Experimental Design
  • Spatial Statistics and Experimental Design
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Exploration
  • Travelers’ Tales
  • ‘Because It Is There’: The Mallory Tradition of Exploration
  • Exploration and Economic Gain
  • The Age of Discovery
  • Merchant Companies
  • Colonialism and Exploration
  • Exploration and the Search for Knowledge
  • Postcolonialism
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis
  • Introduction
  • Nonspatial Tools
  • Spatial Weight Matrix
  • Global Spatial Autocorrelation
  • Local Spatial Autocorrelation
  • Looking Ahead
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Export Processing Zones
  • Introduction
  • Rationale
  • Labor Issues
  • Environmental Protection
  • The Life Cycle of EPZs
  • The Future of EPZs
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Extended Metropolitan Region
  • Definition
  • Formation and Spatial Structure
  • EMR Delimitation
  • EMR: Management
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • F
  • Factor Analysis and Principal-Components Analysis
  • Principal-Components Analysis
  • Factor Analysis
  • An Illustrative Example
  • Application in Social Area Analysis
  • Conclusion
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Fair Trade
  • Introduction
  • Fair Trade Initiatives, Ideas, and Institutions
  • Fair Trade Distribution and Consumption
  • Fair Trade Production and Exports
  • Conclusions
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Famine
  • Introduction
  • Definitions: The F-Word
  • Measurement: Intensity, Magnitude, and Early Warning
  • Famine: A Conceptual Genealogy
  • New Famines
  • Famine Futures
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Fatherland/Homeland
  • Introduction
  • Reconceptualizing Homeland
  • The Discourses and Practices of Homeland-Making
  • Homeland’s End?
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Feminism and Work
  • Definitions
  • Origins of Interest in Human Geography and the Social Sciences
  • Key Contributions
  • Feminist Geographies of Work
  • Debates, Intersections, and Concluding Comments
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Feminism, Maps and GIS
  • Introduction
  • Feminist Critiques of Cartography and GIS
  • Reclaiming GIS as a Research Tool for Feminist Geographies
  • Feminist Cartographies
  • Geospatial Technologies and Women’s Lives
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Feminism/Feminist Geography
  • Introduction
  • Emergence of Feminist Geography
  • Development of Feminist Geography
  • Significance of Feminist Geography
  • Possible Directions in Feminist Geography
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Feminist Geography, Prehistory of
  • Introduction
  • Second-Wave Feminism
  • Anglo-American Geography in the Late 1960s and Early 1970s
  • Sophie’s Story
  • Jacky’s Story
  • Concluding Thoughts
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Feminist Groups within Geography
  • Introduction
  • International Groups
  • National Groups
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Feminist Methodologies
  • Feminist Methodologies in Geography: A Brief Historical Overview
  • Feminist Theories and Geographic Practices
  • Feminist Methodologies in Geography: Practices and Politics
  • Troubling Feminist Methodologies in Geography
  • Feminist Methodologies in Geography: New Directions
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Feminist Political Economy
  • Introduction
  • Feminist Political Economy: Notion of Work and Labor
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Fertility
  • Introduction
  • Mainstream Understandings of Fertility and Reproduction
  • Reconceptualizing Fertility: Of Epistemologies, Bodies, and Desires
  • Repoliticizing Fertility: Abortion, International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Festival and Spectacle
  • Overview of the History of Festivals and Spectacles
  • Economic Underpinnings
  • Impacts on the Sociocultural and Natural Environments
  • Future Directions in Research
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Feudalism and Feudal Society
  • Introduction
  • The Study of Feudalism and Feudal Society
  • The Characteristics of Feudal Landscapes
  • The End of Feudalism
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Field Geographies
  • Introduction
  • Exploring ‘the Field’
  • A Feminist Return to ‘the Field’
  • A Postcolonial Return to ‘the Field’
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Field Systems and Enclosure
  • Introduction
  • Field Systems
  • Enclosure
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Fieldwork
  • Introduction: Fieldwork as a Method of Geographic Inquiry
  • The Evolving Contexts of Fieldwork in Human Geography
  • Conclusion: Some Present Challenges for Fieldwork in Human Geography
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Film
  • Introduction
  • Roots of Film Geography – Humanism and Political Economy
  • Cultural Turn and the Crisis of Representation
  • Cultural Studies and Cultural-Economy Approaches
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Finance, Historical Geographies of
  • Introduction
  • Using Money
  • The Evolution of Financial Systems
  • Capital Markets and Flows
  • Financial Centers
  • Low Finance
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Finance, Offshore
  • Introduction
  • Defining Offshore
  • The Rise of Offshore Finance
  • The Geography of Offshore Finance
  • The Crackdown of the 1990s and the Reconfiguration of Offshore Finance
  • Recent Developments
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Financial Centers, International
  • Past and Present
  • The Social Networks of Financial Capital
  • The Rising Scale of Financial Intermediation
  • The Pivots of Financial Capital
  • The Future
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Financial Exclusion
  • Introduction
  • Financial Exclusion in Context
  • Financial Exclusion and Public Policy
  • Future Research
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Financial Knowledge
  • Introduction
  • Scope and Significance
  • Rationality and Knowledge
  • Risk and Uncertainty
  • Stylized Facts
  • Context of Knowing
  • Emotional Knowledge
  • Future Research
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Financial Risks and Management
  • Financial Risks and the Risk Society
  • Environmental Risks and Insurance
  • Personal Financial Risks and Exclusion
  • Corporate Risks and Management
  • Conclusions
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Firms
  • Introduction
  • Theorizing the Firm
  • From Contracts to Behavioralism
  • Developing Socioeconomic Perspectives on the Firm
  • Socioeconomic Perspectives on the Firm in Economic Geography
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • First Law of Geography
  • Introduction
  • Tobler’s First Law of Geography
  • Commentary
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • First World
  • Introduction
  • Origins of the First World
  • The End of History
  • Economic Diversity
  • Levels of Human Development
  • Global Political and Economic Power
  • Summary
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Flâneur, The
  • Introduction
  • The Emergence of the Flâneur
  • Charles Baudelaire, the Urban Crowd, and Nineteenth-Century Paris
  • The Historical Decline of the Flâneur and His Intellectual after Life
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Fluidity–Fixity
  • Introduction
  • Sedentarism and Nomadism
  • Dialectics
  • No Holding Still
  • Special Effects
  • Fixed and Fluid Futures
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Focus Groups
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Food Networks
  • The Specificities of a Network Approach to Food
  • Food Networks in Practice
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Food Networks, Alternative
  • Introduction: Alternative Food-Scapes
  • Approaching AFNs: Understanding the Spaces of Quality, Embeddedness, and Ethics
  • The American Experience: Conventionalization, Entrepreneurialism, and Localism
  • Niche Markets, Relocalization, and ‘Alternative’ Policy: AFNs and the Western European Experience
  • Globalized AFNs: Qualities, Ethics, and Mainstreaming
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Food Regimes
  • Introduction
  • Origins and Significance
  • A Third Food Regime?
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Fordism
  • Introduction
  • Fordism and the Organization of Work in the Workplace
  • Fordism as a Regime of Accumulation and Mode of Regulation: Balancing Mass Production with Mass Consumption and Mass Destruction
  • Fordist Spatial Divisions of Labor
  • Fordism and Fordist Geographies of Exchange and Consumption
  • Fordism and the Destruction of the Natural Environment
  • The Limits to Fordism?
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Fordism, Post-Fordism and Flexible Specialization
  • Introduction
  • The Narrative: The Historical Transition from Fordism to Post-Fordism and the Rise of Flexible Specialization
  • Strengths and Weaknesses of the Narrative
  • Conclusion: Post-Fordism Today
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Foreign Direct Investment
  • A Characterization
  • FDI Growth Patterns
  • Explaining the Flow
  • Local Impacts
  • National Policies and Regulations Targeting FDI
  • Global Regulation
  • Outlook
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Foucauldianism
  • Introduction
  • Key Themes
  • Foucauldian Geographies
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Fractal Analysis
  • Introduction
  • Key Concepts
  • Algorithms
  • Applications
  • Major Issues
  • Recent Advances in Geography
  • Future Directions
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Francophone Geography
  • The Formation of the French School of Geography: An Overview
  • Vidal de la Blache
  • The Interwar and Post-War Period: Emergent Themes and Subdisciplines
  • Economic Geography
  • Political Geography
  • Cultural Geography
  • Francophone Geography Today: The Continued Broadening of an Intellectual and Physical Space
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Functionalism (Including Structural Functionalism)
  • Introduction
  • The Development of Functionalism in the Social Sciences
  • Functionalism and Structural Functionalism
  • Criticism, Demise, and Revival of Functionalism
  • The Concept of Function
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Fuzzy Set and Fuzzy Logic
  • Introduction
  • Fuzzy Spatial Concepts
  • Regional Concepts and Regionalization
  • Spatial Economic Behavior and Planning under Fuzziness
  • Spatial Information and Intelligent Spatial Decision Support Systems
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • G
  • Gardens and Gardening
  • Introduction
  • Garden Iconographies, Materiality, and Sacred Space
  • The Garden, Ideology, Discourse, and Power
  • Garden, Gardening, and Cultural Identity
  • Consumption, Commodification, and the Identity Process
  • Gardening as Embodied Practice and Performative Process
  • Back to Nature and Beyond
  • See also
  • Further reading
  • Garrison, W.
  • Garrison, William (1924–)
  • See also
  • Further reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Gated Communities/Privatopias
  • Definition
  • The Development of Gated Communities
  • Drivers for the Increase in Gated Communities
  • Crime and Other Effects
  • Life Behind the Walls
  • Gated Communities in Literature
  • Wider Implications
  • The Future
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Gay Geographies
  • Introduction: Invisible Cities – Gay Geographies in Historical Context
  • The Idea of the ‘Gay Ghetto’
  • The Functions of a ‘Gay Ghetto’
  • The Political Economy of Gay Spaces in a Postindustrial Age
  • Issues
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Gender and Health
  • Introduction – General Trends
  • Summary
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Gender and Rurality
  • Introduction
  • Gender and Agriculture
  • Gender and the Rural Community
  • Gender and Rural Sexuality
  • Gender and the Rural Body
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Gender in the City
  • Introduction
  • Something Old, Something New?
  • Gendered Understandings of Urban Form and of Gendered City Lives
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Gender, Historical Geographies of
  • Introduction
  • The Geographical Discipline
  • Adding Women to Historical Geographies of Gender
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Genealogy and Family History
  • Introduction
  • Popular Family History and Genealogy
  • Historical Geography and Genealogy
  • Effects and Geographic Ramifications of New Technologies on Family History Research
  • Genealogy and Historical Geography and Its Future
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Genealogy Method
  • Situating Genealogy
  • Genealogical Analytics
  • Genealogy in Practice
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Generalization
  • Scale, Pattern, and Geographic Process
  • Tools and Techniques for Map Generalization
  • Analysis, Synthesis, and Evaluation of Cartographic Solutions
  • Modeling the Generalization Process
  • Multirepresentation Databases
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Website
  • Genetics
  • Introduction
  • Networks of Genes
  • Genetic Cultures
  • The Ethics and Regulation of Genetics
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Gentrification
  • Definitions
  • History of Gentrification
  • Causes of Gentrification
  • The Process of Gentrification
  • Consequences of Gentrification
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Website
  • Gentrification, Rural
  • Introduction
  • Gentrification as Class Colonization and Displacement
  • Gentrification as Capital Investment
  • Agents of Gentrification and Social Difference
  • Gentrification, Gender and Reproductive Labor
  • Gentrification and Culture
  • Concluding Comments
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Geocomputation
  • Introduction
  • Inductive Emphasis
  • Spatial Orientation
  • Technical Novelty
  • Computational Intensity
  • Policy Focus
  • Multidisciplinarity
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Geodemographics
  • Introduction
  • Early Developments of Geodemographics
  • Examples of Geodemographics
  • Data
  • Methods
  • Issues
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Geodesy
  • Geoid, Ellipsoid, and Gravity Field
  • Coordinate Systems
  • Satellite Geodesy and Point Positioning
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Geographical Journals
  • Introduction
  • Geographical Journals: A Brief Description
  • Power Geometries of Geographical Journal Publication
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Geographical Masking
  • Introduction
  • Threats to Privacy and Anonymity: Disclosure Risk
  • Does the Location of an Individual Identify the Individual?
  • Spatial Aggregation as a Geographic Mask
  • Cartographic Display
  • Principles of Masking
  • Pros and Cons of Concealing Details of the Mask
  • Effectiveness of Geographical Masks
  • Alternatives to Geographic Masking
  • Conclusions
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Geographically Weighted Regression
  • Background
  • Geographically Weighted Regression
  • Issues
  • Debates
  • Alternatives
  • Concluding Remarks
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Geography, History of
  • What Is the History of Geography and Why Do It?
  • How Do We Write a History of Geography?
  • Contextual and Discursive Approaches to the History of Geography
  • Historical Sources
  • Trends and Contestation in Geographical Thought and Practice
  • Filling in and Laying Claim to the Blanks on the Map
  • Unpicking the Philosophy of Geography in the History of Geography
  • The Region
  • Spatial Science and the Quantitative Revolution
  • The Last Thirty Years
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Geohistory
  • Introduction
  • Environments and History as Conceived by Geographers and Historians from the Early Twentieth Century
  • Braudel’s Geohistory
  • Historians’ Geohistory
  • Geographers’ Geohistory
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Geomatics
  • Fundamentals
  • Integrative Topics in Geomatics
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Geopolitics
  • Introduction
  • Geopolitics as a Discursive Construction–Some Theoretical Remarks
  • The Tidal Waves of Discourse: Geopolitics and Geopolitical Representations in Different Historical Periods
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Geopolitics and Religion
  • Introduction
  • Religion and Nationalism
  • Religion as Transnational Force
  • Religion and Territorial Conflict
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Georeferencing, Geocoding
  • Introduction to Georeferencing
  • Georeferencing Methods
  • Using Georeferencing
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Geospatial Intelligence
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Geovisualization
  • Introduction
  • Nature of Geovisualization
  • Alternative Visual Representations
  • Challenges
  • Conclusions
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • German-Language Geography
  • Introduction
  • Developments and International Dialogs
  • A Late Discipline? Changing Paradigms and Perspectives
  • Organization and Research Areas
  • Conclusions: Talking to Whom? Language and User Communities
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Gerrymandering
  • Introduction
  • How to Gerrymander
  • Examples of Gerrymandering
  • Gerrymandering and the Courts
  • Unresolved Issues
  • Redistricting Reform
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Ghettos
  • Introduction
  • Origins: The Jewish Ghetto
  • Transatlantic Connections: The African-American Ghetto
  • Other Examples
  • Case Study: The Myth of Contemporary European Ghettos
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • GIS and Cartography
  • Introduction
  • The Power of the Digital Medium
  • GIS as Threat
  • GIS as Science
  • Current Research
  • The Power of the Visual
  • The Relationship Today
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • GIS and Society
  • Scoping GIS and Society Activity
  • A Chronology of GIS and Society Research Events
  • Research Themes and Topics
  • Ongoing Debates
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Website
  • GIS, Mobile and Locational Based Services
  • Introduction
  • Mobile GIS
  • Mobile Mapping
  • Location-Based Services
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • GIS, Public Participation
  • Introduction
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • GIScience and Systems
  • Introduction
  • Applications of GIS
  • Concepts of GIS
  • The Agenda of GIScience
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Global Commodity Chains
  • Global Commodity Chains: Key Ideas and Concepts
  • Types and Governance of GCCs
  • Integration in GCCs and Industrial Upgrading: The Role of Governance
  • Global Commodity Chain Thinking: Some Shortcomings and Notes
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Global Positioning/GPS
  • Overview of GPS
  • Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)
  • GPS Segments
  • GPS Position and Travel Time Measurements
  • GPS Error Sources
  • GPS Data and Correction Services and Techniques
  • GPS Applications
  • Issues
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Global Production Networks
  • Introduction
  • Theoretical Antecedents
  • Outlining the GPN Approach
  • GPNs and Regional Development
  • Future Challenges and Research Priorities
  • See also
  • Further reading
  • Globalization and Transnational Corporations
  • Introduction
  • Geographical Perspectives on Globalization
  • Transnational Corporations
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Transport and Globalization
  • Introduction
  • A Historical Perspective on Globalization and Transport
  • Geographic Impacts of Global Transport
  • The Changing Geographic Impact of Transport
  • Global Transport and Change within Cities
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Globalization, Cultural
  • Introduction
  • Flows-and-Impacts Approach
  • Cultures-of-Economies Approach
  • Articulation Approach
  • Conclusion: The Cultural Politics of Globalization
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Globalization, Economic
  • Introduction
  • Globalization as Both Material and Discursive Processes
  • Bringing Geography Back Into the Globalization Agenda
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Golledge, R.
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Gottmann, J.
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Governance
  • Introduction
  • The Turn to Governance
  • Governance as a Research Perspective
  • Power Dependence and Collective Action
  • Self-Governing Networks
  • Beyond the Dichotomy of Government and Governance
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Governance, Corporate
  • Definitions and Origins
  • The Context of Contemporary Corporate Governance Debate
  • Theoretical Underpinnings
  • Major Mechanisms of Corporate Governance
  • International Corporate Governance
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Governance, Good
  • Introduction: ‘Good’ Governance and Its Evaluation
  • The Emergence of ‘Good Governance’ as an Aim of International Development
  • Aid Conditionality and the Implementation of ‘Good Governance’
  • Questioning the Good Governance Agenda
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Governance, Transport
  • Introduction
  • Why Is the State Involved in the Transport Sector?
  • The Neoliberal Age
  • Redefining the Role of the State
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Governance, Urban
  • What Is Urban Governance?
  • The Rolling-Out of the Governance Agenda
  • Conceptualizing Urban Governance
  • From Government to Governance – The Practices of Governance
  • Future Directions and Trends
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Governmentality
  • Introduction
  • ‘Gouvernementalité’ – The Birth of a Concept
  • The Rise of Governmentality
  • Studies in Governmentality
  • Governmentality in Human Geography
  • Critiques
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Green Revolution
  • Introduction
  • Impacts in India
  • An Evaluation of the Green Revolution
  • The Green Revolution and Africa
  • Genetically Modified Crops
  • Conclusions
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Greenfield Development
  • Introduction: Defining Greenfield Development
  • Factors Influencing Greenfield Investment
  • Greenfield Development and Regional Policy
  • Transnational Corporations and Greenfield Development
  • Locational Patterns of Greenfield Investments
  • Economic Impact of Greenfield Development
  • Regional Implications of New Trends in Transnational Investment
  • Alternative Scenarios
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Gregory, D.
  • Gregory, Derek (1951)
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Grounded Theory
  • Introduction
  • What Is It?
  • Strategies and Tools
  • Geography’s Contributions
  • Concluding Thoughts
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Growth Poles, Growth Centers
  • Introduction
  • The Theories of Growth Poles and Centers: Potentials and Pitfalls
  • Using Growth Pole Theory as a Regional Development Policy
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • H
  • Habitus
  • Habitus
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Hagerstrand, T.
  • Hägerstrand, Torsten (1916–2004)
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Haggett, P.
  • Haggett, Peter (1933–)
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Haptic or Touch-Based Knowledge
  • Introduction
  • The Role of Touch-Based Knowledge in Geography
  • Key Components of Touch
  • Social and Cultural Constructs of Touch
  • How Touch Relates to Other Sensory Modalities
  • Touch-Based Representations
  • Future of Haptic Geographies
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Harley, J. B.
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Hartshorne, R.
  • Hartshorne, Richard (1899–1992)
  • See also
  • Further reading
  • Harvey, D.
  • Harvey, David (1935–)
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further reading
  • Health and Development
  • Introduction
  • Health, Development, and Globalization: Economic Dimensions
  • Health, Development, and Globalization: Social Dimensions
  • Health, Development, and Globalization: Environmental Dimensions
  • Health, Development, and Globalization: Policy Dimensions
  • Issues
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Health Geography
  • Introduction
  • The Turn to Health
  • The Emergence of Health Geography
  • The Practice of Health Geography
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Health Inequalities
  • Introduction
  • Measurement
  • Social Inequalities
  • Income Inequalities
  • Area Inequalities
  • Spatial Sorting
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Health Services Restructuring
  • Introduction
  • Explanations
  • Key Features
  • Geographical Engagement
  • Summary
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further-reading
  • Health Systems and Health Services
  • Introduction
  • Overview of Health Systems
  • Geography and Health Systems
  • Geographical Factors in Assessing Health System Performance
  • Do Health Systems Matter? Service Provision and Health Outcomes
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Healthcare Accessibility
  • Introduction
  • Defining Access and Accessibility
  • Measuring Accessibility
  • Role of GISs
  • Accessibility and the Spatial Organization of Health Services
  • Patterns of Healthcare Accessibility
  • The Changing Patterns of Accessibility and Health Services
  • Accessibility and the Utilization of Health Services
  • Accessibility and Health Outcomes
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant WebsitesGIS websites
  • Rural websites
  • Hegemony
  • Introduction
  • Gramsci’s Adaptation of the Notion of Hegemony
  • Interpretations and Uses of Gramsci in Social Theory
  • Cox and Neo-Gramscian International Relations/International Political Economy
  • Themes in Neo-Gramscian IR/IPE
  • Geographies of Hegemony
  • A Family of Gramscian Uses?
  • Non-Marxist Conceptions of Hegemony
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Heritage
  • Introduction
  • Defining Heritage
  • Policy and Governance
  • Commodification
  • Heritage Tourism
  • Heritage Interpretation and Representation
  • Authenticity
  • The Politics of Heritage and Identity
  • World Heritage Conservation and Management
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Heritage and Culture
  • Introduction
  • Traditional Geographical Approaches to the Study of Heritage and Culture
  • Processes of Cultural and Heritage Change
  • Forces for the Maintenance of Heritage(s) and Culture(s)
  • Conclusion: Contemporary Heritage and Cultural Challenges
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Heritage and Economy
  • On Heritage and Economies: An Inevitable Ambivalence
  • The Economics of Heritage
  • Investment and the Allocation of Profits
  • Heritage in Economics
  • Heritage in Economic Development Strategies
  • Limits and Possibilities
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Heritage and Identity
  • Introducing Heritage
  • Heritage and National Identity
  • Heritage Dissonance and Contested Identities
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Heteronormativity
  • Introduction
  • Challenging Heteronormativity
  • The Heteronormativity of Geography
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Hettner, A.
  • Hettner, Alfred (1859–1941)
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further reading
  • High-Tech Industry
  • Background: Impetuses of Geographical Research into the High-Tech Industry
  • Locations and Spatial Patterns of High-Tech Industry
  • High-Tech Industry and Regional Development
  • High-Tech Industry and Internationalization of Intellectual Property Rights
  • Critique of Literature on High-Tech Industry
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further reading
  • Hinterland Development
  • Definitions − The Origin of the Term
  • Hinterlands in a Context of Sociospatial Relations
  • Geography of Hinterland Development
  • Critiques, Challenges
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Trade, Transport and Communications, Historical Geographies of
  • Early Webs of Interaction
  • The Rise and Decline of Islam
  • The European Trading Polity
  • Inland Transport and the Territorial State
  • The First Global Web and Its Problems
  • New Technologies and Hegemonic Shifts
  • Communications, the Dominant Technology
  • The Rise of Air Power
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Historical Geographies, Rural
  • Introduction
  • Approaches
  • Themes in Rural Historical Geographies
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Historical Geographies, Urban
  • Introduction
  • Urban Historical Geography, the Beginnings
  • Definitions, Methodology, and Theory: Forming the Contours of Urban Historical Geography
  • Urban Historical Geography and the Cultural Turn in Geography
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Historical Geography
  • Introduction
  • Setting a Place for History within Geography
  • Research Foci within the Broad Field of Historical Geography
  • Historical Geography in Review
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • War, Historical Geography and
  • Introduction
  • Military Geographies and War
  • Geopolitics and War
  • Social and Popular Effects of War
  • War and Memory
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Historical Geography, Evolution of
  • Nurturing Interface, to World War I
  • Distinctive Emergence, to c. 1960
  • Core Elaborations, from c. 1960
  • Histories of Geographical Thought
  • Issues
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Urban Morphologies, Historical
  • Post-War Research
  • Urban Fringe-Belts
  • The Burgage Cycle
  • The Transformation of Historic Towns
  • Agents of Change
  • Urban Maps and Atlases
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Historical-Geographical Materialism
  • Introduction
  • Historical Materialism and Geography
  • Contours of Historical-Geographical Materialism
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • HIV/AIDS in Developed Countries
  • Introduction
  • A Brief History of AIDS in Developed Countries
  • Medical Geography of AIDS
  • Health Geography of AIDS
  • Future
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • HIV/AIDS in Developing Countries
  • Introduction
  • Diffusion and Spread: ‘Beyond Epidemiology’
  • Exceptionalism and Moral Panic
  • Impact on Development
  • Management
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Home
  • Introduction
  • Material Home
  • Imaginative Home
  • Homeland
  • Spatiality and Temporality of Home
  • In Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Homelessness
  • Introduction
  • Understanding Homelessness
  • Explaining Homelessness
  • The Geographies of Homelessness
  • Conclusions and Further Study
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Homelessness, Rural
  • Introduction
  • Researching Rural Homelessness
  • Restricted Visibilities of Rural Homelessness
  • Statistical Assessments of Rural Homelessness
  • Coping with Homelessness in Rural Spaces
  • Rural Homelessness and Welfare
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Housing
  • Housing Markets
  • Housing Tenure
  • Public Housing in the USA
  • Housing Affordability
  • Homelessness
  • Housing in Socialist Societies
  • Housing in Third World Cities
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Housing, Neighbourhoods and Health
  • Introduction
  • The Social Gradient in Health and Everyday Living Conditions
  • Housing as a Determinant of Health
  • Neighborhoods and Health
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Housing, Rural
  • Introduction
  • Increased Interest in Rural Markets
  • Rural Economies and Ineffective Demand
  • New Social Exclusions
  • Planning Systems and the Supply of Land for Development
  • Concluding Remarks
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Hub Network Location
  • Background
  • Optimization and Solutions
  • Telecommunications Applications
  • Freight Applications
  • Applications Air Passenger Systems
  • Extensions
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Human Geography
  • What Is ‘Human Geography’?
  • When Did Human Geography Emerge as a Discipline?
  • ‘The Human’ in ‘Human Geography’
  • Modern Geography, Human Geographies
  • How Are Human Geographical Knowledges Produced?
  • Who Has Benefited and Suffered from the Production of Human Geographical Knowledges?
  • Where Have Human Geographical Knowledges Been Produced?
  • Contemporary Human Geographies
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Urban Planning and Human Geography
  • Introduction
  • Modern Urban Planning – Origins
  • New Horizons for Planning and Geography
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Human Rights
  • Introduction
  • History
  • Universality
  • Generations of Rights
  • Cultural Struggles Over Human Rights
  • The Political Geography of Human Rights
  • The Political Geography of Human Rights in the Twenty-First Century
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Human-Nonhuman
  • Introducing the Human-Nonhuman in ‘Human’ Geography
  • Key Theorists of the Human-Nonhuman
  • The Human-Nonhuman in Recent Geographical Writing
  • Prospects
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Humanism/Humanistic Geography
  • Introduction
  • ‘Humanistic’ Geography before 1970
  • The New Humanistic Geography, 1970–89
  • Humanistic Geography Today
  • Post-Humanism? Post-Humanistic Geography?
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Hybridity
  • Introduction
  • The Roots of Hybridity
  • Human Categorizations of Man and Others
  • Psychoanalytical Theories of Cultural Hybridity
  • The Limitations of Cultural Hybridity
  • ‘Hybridity’ and Geography
  • Hybridity, Time, and Nature
  • Cosmopolitanism
  • Against Hybridity: For ‘Ecological’ Thinking
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Hypothesis Testing
  • Introduction
  • Historical Context
  • Hypothesis Testing: The Logical Framework
  • Hypothesis Testing and Quantification
  • Contextualizing the Hypothesis-Testing Process
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • I
  • Idealism/Idealist Human Geography
  • Philosophical Introduction
  • Idealism in the Collingwood Tradition
  • Thought and Action
  • Idealism in Geography
  • Alternative Approaches
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Identity and Otherness, Rural
  • Introduction
  • British Rural Studies and the Cultural Turn
  • Rural Identities and National Identity
  • Rural Others – A Very British Story?
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Identity Politics
  • Early Interest in Identity Politics among Geographers
  • The Development of Politics of Identity since the Civil Rights Movement
  • Overcoming the Paradox: Imagining Identity Politics Beyond Identity
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Ideology
  • Ideology
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Immigration I
  • Introduction
  • Contemporary Patterns and Types of Immigration
  • Changing Perspectives on Immigration
  • Immigration and the Nation-State
  • Reemergence of Assimilation?
  • Migrant-Centered Perspectives
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Immigration II
  • Background
  • Immigration in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries
  • A Typology of Immigrant Flows
  • Immigration and Residence
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Imperial Cities
  • Definitions
  • Empires, Nations, and Cities
  • Imperial Rome and Imperial Cities
  • Imperial London, Empire Cities
  • Postimperial City
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Imperialism, Cultural
  • Introduction
  • Cultural Imperialism and Colonialism
  • Contemporary Cultural Imperialism and Representation: Consumption, Tourism, and Media
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Imperialistic Geographies
  • Introduction
  • Approaches
  • Surveying the Spaces of American Imperialism
  • Provincializing Europe
  • Experiences of the Colonized
  • Ecological Imperialism
  • Historical Economies of Imperialism
  • Empire as Heritage: Remembering and Forgetting
  • Critical Review: Historical Geographies of Imperialisms
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Indian Ocean
  • Introduction
  • Mapping the ‘Indian Ocean’: Histories, Categories, and Connections
  • Growing Militarization of the Indian Ocean: The Great Base Race
  • Growing Focus on the Maritime Geopolitical Economy: Development of Ports and the Shipping Sector in the Indian Ocean Rim
  • Security of the Indian Ocean Sea Lanes of Communication
  • Energy Security and Indian Ocean Nuclear Trade
  • Marine Biodiversity, Fisheries, and Climate Change
  • Revisiting ‘Indian Ocean Studies’: Looking Back and Forth
  • Conclusions
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Indigeneity
  • Introduction
  • Historical Approaches to Indigeneity
  • Contemporary Approaches to Indigeneity
  • Looking to the Future
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Indigenous Geographies
  • Introduction
  • Presence/Absence: The Paradox of Indigenous Geographies
  • Possession/Dispossession: Challenging Erasure of Indigenous Geographies
  • Rights/Charity: Representation of Indigenous Geographies
  • Identity, Scale, Place, and Culture: Lessons and Challenges from Indigenous Geographies
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Indigenous Health and Medicine
  • Introduction
  • Indigenous Concepts of Health
  • Current Patterns of Health and Well-Being
  • Access to Contemporary and Traditional Healing Practices
  • Geography and the Health of Indigenous Peoples
  • Decolonizing Methodologies and Community-Based Approaches to Understanding Health
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Indigenous Knowledges
  • Introduction: Defining Indigenous Knowledge
  • The Place of Indigenous Knowledge in Development
  • Recording Indigenous Knowledge
  • Indigenous Knowledge in Development and Conservation Policy
  • Indigenous Knowledge and Emerging Approaches to Natural Resource Management
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Indigenous Mapping
  • Introduction
  • Indigenous People and Indigenous Knowledge
  • Indigenous Mapping and Western Cartography
  • Purposes of Mapping
  • Indigenous Mapping in North America
  • Indigenous Mapping in Asia, Africa, and Latin America
  • Issues
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Industrial City
  • Industrial City
  • Definition
  • Internal Geography
  • Global Trends and Patterns
  • Significance
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Industrial Districts
  • Introduction
  • The Emilian Model and the Institutionalist Turn
  • Traveling Theory: Industrial Districts outside the Third Italy
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Industrial Location
  • Factories, Firms, Industries, and Places
  • Location Factors and Factory Location
  • Systems of Production
  • Industrial Location and Public Policy
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Industrial Organization
  • The Large Firm/MNC Model
  • The Industrial District Alternative
  • Integrating MNCs, Functions, and Networks across the Global Value Chain
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further reading
  • Industrial Parks
  • Introduction
  • Locational Attributes: Sticky Place in Space of Flows
  • Types of Industrial Parks and Features
  • Function of Industrial Parks in the Developing World
  • Eco-Industrial Parks
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Industrial Restructuring
  • Introduction
  • Restructuring, ‘Weak’ Competition and Changes in Geographies of Production: Opportunities and Limits
  • Restructuring, ‘Strong’ Competition and Changes in Geographies of Production: Opportunities and Limits
  • Restructuring Territorial Economies
  • Eco-Restructuring
  • Conclusions
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further reading
  • Industrialization
  • Industrialization: Definitions and Measurement
  • Explaining and Timing Industrialization
  • Industrialization and Capitalism
  • Industrialization and Modernization
  • Costs and Benefits of Industrialization
  • Geography and Industrialization
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Industry, Historical Geographies of
  • Uneven Development and the Historical Geographies of Industry
  • The Spatial Division of Labor and the Historical Geographies of Industry
  • Place and the Historical Geographies of Industry
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Inequality
  • Definitions, Expressions, and Measurements
  • The Concept of Spatial Inequality
  • Marxist urban political economy
  • Welfare geography
  • Restructuring and the Resurgence in Inequality
  • Current Approaches to Inequality in Human Geography
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Informal Sector
  • Introduction
  • Conceptions and Measures of the Informal Sector
  • Labor Markets, Growth, Urbanization, and the Informal Sector in Developed and Developing Countries
  • Approaches to the Informal Sector
  • Remarks and Conclusions
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Informalization
  • Definitions and Dichotomies
  • The Specificity of Place
  • Winners and Losers
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Information Graphics
  • Introduction
  • The Purpose of Information Graphics: Graphics for Thinking versus Graphics for Communication
  • A Reference Model for Creating Information Graphics
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Information Technology
  • Introduction
  • The Software Bottleneck
  • Custom Software Development and Software Engineering
  • Packaged Software
  • Open Source Software
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further reading
  • Informational City
  • Preamble
  • Introducing the Informational City
  • The Economic Basis of the Informational City
  • The Spatial Logic of the Informational City: The Space of Flows
  • The Informational City as Dual City
  • Implications for Urban Theory
  • Critiques and Challenges
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Innovation
  • Why Is Innovation Relevant – for Economic Geographers?
  • Regional Innovation Theory
  • Empirical Evidence for the Regional Implications of Innovation Processes
  • Regional Innovation Policies
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Input–Output Analysis
  • Input–Output Analysis
  • Introduction
  • The Input–Output Model
  • Using the Input–Output Model
  • Multiplier Product Matrix and Structural Economic Landscape
  • Input–Output Analysis and Structural Change
  • Applications of Input–Output Models
  • Input–Output in More Extensive Systems
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Institutionalism/Institutional Geographies
  • Introduction
  • Institutions and Economic Geography
  • Institutional Geographies of Social Welfare and Control
  • Institutions and State Restructuring
  • Institutions and the Construction of Regions
  • Summary
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Integrated Spatial Data Infrastructure
  • Introduction and Context
  • Key Components of an SDI
  • Current Spatial Data Issues
  • Current Drivers and Barriers
  • The Future of SDI
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Intensive/Extensive Research
  • Definitions
  • Origins of Intensive/Extensive in Human Geography and the Social Sciences
  • Intensive/Extensive in Methodology
  • Intensive/Extensive in Space
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Interdisciplinarity
  • A Response to Major Changes
  • Research Institutions
  • Interdisciplinary Practices
  • Interdisciplinary Publishing
  • Instruction
  • Benefits and Obstacles
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Intermediate Technology
  • Introduction
  • Schumacher’s Thesis
  • Intermediate and Appropriate Technology
  • Examples of Intermediate Technology
  • Criticisms of Intermediate Technology
  • Technology Leapfrogging
  • The Future
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Intermodality
  • Introduction
  • Brief History
  • The Intermodal Concept
  • Contemporary Freight Intermodalism
  • Contemporary Passenger Intermodality
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • International Organizations
  • Introduction
  • Theoretical Approaches
  • Global Governance
  • Origins of International Financial Organizations
  • The IMF
  • The World Bank
  • The WTO
  • International Organizational Complexes
  • Global Power
  • Wall Street
  • Counter-hegemonic Organizations
  • Implications for Global Economic Geographies
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Trade, International
  • Introduction: The Theory of Comparative Advantage
  • Gravity Model
  • New Trade Theory
  • Challenges to Understanding Contemporary International Trade
  • Changing Sectoral Composition and International Trade
  • Changing Policy Terrains and New Barrier Architecture
  • Shifting Geographies of Production
  • Regional Trade Agreements
  • Issues
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Internationalization of Education
  • Introduction
  • The Geography of International Student Mobility
  • International Education: A Student’s Perspective
  • The Business of International Education: Political and Economic Implications
  • Overseas Institutions and Offshore Schools
  • International Standardization of Education
  • Conclusions
  • See also
  • Further reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Internet-Based Measurement
  • Locating the Nodes of the Internet
  • Measuring Distance and Routes Across the Internet
  • Internet-Based Measurement of Other Socioeconomic Phenomena
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Internet, Economic Geography
  • The Internet Changes Everything
  • Calculating Distance in the Age of the Internet
  • Moving Stuff: Atoms versus Information
  • An Uneven Geography of Change and Challenge
  • Change Is Real but Geography Remains Relevant
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Internet/Web Mapping
  • Introduction
  • Internet Technology and Maps
  • Maps on the Internet
  • Maps and the Geodata Infrastructure
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Interviews: In-Depth, Semi-Structured
  • Introduction
  • Conducting In-Depth, Semi-Structured Interviews
  • Strengths and Weaknesses of In-Depth, Semi-Structured Interviews
  • Ethical Issues and Power Relations
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Investment Promotion
  • Introduction
  • The Broad Contours of the Investment Promotion Community
  • Some Geographical Dimensions of Investment Promotion
  • Conclusions
  • See also
  • Further reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Irredentism
  • Introduction
  • Evolving and Varying Definitions of Irredentism
  • Examples of Irredentism
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Islamic Urbanism
  • Introduction
  • Historiography of a Concept
  • Urban Form and its Elements
  • The Contemporary Islamic City
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Island Development
  • Introduction
  • Islandness and Size
  • Challenges to Island Development
  • Transportation
  • Models of Island Development
  • Uneven Island Development and Island Gentrification
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Italian Language Geography
  • Introduction
  • Geographical Threads
  • Key Sites and Networks
  • Geographical Societies and Journals
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Ivy League and Geography in the US
  • Pre-1830: From University Subject to School Subject
  • 1830–1900: Slow Revivals
  • 1900–20: The Heyday of Ivy League Geography
  • 1918–45: Theory and Practice
  • 1945–Present: And Then There Was One
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • J
  • Jackson, P.
  • See also
  • Further reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Japanese Geography
  • Introduction
  • Tanaka Keiji and the Concept of ‘Chorography’
  • Saneshige Komaki and Japanese Geopolitics
  • Hiroshi Sato and Dialectical Wechselwirkung
  • Ichiro Suizu’s Concepts of ‘Basic Region’ and ‘Regional Unity’
  • Noboru Ueno’s Concept of ‘Humanly Created Environment’
  • Fujio Mizuoka and the Theory of Space Subsumption
  • Toward Resurrection
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Johnston, R. J.
  • Johnston, Ronald John (1941–)
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • K
  • Knowledge and Education, Historical Geographies of
  • Introduction
  • Origins and Development
  • Overland Expeditions
  • The Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries
  • The Production of ‘Colonial’ Geographical Knowledge
  • Universities and Schools
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Knowledge Communities
  • What is a Knowledge Community?
  • Origins of the Concept of Knowledge Communities
  • Communities of Practice
  • Knowledge Communities in Geography
  • Knowledge Communities and Industrial Agglomeration
  • To What Extent are Knowledge Communities Scale Dependent?
  • Future Directions in the Study of Knowledge Communities
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Knowledge Economy
  • Origins of the Knowledge Economy: Empirical and Conceptual
  • Socio-Spatial Organization of the Knowledge Economy
  • The Knowledge Economy as Embedded and Politically Contested
  • New Patterns of Social and Spatial Inequality
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Knowledge Intensive Business Services
  • KIBS Functions
  • Definitions: The Emergence of KIBS
  • Problems of KIBS Measurement
  • The Modern Growth of KIBS and the Impacts of Consultancy
  • International Variations in KIBS Development
  • Problems of KIBS Access and Evaluation
  • KIBS, Global Cities, and Regional Inequality
  • KIBS Patterns within Cities
  • KIBS and Economic Growth
  • Future Research Agendas
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Kolossov, V.
  • Kolossov, Vladimir (1953–)
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Kriging and Variogram Models
  • Introduction
  • Kriging
  • Covariance Function/Variogram Estimation
  • Parametric Variogram Models
  • Rainfall Example
  • Other Topics
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Kropótkin, P.
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • L
  • Labor Control Regime
  • The Labor Control Regime in Historical Context
  • Geographers and Labor Control
  • The Control and Regulation of Labor in Place
  • Geographies of Labor Control
  • Globalization and Labor Control
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Labor Flexibility
  • Introduction
  • Economic Changes and Flexibility
  • Analyzing Flexibility
  • Geography and Labor Market Dynamics
  • Flexibility and Labor Market Policy
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Labor Geography
  • Introduction
  • Key Themes within Labor Geography
  • Internationalism
  • Gender, Race, and Ethnicity
  • New Forms of Work Organization
  • Retrospect and Prospects for Labor Geography
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Labor Market
  • Introduction: The History and Social Construction of the Labor Market
  • Segmentation, Local and National Diversity: Developed and Developing Countries
  • Globalization and Labor Market Restructuring
  • The Gendered Geography of Labor Markets and Homeworking
  • Alternative Labor Market Responses to Globalization
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Labor Markets, Regional
  • Introduction
  • Conceptual Issues: Regional and Local Scales
  • Regional and Local Labor Markets as Socio-Institutional Constructs
  • Geographical Variations in Labor Market Opportunities
  • Policy Issues and Perspectives
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Labor Unionism
  • On the Structure of Labor Unionism
  • Geography and Labor Unionism
  • Areas of Focus
  • The Future?
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Lacoste, Y.
  • Lacoste, Yves (1929–)
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Lamarck(ian)ism
  • Definition
  • Historical Development
  • Key Concepts
  • Biological and Social Evolution
  • Geography and Neo-Lamarckianism
  • Influences in US Geography
  • Kropotkin and the Mutual Aid Tradition
  • Vidal’s Regional Geography
  • Environment, Race, and Heredity
  • Conclusions
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Land Change Science
  • Development of LCS
  • Land Change in Global Environmental Change
  • Observation/Monitoring
  • Drivers/Causes of Land Change
  • Land–Cover Consequences
  • Modeling
  • Synthesis
  • LCS in Geographic Context
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Land Rent Theory
  • Definition
  • Historical Foundations of Land Rent Theory
  • Current Developments in Land Rent Theory
  • Scope of Explanation and Critique
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Land Rights
  • Introduction
  • Land, Law, and Identity: Historical and Legal Constructions
  • Indigenous Property in the British Empire
  • Indigenous Land Rights in the Twentieth Century
  • Land Rights and Geographical Imagination
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Landscape
  • Introduction
  • From Cultural Materialism to the Textual Turn
  • Critical Landscapes: Political Economy and Gender
  • Other Landscapes: From the Nation-State to the Colonial Periphery
  • From a ‘Way of Seeing’ to a Bodily Encounter
  • Future Views and Other Avenues
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Landscape Iconography
  • Introduction
  • Borrowing from Art History: Toward an Iconographic Method
  • Landscape as a Way of Seeing
  • Critical Themes in Contemporary Iconographic Research
  • Concluding Comments
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Landscape Perception
  • Introduction: Terminology
  • Quantitative Methods
  • Qualitative Methods
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Language
  • Introduction
  • Geography of Language(s)
  • Languages of Geography
  • Language and Geography
  • Conclusions
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Language and Research
  • Introduction
  • Geographers and Language: A Brief History
  • Methods and Techniques of Language Analysis
  • Place, Landscape, and Language
  • The Language of Geography: English as lingua franca
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Latin American Structuralist School
  • Influences on, and of, Structuralism
  • The Role of ECLA and Leadership of Prebisch
  • The Structuralist Method of Analysis
  • Unequal Exchange between Center and Periphery
  • From an ‘Outward-Oriented’ to an ‘Inward-Oriented’ Development Process
  • The Rise of Neoliberalism and the Renewal of Structuralism
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Law and Law Enforcement
  • Introduction
  • The Convergence of Law and Geography
  • Seeing the Legal in the Spatial
  • Doing Legal Geography
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Learning Regions
  • Introduction
  • What Is a ‘Learning Region’?
  • Critique of Learning Regions
  • Learning and Innovation in Regional Economies
  • Conclusions: Learning Regions in a Globalizing Knowledge Economy
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Leisure
  • Dimensions of Leisure
  • Recent Social and Spatial Transformations in Leisure
  • Leisure Geographies
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Lesbian Geographies
  • Introduction
  • Lesbian Politics and Key Debates
  • Urban Beginnings
  • Lesbian Ruralities
  • Questioning ‘Lesbian’: Theorizing Sexuality and Identity in Space
  • Queering Identities
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Ley, D.
  • Ley, David (1947–)
  • See also
  • Further reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Liberalism
  • Introduction
  • The Liberal Individual
  • Governing through Liberty
  • Liberal Economies
  • Conclusions
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Life Course Approaches
  • Conceptual Distinctions
  • Contributions of Contemporary Geography on Life Courses
  • Issues for Continued Attention
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Literature
  • Development of Literary Geography in the 1970s and 1980s
  • Literary Geography and the Cultural Turn
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Livelihoods
  • Introduction
  • The Livelihood Approach: History and Definition
  • The Unit of Analysis in Livelihood Studies
  • Livelihood Diversification
  • Livelihood Diversification and Spatial Dispersion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Local Development
  • The Starting Point
  • Novelties
  • A New Paradigm
  • The Theoretical Background
  • Local Productive System and Endogenous Development
  • Local Development and Innovation
  • The False Dichotomies in Local Development
  • The Typology of Local Productive Systems
  • The Role of the Territory: A Regulatory Tool
  • Local Development Policies and Strategies: Some Guidelines
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Local Economic Development
  • Introduction
  • LED as Relational Process
  • LED as a Qualitative Process
  • The Holistic Dimension of LED and Its Risks: From Territorial Competitiveness to Territorial Reification
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Local Economic Development, Politics of
  • Historical Background
  • Characteristic Framings
  • The Current State of Play
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Local–Global
  • Introduction
  • ‘Local Knowledge’ and the (Im)possibility of a View from Nowhere
  • The ‘Locality Approach’
  • The Local–Global Nexus
  • The Relational Turn in Economic Geography
  • Hierarchies, Scales, or Networks
  • Global Challenges, Local Responses
  • Global–Local in Wider Social Theory and Science
  • Geographies of Flows and Places
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Locality Debates
  • Introduction
  • Origins of Localities Analysis
  • The Rise of Locality Studies
  • Conclusions: The Long Legacy of Locality Studies
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Location Analysis
  • Introduction
  • Historical Developments
  • Trade Area Delineation
  • Normative Modeling
  • Current Trends in Location Analysis
  • Contributions to Human Geography
  • Retrospect and Prospect: Location Analysis Moving Forward
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Location Theory
  • Introduction
  • Explanation
  • Prediction
  • Issues
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Logistics
  • The Dimensions of Logistics
  • Outlook
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Furter Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Longitudinal Methods (Cohort Analysis, Life Tables)
  • Introduction
  • The Origins and Foundations of Longitudinal Methods
  • Considering Time and State Dependence
  • The Language of Longitudinal Methods
  • Types of Longitudinal Methods
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Los Angeles School of Post-Modern Urbanism
  • Introduction
  • Investigative Themes and Sites
  • Los Angeles: The Exception or the Rule?
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Lowenthal, D.
  • Lowenthal, David (1923–)
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Lusophone Geography
  • Introduction
  • Three Spaces and Three Times
  • The Institutionalization of Human Geography in Portugal and Brazil
  • Lusophone Geography in the Second Half of the Twentieth Century
  • Contemporary Geography in Lusophone Spaces
  • Geography and Power
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • M
  • Mackinder, H. J.
  • Mackinder, Halford (1861–1947)
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Malls/Retail Parks
  • Introduction
  • Origins and Evolution
  • Malls as Spectacles and Cultural Forms
  • Malls, Place, and Identity: Brent Cross and Wood Green
  • Downtown Suburbia and Polycentric Urban Geography
  • New Retail Geography (NRG): Broadening the Research Agenda
  • Malls and Consumption-Led Urban Regeneration
  • Outlook
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Map Hacking
  • Introduction
  • Opening Up the Map
  • Drivers of Map Hacking
  • Google Maps Hacking
  • From Hacking to Mainstream: Mashups
  • Critiques
  • Future
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Map Interactivity
  • Introduction
  • Interactive Map Functionality
  • Means of Interacting with Maps
  • Notable Interactive Mapping Applications
  • Research Challenges of Map Interactivity
  • Summary
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Map Libraries and Archives
  • Introduction
  • Map Collections in the Digital Era
  • Making Geodata Accessible to the User
  • The Distributed Geolibrary
  • Conserving Geodata
  • Threats and Responsibilities for Map Libraries in the Digital Era
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Map Perception and Cognition
  • What People See: Psychophysical Studies
  • Maps as Communication Devices
  • Map Learning
  • Geographic Visualization
  • Summary
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Map Types
  • Glossary
  • Mapping Agencies
  • Introduction
  • Dimensions of Organizational Difference
  • The Flexible Spatial Information Economy
  • Conclusions
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Mapping, Commercial
  • Commercial Mapping
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Relevant Websites
  • Mapping, Cyberspace
  • Introduction
  • Maps in Cyberspace
  • Maps of Cyberspace
  • Maps for Cyberspace
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Mapping, Distributed
  • Map and Image Collections
  • Downloadable Data Storages and Online Map-Generation Services
  • Hybrid Products
  • Digital Globes
  • Ubiquitous Mapping
  • Collaborative Publishing Using Web 2.0
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Mapping, Non-Western
  • Introduction
  • Approaches to Non-Western Mapping in Geography
  • Characteristics of Western Mapping
  • Characteristics of Non-Western Mapping
  • Regional Scholarship and Collections
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Mapping, Philosophy
  • Introduction
  • Epistemologies and Ontologies
  • Negotiating the Binaries
  • The Domains of Knowledge
  • Knowledge Communities and Mapping
  • The Practice of Science
  • Humanizing Mapping
  • Critical and Emancipatory Cartographies
  • Relational Thinking: Toward Practice
  • Summary
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Mapping, Race and Ethnicity
  • Introduction
  • Mapping Difference
  • Definitions
  • Social Construction of Race
  • Maps and Power
  • Critique of Racial, Anthropometric, and Ethnic Cartography
  • Taylor’s Zones and Strata Theory of World Evolution
  • Mapping the Races of Europe
  • Mapping Regional Identities
  • Ethnicity and Boundary Making in the Balkans
  • Race, Ethnicity, and Genetics
  • Conclusions
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Mapping, Topographic
  • Introduction
  • The Origins of Modern Topographic Maps
  • Topographic Maps in the Twentieth Century
  • The Content and Appearance of Topographic Maps
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Maps
  • Introduction
  • The Map Discourse Function
  • The History of Mapmaking
  • The Rise of Mapmaking in the Early Modern State
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Maps and Governance
  • Traditional View: Using Maps to Govern
  • Critical Perspectives: Maps Act in Use
  • Is to Govern to Map?
  • Summary
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Maps and Protest
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Maps and the State
  • Introduction
  • Spaces of the State System
  • Extending the State
  • Surveying the American West
  • The State Goes Global
  • The Present State of Cartography
  • Cartographic Violence
  • De-colonizing Maps and States
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Markov Chain Analysis
  • Introduction
  • One-Dimensional Markov Chains
  • Transiograms
  • Markov Chain Random Fields
  • Issues
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Marxism/Marxist Geography I
  • Introduction
  • Fundamentals of a Marxist Approach
  • The Historical Development of Capitalism and Long-Turn Tendencies toward Crisis
  • Key Schisms in Marxist thought and Practice
  • The Construction of a Marxist Geography
  • Debates About the Relations between Marxism, Social Relations, and Space
  • Marxist Geography in the 1990s
  • The Continuing Relevance of a Marxist Perspective to the Geographical Imagination
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Marxism/Marxist Geography II
  • Introduction
  • Critiques of Marxist Thought
  • The Question of Post-Marxism(s)
  • Revised or Post-Marxist Geographies?
  • Critiques of Revisionist Marxist Geography
  • The Future of (Post-) Marxist Geographies
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Masculinism
  • Introduction
  • Theorizations of Men and Masculinities
  • Geography of Masculinities
  • Masculinism in Geography
  • Challenging Masculinist Research Practices with Feminist Methodologies
  • Methods of Researching Men and Masculinities
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Masculinities
  • Introduction
  • The Origin of the Study of Masculinities in Geography
  • Developments within Geographies of Masculinities
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Massey, D.
  • Massey, Doreen (1944–)
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Material Culture
  • Material Geographies
  • History and Material Cultures/Historical Materialism
  • Cultural Materialism
  • Anthropology and the Super-Object
  • Post-Materialist Materialism
  • Material Cultures, Memory, Loss, and Nostalgia
  • Visual Culture
  • Materializing the Body in Human Geography
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Material, The
  • Objects and Landscapes
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • McDowell, L.
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Media
  • Introduction
  • Mediaspheres: Power and Influence
  • Media Representations: Texts and Audiences
  • Being and Being Connected
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Medical Geography
  • Introduction
  • Origins of the Discipline
  • Human Ecology and Disease
  • Malnutrition and Communicable Disease
  • Human Health and Economic Development
  • Chronic/Lifestyle Disease and Environmental Health
  • Healthcare Systems, Distribution, and Access to Health Resources
  • Future Directions and Issues in Medical/Health Geography
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Medieval Geography
  • A Modern Historiography of Medieval Geography
  • Geographical Thought in the Middle Ages
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Medieval Historical Geographies
  • Introduction: What Is the Medieval Period?
  • Thinking Geographically during the Middle Ages
  • Thinking Geographically about the Middle Ages
  • Conclusions
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Mega-Cities
  • Introduction
  • The Rise of Mega-Cities
  • Mega-Urban Regions
  • From Mega-City to World City
  • Planning and Managing Mega-Cities
  • Future Challenges
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Meinig, D.
  • Meinig, Donald (1924–)
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Memorials and Monuments
  • Introduction
  • Social and Geographic Nature of Commemoration
  • Approaches to Studying Memorials and Monuments
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Memory
  • The Nuances of Memory
  • Memory and Geography
  • Dissecting Memory in the Cultural Landscape
  • Memory, Identity, and Heritage
  • The Politics of Memory
  • Memory and Territory
  • Summary
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Mental Health
  • Introduction
  • Three ‘Waves’ of Mental Health Research?
  • Directions for the Future
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Mental Maps
  • Introduction
  • Mental Maps and Sketch Maps
  • Does an Ideal Term Exist?
  • Mapping for Knowledge Assessment
  • Other Applications of Mental Maps and Sketch Mapping
  • Implication for the Use of Sketch Maps
  • Using Mental Maps
  • The Future of Mapping Our Geographic Knowledge
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Métropole d’équilibre
  • Exceptional Emergence Conditions
  • Major Accomplishments of the DATAR
  • Shifts of a Regional Development Policy
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Watts, M. J.
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Middle East and North Africa
  • Introduction
  • Desertification and Degradation Narratives
  • The Scarce Resource: Water Wars and Conflicts
  • Edward Said, Orientalism and the Islamic City
  • Rapid Urbanization, Oil, and the Impact of Globalization
  • The Arab–Israeli Conflict: Urbicide and Identicide and the Palestinians
  • Gendered Space: Private and Public Space
  • The New Media and the Public Sphere
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Migrant Workers
  • Introduction
  • The Economic Geography of Labor Migration
  • The Politics of Labor Migration
  • The Impacts of Labor Migration
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Migration
  • Introduction
  • Defining Migration and Migrants
  • A Brief History of Thinking on Migration
  • Methods of Migration Analysis
  • Migration and Selection
  • The Scale and Patterns of Migration
  • The Impacts of Migration
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Migration, Historical Geographies of
  • Introduction
  • Conceiving Migration
  • Mapping, Measuring, and Representing Migration
  • The Consequences of Migration
  • Migrants, Identity and the ‘Homeland’
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Military and Geography
  • Introduction
  • Toward a History of Modern Military Geography
  • The Geographic Arts of War
  • ‘Geography Militant’
  • The World Wars
  • The Cold War and Beyond
  • Contemporary Military Geographies
  • Militarism’s Geographies
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Military Geographies
  • Introduction
  • A Brief History of Geography’s Engagement with Military Activities and Militarism
  • Themes in Contemporary Military Geography
  • Current Issues of Theory and Practice in the Study of Military Geographies
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Mixed and Multiple Methods
  • Introduction
  • An Example of Multimethod Research in Human Geography
  • Definition: The Parameters of Multimethod Research
  • Uses of Multimethod Research
  • Styles of Multimethod Research
  • Key Debates in Multimethod Research
  • The Future of Multimethod Research in Human Geography
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Mobility
  • Introduction
  • Geography, Fixity, and Mobility
  • Mobility, Politics, and Exclusion
  • Mobility, Place, and Landscape
  • Travel and Transport
  • Conclusions
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Mobility, History of Everyday
  • Definitions
  • Why Is Mobility Important?
  • Theorizing Mobility
  • Global Geographies of Mobility
  • Change Over Time
  • Modal Change
  • Conclusions
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Modern City
  • Introduction
  • The Industrial City
  • Modernism
  • The Making of the Modern
  • Making the Modern City
  • The Demise of the Modern City
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Modernity
  • Introduction
  • Modernity, Knowledge, and Geography
  • Modernity, Capitalism, and Space
  • The State and Modernity
  • Modernity Futures
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Modernization Theory
  • The Economic Theories on Modernization
  • The Sociological Version
  • Concluding Remarks
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Modifiable Areal Unit Problem
  • Introduction
  • Definitions and Effects of the MAUP
  • Sources of the MAUP
  • Potential Solutions
  • Conclusions and Future Directions
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Monte Carlo Simulation
  • History of the Monte Carlo Method
  • Principles of the Monte Carlo Method
  • Applications of the Monte Carlo Method
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Moral Economies
  • Introduction: Definitional Contradictions
  • Moral Philosophy and Political and Moral Economy
  • Moral Principles Post-World War II
  • Ethical Consumption
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Moral Landscapes
  • Moral Geographies and Landscapes
  • Moral Landscapes as a Way of Doing Human Geography
  • From Moral Landscapes to Landscapes of Justice, Ethics, and Care
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Movies and Films, Analysis of
  • Introduction
  • Structural Methods
  • Beyond Representation
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Multicultural City
  • Introduction
  • The Historical Multicultural City
  • The Contemporary Multicultural City
  • Understanding Urban Multiculturalism
  • The Multicultural City: Urban Structure and Function
  • Key and Emerging Issues
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Multiculturalism
  • Introduction
  • Multiculturalism as Diversity
  • Multicultural Cities
  • Multiculturalism as Public Policy/Mode of Integration
  • The End of Multiculturalism?
  • Multiculturalism and Identity
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Multidimensional Scaling
  • Introduction
  • Historical and Conceptual Foundations of MDS
  • Overview of the MDS Research Process
  • Purposes for MDS in Human Geography
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • N
  • Nation
  • Introduction
  • Theoretical Conceptions of Nation
  • The Significance of Nations
  • Building Nations
  • The Future of the Nation
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • National Parks
  • Definitions
  • Nature and Extent
  • History
  • Organization and Planning
  • Landownership
  • Management Issues
  • See also
  • Further reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • National Schools of Geography
  • Geography before Its Fragmentation into National Schools
  • The Emergence of National Schools: The Institutional Context
  • The Emergence of National Schools: The Role of Human Geography in Germany and France
  • National Schools of Geography Elsewhere
  • Changing Conditions and the Disparition of National Schools
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • National Spatialities
  • Introduction
  • The Nation as Bounded Space
  • Ideological National Landscapes
  • Iconic Sites
  • Serial Landscapes
  • National ‘Taskscapes’
  • Homely Space
  • Media Representations of National Space
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Nationalism
  • Nationalism and Spatial Identities
  • Boundaries of National Identity
  • Landscape and Nationalism
  • Nationalism and Scale
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Nationalism, Historical Geography of
  • Introduction
  • Approaches
  • Constructing the National Hegemony
  • Challenging and Buttressing Hegemony
  • Performance and Monument in Public Space
  • Subaltern Resistance
  • Regime Change
  • Changing Worlds
  • Toward Hybridity
  • Reflection
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Natural Resources
  • Introduction
  • Classification
  • Cultural Appraisals
  • Resource Governance
  • Critical Resource Geography: An Economic Geography Research Agenda
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Naturalistic Testing
  • Introduction
  • Context
  • Philosophy of Naturalistic Inquiry
  • Components of Naturalistic Inquiry
  • Conducting Naturalistic Inquiry
  • Critiques
  • Place of Naturalistic Testing in Human Geography
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Nature
  • The Metanature of Nature and Geography
  • Geography’s Nature
  • Nature, Landscape and the Birth of Modern Academic Geography
  • The Nature of Space
  • ‘Nonmodern’ Natures
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Nature-Culture
  • Introduction
  • The Great Divide
  • All Nature or All Culture?
  • Reweaving the Torn Asunder World: Seven Approaches to Nature-Culture
  • Four Key Challenges of Nature-Culture
  • Sites of Nature-Culture
  • Conclusions
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Nature, Historical Geographies of
  • Nature across the Centuries
  • Methods and Materials
  • Nature, Islands, and Historical Geography
  • A Representation of Nature in the Islamic World
  • A Glimpse of Eden
  • Plants, People, and Nature in the Seychelles
  • Historical Geographies of Nature: Problems and Progression
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Nature, History of
  • Introduction
  • Concept of Nature
  • History of Nature in Historical Geography
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Nature, Performing
  • Introduction
  • The Cultural Turn toward Performance
  • Performative Resistance
  • Embodying Performance
  • Performing Ethical Relations
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further reading
  • Natures, Charismatic
  • Introduction and Definitions
  • Theorizing Charisma
  • Typology of Charismatic Natures
  • Esthetic Charisma
  • Nonhuman Charisma and Ontology
  • Charisma, Epistemology, and Conservation
  • Charisma and Ethics
  • Conclusions
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further reading
  • Natures, Gendered
  • Introduction
  • The Influence of Ecofeminism
  • Alternative Formulations of Women–Environment Relationships
  • Feminist Political Ecology
  • Some Related Fields of Inquiry in which Human Geographers Participate
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Natures, Postcolonial
  • Introduction
  • Intellectual Influences
  • Interlocking Discourses: Postcolonial Natures
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Neighborhood Change
  • Definitions
  • Research Themes
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Neighborhood Effects
  • Introduction
  • Theoretical Underpinnings
  • Debates
  • Methodologies
  • Some Lessons from Spatial Data Analysis
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Neighborhoods and Community
  • Introduction
  • Defining Neighborhoods and Community
  • The Functions of Neighborhoods and Communities
  • Neighborhood and Community Careers
  • Neighborhood and Community Effects
  • Social Capital and Collective Efficacy
  • Neighborhoods and Urban Segregation
  • Changing Forms of Neighborhoods and Communities
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Neocolonialism
  • Introduction
  • Neocolonialism as Exploitation
  • Neocolonialism and the Process of Decolonization
  • Neocolonialism as a Contemporary Category of Analysis
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Neoliberal Economic Strategies
  • Introduction
  • Distinctions and Dangers
  • Globalizing and Neoliberalizing Economic Processes
  • Overviews on the Directionality and Content of Neoliberalizing Economic Strategies
  • Understanding and Coexisting with Neoliberalizing Processes
  • Progressive Spaces
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Readings
  • Neoliberalism
  • Introduction
  • The Rise of a ‘Neoliberal Era’
  • Theorizing Neoliberalism
  • Geographies of Neoliberalism
  • The Politics of Neoliberalism
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Neoliberalism and Development
  • Neoliberalism, Globalization, and Development
  • Historical Roots of Neoliberalism – Laboratory Chile
  • Neoliberalism and the Political Economy of Global Development
  • The Rolling Out of Structural Adjustment Policies and the Rolling Back of the State in the 1980s and 1990s
  • The Nature of Neoliberal Development Models
  • Neoliberalism and beyond in Latin America
  • The Future of Neoliberalism – Resistance and Reinvention
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Neoliberalism, Urban
  • Introduction
  • Neoliberalism or Neoliberalization?
  • Theoretical Approaches to Neoliberalism
  • Geographical Studies of Neoliberalism
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Network Analysis
  • Introduction
  • Graph Theory
  • Complex Network Theory
  • Network Optimization
  • Other Network Analysis Methods
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Network Regions
  • Introduction
  • Integrating Regional Networks and Regional Innovation Policy
  • The First Candidate-Networked Regional Innovation System
  • The Well-Networked Regional System
  • RIS and Economic Transformation
  • RIS and Policy
  • Countries and Regions Implementing RIS Network Strategies
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Networks
  • The Network Governance Approach
  • Social Network Analysis
  • Actor-Network Theory
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Networks, Urban
  • Introduction
  • Urban Social Networks
  • Proliferating Networks
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Neural Networks
  • Definition
  • Neural Network Model
  • Learning
  • Application of Neural Networks in Human Geography
  • Where to Go from Here
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • New Regionalism
  • Introduction
  • Geographies of Post-Fordism: Industrial Districts, New Regional Economies, and Resurgent Rustbelts
  • New Regionalism: A Critical Assessment
  • New Regionalism: Future Directions
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • New Towns
  • Introduction
  • Definition
  • The Origins: New Towns in Post-War Britain
  • New Town Policies in Europe
  • New Towns Policies in Other Parts of the World
  • Discussion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • New Urbanism
  • Introduction
  • Sources of New Urbanist Ideas
  • Out with the Old and in with the Older? The New Urbanist Agenda
  • New Urbanism as a Social Movement
  • Geographers’ Engagement with New Urbanism
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • NIMBY
  • Introduction
  • The Tactics of NIMBYism
  • Problematizing NIMBY
  • Taking NIMBY Forward
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Nongovernmental Organizations
  • Definition of Nongovernmental Organization
  • Classification of NGOs
  • The Emergence of NGOs
  • NGO and State
  • Conclusions
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Non-Representational Theory/Non-Representational Geographies
  • Introduction
  • Interlocutions
  • Main Tenets
  • Implications
  • Current Imbrications and Challenges
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Nordic Geography
  • Introduction: In What Sense a ‘Nordic’ Geography?
  • Nordic Geography: Differences and Similarities
  • Dominant Current Contributions
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Nordplan and Nordregio
  • Introduction
  • Nordplan
  • Nordregio
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • North–South
  • Introduction
  • History
  • The Brandt Report
  • Criticisms
  • Key North–South Issues
  • Summary
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • O
  • Oceania
  • Introduction
  • Unique Geography and Distinctive Challenges
  • Historical Geography – From Indigenous Settlement to PostColonialism
  • Contemporary Welfare and Development in Oceania
  • Political Conflict
  • Regionalism in Oceania
  • The End of Isolation – Managing Internal External Challenges
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Oceanographic Mapping
  • Introduction
  • Obtaining Data
  • Making Maps
  • Accomplishments and Future Prospects
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Oceans
  • The Forgotten 71%
  • A Sea Change in Epistemology
  • Emergent Geographies of the Sea
  • Oceans of Conflict and Imagination
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Olsson, G.
  • Olsson, Gunnar (1935–)
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Oral History
  • Introduction
  • The Practice of Oral History
  • Oral History as a Social Practice
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Oral History, Ecological
  • Ecological Oral History
  • Local Systems of Ecological Knowledge
  • Personalized Ecological Oral Histories
  • Methods of Ecological Oral History
  • Studies That Have Used Ecological Oral Histories
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Orientalism
  • Introduction
  • Background: The Foucauldian Legacy
  • Imaginative Geographies of the Orient
  • Orientalism and Its ‘Others’
  • Beyond Orientalism?
  • Orientalism Today
  • Summary
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Other/Otherness
  • A New Geographical Issue
  • Definitions
  • The West and Others
  • Geographical Others
  • Spatial Organization
  • Exotism
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Overlay (in GIS)
  • Introduction
  • General Procedure
  • GIS Implementation
  • Analysis Alternatives
  • Application Summary
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Readings
  • Oxbridge Geographies
  • Introduction
  • Establishment
  • Consolidation
  • Diverging Fortunes
  • Oxbridge Geographies since the 1970s
  • See also
  • Further-Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • P
  • Paasi, A.
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Pacific Rim
  • Introduction
  • Formal Regionalism
  • Informal Regionalism
  • De-Bordering and Re-Bordering
  • The Various Facets of Informal Regionalism and Debordering
  • Conclusions: Remaking the Pacific Rim
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Parenting/Motherhood/Fatherhood
  • Parenting as a ‘Woman’s Issue’
  • The Awkward Spaces of Fathering
  • Powerful Emotions
  • Neo-liberal Processes of Globalization and Geographies of Care
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Participant Observation
  • Introduction
  • Doing Participant Observation
  • Methodological Issues and Debates
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Participation
  • What Is Participation in Development?
  • The Emergence and Benefits of Participation in Development
  • Participatory Methods: A Focus on Research
  • Critical Challenges
  • Moving Participation Forward: Dealing with Power and Politics?
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Participatory Action Research
  • Introduction
  • Origins and Epistemological Underpinnings
  • The Participatory ‘Turn’ in Geography
  • Critiques of Participatory Approaches: Power and Empowerment
  • Research Processes, Methods, Outputs, and Outcomes
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Participatory Video
  • Introduction
  • History and Evolution
  • Current Uses of Participatory Video
  • Process
  • Issues
  • Benefits
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Patriarchy
  • Introduction
  • Patriarchy and Capitalism
  • Patriarchy and Geography
  • Patriarchy and Bodies
  • Public and Private Spaces
  • Citizenship
  • Nationalism and the State
  • Globalization
  • Men and Patriarchy
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Peasant Agriculture
  • Modernization and the Demise of Peasant Agriculture
  • The Peasantry of the Third Millennium
  • The Peasant Condition
  • Market Linkages and Distantiation
  • Peasant Agriculture: Six Decisive Features
  • Processes of Repeasantization
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Peet, R.
  • Peet, Richard (1940–)
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • People’s Geography
  • Introduction
  • Roots of People’s Geography
  • The People’s Geography Project
  • Other Projects
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Performance, Research as
  • Research as Performance: Introduction and Context
  • The Methodological Shift
  • Performance Methods
  • Ethics and Problems in Performance Research
  • Contributions and Benefits of Performance Research to Geography
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Performative and Embodied Mapping
  • Introduction
  • The Turn toward Practice
  • The Performative Tradition
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Performativity
  • Introduction
  • Performativity Matters
  • Performativity, Identity, and Space
  • Making More of Performative Movements
  • And More to Come…
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Phenomenology/Phenomenological Geography
  • Introduction: Humanistic Geography and Phenomenology
  • Phenomenology’s Historical Context: Neo-Kantian Explanatory Science versus Husserlian Descriptive Science
  • Other Major Phenomenologists That Influenced Geographers
  • Geographers Influenced by Phenomenology
  • Concluding Remarks
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Philosophy and Human Geography
  • Introduction
  • The Philosophical Tradition
  • Positivism
  • Humanism and Marxism
  • Postpositivism in Contemporary Geography
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Photogrammetry/Aerial Photography
  • Aerial Photography
  • Photogrammetry
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Photographs
  • Overview/Introduction
  • History
  • Ways of Thinking about the Photograph/Photography
  • Contemporary Research Practices
  • Reactions/Critique
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Physical Geography and Human Geography
  • Introduction
  • A History
  • The Nature–Culture Debate
  • Applied Geography
  • Climate Change
  • Human Geography and Physical Geography: The Future?
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Place
  • What Is Place?
  • Chora and Topos
  • Being There and Dwelling
  • Place and Humanistic Geography
  • The Social Construction of Place
  • Placelessness and Nonplace
  • Place, Process, and Mobility
  • A Progressive Sense of Place
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Place Names
  • Toponymics: Unfolding the Geographies of Landscape Symbolism, Territorialism, and Societal Histories
  • Indigenous Landscape Signifiers
  • Cartographic Representations
  • Colonial Impacts
  • Postcolonial Changes: National Identities
  • Urban Cues
  • Research Issues on Toponymics
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Place, Politics of
  • Introduction
  • Politics of Placemaking and Place Identity
  • Place and Politics
  • Tensions in and of Place
  • Other Knowledges, Other Politics
  • Politics in Place
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Planning, Urban
  • Introduction
  • Urban Planning
  • Planning Theories
  • Critical Debates
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Plant Geographies
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Point Pattern Analysis
  • Basic Visual Exploration of Point Patterns
  • General Descriptive Methods
  • General Clustering Methods
  • Spatial Patterns on a Network
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Policing
  • Introduction: From the Geography of Crime to the Spatiality of Police Work
  • Policing, Urban Restructuring, and the Politics of Space
  • Policing Difference
  • Beyond Local Policing: From Transnationalism to Cyberspace
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Political Boundaries
  • Introduction
  • The Tradition of Boundary Studies in Human Geography
  • The Resurgence of Boundary Studies after the Cold War
  • Coda–Boundaries Are Everywhere
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Political Ecology
  • Introduction
  • Theoretical Developments
  • Critical Approaches to Environment and Development
  • Recent Trends and Future Directions
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Political Economy, Geographical
  • Introduction
  • Aims
  • In the Background
  • Framing a Field – Opening Narratives
  • Geographical Imagination in (Largely Nation-State) Political Economy
  • Toward a Globalizing Geographic Political Economy
  • Critical Reflections and the Politics of Possibilities
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Political Geography
  • Introduction
  • Evolution
  • Ideas and Developments
  • Major Themes
  • Politics of Geography
  • Summary
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Political Representation
  • The Meanings of Political Representation
  • Electoral Systems and Political Representation
  • Political Representation and Political Communities
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Polycentricity
  • Introduction
  • Scales of Polycentricity: Local, Regional, National, and Continental
  • Two Kinds of Polycentricity: Geographical (Morphological) and Functional
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Polyvocality
  • Defining Polyvocality
  • Acknowledging Polyvocality
  • Polyvocality and Its Implications for Research
  • Critical Interrogation of Polyvocality
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Popular Culture
  • Meanings and Origins
  • Geographies of Popular Culture
  • Popular Culture in Studies of Globalization
  • Audiences and Cultural Studies
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Population Geography
  • Introduction
  • Disciplinarity
  • Spatial Science Approaches
  • Structural Approaches
  • Cultural Studies Approaches
  • Ongoing Debates
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Port-Industrial Complexes
  • Introduction
  • Analyzing Ports and Their Industries
  • Monopolvilles: The Development of Maritime Industrial Development Areas
  • Supply-Chain Management and Port-Industrial Complexes
  • Gioia Tauro: From Planning Disaster to Container Gateway
  • Industrial Agglomeration and Port Hinterlands
  • Competition and Port Development
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Positivism/Positivist Geography
  • Introduction
  • Logical Positivism in Philosophy
  • Logical Positivism: The Vienna Circle
  • Positivist Geography
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Possibilism
  • Introduction
  • Vidalian Possibilism: Its Neo-Kantian Conventionalist Foundations
  • Neo-Lamarckian Aspects of Vidalian Possibilism
  • Historians of the Annales and the Great Diversion
  • A Diverse Heritage Among Geographers
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Poststructuralism/Poststructuralist Geographies
  • Introduction
  • Poststructuralism
  • Post-Structuralist Geographies
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Post-Phenomenology/Post-Phenomenological Geographies
  • Introduction
  • Experience
  • Landscape, Corporeality, and Subjectivity
  • Future Directions: Doing Post-Phenomenological Geographies
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Post-Productivist and Multifunctional Agriculture
  • Introduction
  • The Transition from Productivist to Post-Productivist Agriculture
  • Multifunctional Agriculture and the Productivism/Nonproductivism Spectrum
  • Conclusions
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Post-Socialist Cities
  • Introduction
  • Socialist City
  • Societal Transformations and Their Impact on Urban Change
  • Restructuring Urban Spatial Organization
  • Post-Socialist City: Socialist Legacy, Drive to Capitalism, and (In)definite Future
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Postcolonial Cities
  • Definitions
  • Origins of Interest in Postcolonial Cities in Human Geography and the Social Sciences
  • Representing the City
  • Revisiting the Colonial and Postcolonial City
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Postcolonialism/Postcolonial Geographies
  • Geography and Postcolonial Studies
  • Definitions
  • Origins and Debates
  • Postcolonialism and Development
  • Postcolonial Geographies
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Postconflict Geographies
  • Introduction
  • How the Causes and Nature of Wars Affect the War Outcomes
  • War Settlements: Partitions and Secessions
  • Pseudo-States
  • Economic Impacts of Conflicts
  • Refugees and Health
  • The Continuing Problem of Landmines
  • Conclusions
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Postdevelopment
  • Antimodernism
  • Antimanagerialism
  • An Assessment
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Posthumanism/Posthumanistic Geographies
  • Introduction
  • Modalities of Posthumanism
  • Posthuman Themes
  • Posthumanism and ‘Human’ Geography
  • Conclusions: The Latent Humanism in Posthumanism
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Postmodern City
  • Definitions
  • Introduction
  • Emergence of Postmodern Perspectives on the City: Questioning the Modern
  • Building, Planning, and Understanding the Postmodern City
  • Postmodern Critiques of the City/Critiques of the Postmodern City
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Postmodernism/Postmodern Geography
  • Introduction
  • Postmodern ‘Archeologies’
  • Postmodern Geographies …
  • Postmodern Geographers…
  • Postmodern Cities and Spaces?
  • Conclusions
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Poverty
  • Defining and Measuring Poverty
  • Measuring Poverty
  • Spatial and Social Distribution of Poverty
  • Understanding and Explaining Poverty: Theories of Poverty
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Poverty, Rural
  • Introduction
  • Conceptual and Analytic Issues
  • Rural Poverty in the Periphery
  • Rural Poverty in the Core
  • Rural Poverty across National and International Divides
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Pragmatism/Pragmatist Geographies
  • Pragmatism: Origins and Character
  • Neopragmatism
  • Pragmatism and Geography
  • Pragmatism’s Critics
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Pred, A.
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Pregnancy and Childbirth
  • Introduction
  • Abortions
  • Infertility and Its Solutions
  • Preventing Pregnancy
  • Fertility and Population
  • Experiences and Hazards of Pregnancy and Birth
  • Factors Affecting Maternal Morbidity and Mortality
  • Policies for Improving Maternal Health
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Private/Public Divide
  • Introduction
  • Historical Distinctions
  • Contemporary Definitions
  • Maintaining the Distinction
  • Classifying Spaces
  • Summary
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Privatization
  • Introduction
  • Types of Privatization
  • History of Privatization
  • Impacts of Privatization
  • The Political Debate over Privatization
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Probabilism
  • Determinism and Possibilism
  • Spate and Probabilism
  • Evaluation of Probabilism
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Probability Models
  • The Quantitative Revolution
  • Normal Probability Models
  • Issues in Probability Models
  • Assessment of Probability Models in Geography
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Projections
  • Introduction
  • Earth’s Coordinate System and Shape
  • Conceptual Development of Map Projection
  • Map Projection Properties and Distortion
  • Mathematics and Map Projections
  • Map Projection Applications
  • Map Projection Research
  • Miscellaneous Investigations
  • Selecting Map Projections
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Protest, Rural
  • Introduction
  • Historical Rural Protests
  • Modern Farm Protests
  • Rural Restructuring and the Politics of the Rural
  • Rural Protests in the Developing World
  • Globalization and Rural Protest
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Psychoanalysis
  • Introduction
  • Key Psychoanalytic Methods
  • Psychoanalytic Methods in Geography
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Psychoanalytic Theory/Psychoanalytic Geographies
  • Introduction: What Is Psychoanalytic Theory?
  • Psychoanalytic Geography
  • Concluding Remarks
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Psychotherapy/Psychotherapeutic Geographies
  • Introduction
  • Geographies of Psychotherapy
  • Psychotherapeutic Possibilities of Geography
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Public Good
  • Definitions
  • Applications in Human Geography
  • Public Goods, Externalities, and Their Necessary Conditions
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Public Policy
  • Introduction
  • Reasons for and against Policy Connection
  • Policy Makers Exclude Geography
  • Geographers Exclude Policy
  • Public Geography and Policy Geography
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Public Space
  • Introduction
  • Geographic Research on Public Space
  • Public Sphere/Public Space
  • Public Space/Exclusionary Space/Contested Space
  • Future Directions
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Public Spaces, Urban
  • Introduction
  • Conceptualizing Urban Public Spaces
  • Political and Economic Significance
  • Ownership, Order, and Surveillance
  • Summary
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Transport, Public
  • Introduction
  • Operations
  • Economics
  • Integrating Issues
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Q
  • Q Method/Analysis
  • Introduction
  • Q Method versus Traditional Survey Techniques
  • Doing Q Research
  • Applications, Limitations, and Cautions
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Qualitative Geographic Information Systems
  • Introduction
  • Inserting Qualitative Data into GIS
  • Visualization
  • Mixed-Methods Research
  • Modifying GIS
  • Future Directions
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevent Websites
  • Qualitative Spatial Reasoning
  • Introduction
  • Fundamentals
  • Major Approaches and Models
  • Conclusions
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Quantitative Data
  • Quantitative Data
  • Exploration
  • Methods for Multivariate Data
  • Problems with Spatial Data
  • Spatial Pattern
  • Spatial Interaction
  • Regionalization
  • Spatial Regression
  • Spatial Interpolation
  • Software for Quantitative Analysis
  • The Future
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Quantitative Methodologies
  • Introduction
  • Qualitative and Quantitative
  • The Role of Theory
  • Statistical Inference
  • Statistical Models
  • Curve Fitting
  • Number Crunching
  • Optimization
  • Data Modeling and Software
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Quantitative Revolution
  • Introduction
  • Antecedents: Regional Geography, World War II, and the Cold War
  • Centers of Geographical Calculation
  • Geography after the Revolution
  • Revolting against the Revolution
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Queer Theory/Queer Geographies
  • Introduction
  • Queer Theory
  • Geographies of Queer: Queer Globalizations and Contestations
  • Queer Geographies
  • The Trouble with Queer Troublings
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Questionnaire Survey
  • Questionnaire Survey
  • Designing a Questionnaire Survey
  • Constructing the Questionnaire
  • Administering the Questionnaire
  • Analysis, Interpretation, and Presentation
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • R
  • Race
  • The Power of Race
  • The Place of Race
  • The Problems of Race Analysis
  • The Possibilities of Race
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Racism and Antiracism
  • Introduction: Race and Racism
  • Geography and the Shadow of Empire
  • Cultural Racisms
  • Racism and Religion
  • Racism and the Geographies of Whiteness
  • Geography as a White Discipline
  • Antiracist Geographies
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Radical Environmentalism
  • The Concept
  • Precursors and Inputs of Radical Environmentalism
  • Contraries
  • Outward Influence
  • Summary
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Radical Geography
  • Introduction
  • Social Relevance
  • Anarchic Leanings
  • Radical Geographical Practice
  • The Radical Critique
  • From Radical to Marxist Geography
  • Marxist Geography
  • Critique of Radical Marxist Geography
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Radical Political Economy
  • Introduction
  • Three Most Original Contributions of Marx
  • Marxian Economics after Marx
  • The Movement for Radical Political Economics in Late Twentieth Century
  • Radical Political Economy and Critical Economic Geography
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Railways
  • Introduction
  • The Rise of the Railway
  • A Mode in Decline?
  • A New Railway Mania?
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Rational Choice Theory (and Rational Choice Marxism)
  • Conventional Rational Choice Theory
  • Prisoner’s Dilemma
  • The Nash Equilibrium
  • Social Norms and Power
  • Rational Choice Theory and Geography
  • Rational Choice Marxism
  • Conclusion: Rational Choice Approaches and Geography
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Reclus, E.
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Redbrick University Geography in Britain
  • Introduction
  • Science Colleges and Early Geography Teaching
  • From College to University
  • Geography at the New Universities
  • Birmingham Beginnings
  • The Post-1945 Story
  • Conclusions
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Redlining
  • Introduction: Redlining as a Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
  • The Origins of Redlining
  • Redlining in Post-War US
  • Redlining Outside the US and Outside the Mortgage Market
  • The Spatialization of Redlining
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Refugees and Displacement
  • America’s Largest Displacement
  • Who Is a Refugee? Legal definitions
  • Who Is a Refugee? Analytical Definitions
  • Popular Definitions: Why It Matters to be a Refugee
  • Geography and Refugees
  • Refugees: Theory and Public Policy
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Regeneration to Renaissance
  • Urban Regeneration to Sustainable Cities
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Region
  • Introduction
  • Evolution of the Idea
  • Cartographic Region
  • Economic Region
  • Cultural Region
  • Political Region
  • Ecological Region
  • Region Redux?
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Regional Actors
  • Introduction
  • Regional Actors in Context
  • The New Regionalism
  • Understanding New Regional Actors – The UK, the EU, and the US
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Regional Competition, Regional Dumping
  • Do Regions Compete?
  • Criticisms of Regional Competition
  • Regional ‘Dumping’
  • Policy Debate
  • Assessing the Regions’ Competitive Performance
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Regional Connectivity
  • Introduction
  • Defining and Measuring Regional Connectivity–Accessibility
  • (Geo)graphical Representations of Regional Connectivity–Accessibility
  • Regional Connectivity–Accessibility and Regional Development
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Regional Development and Noneconomic Factors
  • What Is Noneconomic in Regional Development?
  • Culture and Modes of Life in Regional Development
  • Social Capital and Embeddedness in Regional Development
  • Networks in Regional Development
  • Power, Mobility, and Territoriality in Regional Development
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Regional Development and Technology
  • Introduction: Technology and Regional Economic Growth
  • Technology and Regions: Basic Phenomena, Processes, and Components
  • Technology and the Regions: Regions as Learning Environments and Systems
  • Technology and Regions: Changing Perspectives
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Regional Development Models
  • Introduction
  • Neoclassical Convergence Models
  • Circular and Cumulative Causation
  • Theories of Modernization, Dependency, and Unequal Exchange
  • Models of Endogenous Development I
  • Models of Endogenous Growth II
  • Economic Geography Models
  • Conclusions
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Regional Development Theory
  • Regional Development: What and Why?
  • Location of Human Activity and Regional Development
  • Entrepreneurship, Innovation and the Knowledge Economy
  • The Convergence Debate
  • Regional Development Policy in Perspective
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Regional Development, Endogenous
  • Genesis and Core Concept
  • Related Concepts and New Routes
  • Conclusions
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Regional Geography I
  • Introduction
  • Regional Geography: A Contested but Necessary Enterprise
  • Defining Regional Geography
  • The Roots of Regional Geography
  • The Decline of Traditional Regional Geography
  • The Emergence of ‘New Regional Geography’
  • Regional Geography and the Concept of the Region
  • Challenging Bounded Regions
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Regional Geography II
  • Introduction
  • The ‘Old Regional Geography’
  • The ‘New Regional Geography’, Localities and the Regulation Approach
  • The ‘New Regionalism’
  • The Relational Region
  • Summary
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Regional Inequalities
  • Introduction
  • Which Territorial Units?
  • Which Indicators?
  • Which Measures of Inequality?
  • Territorial Units and the Measurement of Inequality
  • National and Regional Inequalities in the EU
  • The Dynamics of Regional Inequalities: Convergence or Divergence?
  • Trends in Regional Inequalities
  • Conclusions
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Regional Innovation Systems
  • Background
  • Elements of Innovation Systems
  • Regional Systems of Innovation
  • Nonterritorial Systems of Innovation
  • Toward a Multidimensional Concept of Innovation Space
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Regional Integration
  • Introduction
  • Defining Regional Integration
  • The Case of European Integration
  • Spatial Tensions Underpinning Processes of Regional Integration
  • Resistance to Regional Integration
  • The Future of Regional Integration
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Regional Planning and Development Theories
  • Defining Regions and Regionalism
  • Regional Planning as Resource Development: 1920–50
  • Regional Planning 1950–80: Welfare Regionalism
  • Regional Planning as Entrepreneurial Regionalism 1980–present
  • The Rise of a New Regionalism
  • Retheorizing Regions and Regional Development
  • A Brief Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Regional Production Networks
  • Introduction
  • Ideal Types
  • Approaches to Studying RPNs
  • Issues
  • Two Case Studies – The Production of Watches and Toyota Automobiles
  • A World of Regions
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Regional Science
  • What Is Regional Science?
  • Theory
  • Empirical Methods
  • Regional Science and the Social Sciences
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Uneven Regional Development
  • Introduction
  • The Denial of the Necessity and Inevitability of Uneven Development
  • Cumulative Causation and Uneven Development
  • Marxian Political Economy and Uneven Development
  • The Role of the State in Managing Regionally Uneven Development: Managing Tensions and Avoiding Crises
  • Conclusions
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Regionalisations, Everyday
  • Introduction
  • Nigel Thrift’s Contextual Regional Geography
  • Critique: From the Region to Analyzing Processes of (Everyday) Regionalization
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Regionalism
  • Introduction
  • Regionalism, Culture, Politics
  • Anti-Regionalism
  • Regionalism Old and New
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Regionalization/Zoning Systems
  • Introduction
  • Methods
  • An Emerging Field?
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Regression, Linear and Nonlinear
  • Introduction
  • Undertaking Regression Analysis
  • Residuals
  • Goodness of Fit
  • Assumptions
  • Tests of Significance
  • Multiple Regression
  • Transforming the General Linear Model
  • Nonlinear Regression
  • Concluding Remarks
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Regulation
  • Introduction
  • From Regulation to Mode of Régulation
  • Regulation Theory and Political Geography
  • Extending Regulation
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relational Economic Geography
  • Situating a Relational Economic Geography Approach
  • The Localized Institutions Strand within Relational Economic Geography
  • Limits to the Localized Institutions Strand in Relational Economic Geography
  • The Agency-Oriented Institutions Strand within Relational Economic Geography
  • Limits to the Agency-Oriented Strand in Relational Economic Geography
  • The Future of Relational Economic Geography?
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Reliability and Validity
  • Introduction
  • The Scope and Meaning of Reliability and Validity in Human Geography
  • Measuring Reliability and Validity
  • Concluding Comments
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Religion/Spirituality/Faith
  • Introduction
  • Research Traditions
  • Politics of Sacred Spaces
  • Poetics of Sacred Place
  • Poetics of Community
  • Politics of Identity and Community
  • ‘New’ Geographies of Religion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Remittances
  • Introduction
  • The History of Remittances
  • Contemporary Remittance Channels
  • Data Collection and Reliability
  • The Contemporary Significance, Scale, and Geography of Remittances
  • The Developmental Impact of Remittances in Receiving Countries
  • Why Do Migrants Remit?
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Remote Sensing
  • Introduction
  • Electromagnetic Radiation
  • Characteristics of Remotely Sensed Data and Data Collection
  • Resolution
  • Digital Image Processing and Analysis
  • Remote-Sensing Data Types
  • Summary
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Representation-Mapping
  • Representation – Mapping Defined
  • The Representation Paradigm in Cartography and Geographic Information Science
  • Geographic Representation and Cognition
  • Representation in Spatial Databases
  • Representation in Geographic Visualization
  • Critiques of Cartographic and Spatial Database Representation
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Representation and Re-presentation
  • Introduction
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Representation, Politics of
  • Introduction
  • Geography and the Politics of Representation: An Overview
  • Landscape
  • Feminism
  • A New Crisis for Representation?
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Research Funding Bodies
  • Origins of the Dual Funding Structure
  • Winning Recognition
  • Funding Streams
  • Research Funding and Research Evaluation
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Resistance
  • Introduction
  • Theories of Resistance
  • Development and Resistance
  • The Globalization of Resistance
  • Geography and Resistance
  • Conclusions
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relavant Websites
  • Resource and Environmental Economics
  • Definitions of Resource and Environment
  • Relationship between Resource Extraction and Economic Development
  • Key Ideas of Environmental Economics
  • Limits of Environmental Economics
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Resource Industries
  • Resource Rights and Organization
  • Resource Industries in Space
  • Resource Cycles and Vulnerabilities
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Resource Management, Rural
  • Introduction
  • Resource Dependency
  • Resource Management: Considerations and Approaches
  • Conclusions
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Retail Geographies
  • Introduction – The New Retail Geography
  • Geographies of Retail Concentration, Corporate Restructuring, and Regulation
  • Geographies of Retail Sourcing Networks and Supply Relations
  • Inconstant Geographies and the Spatial Switching of Retail Capital
  • Virtual Geographies of Retail Capital
  • Future Agendas
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Rio Summit
  • Introduction
  • Global Events on Environment and Development Pre-Rio
  • The Rio Summit, Agenda 21, and the Millennium Development Goals
  • Progress since Rio
  • Global Environmental Governance
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Ritter, C.
  • Ritter, Carl (1779–1859)
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • River Basin Development
  • Introduction
  • Twentieth-Century River Basin Development – Controlling Nature to Benefit Society
  • River Basin Development in the Global North
  • Exporting the Model – River Basin Development in the Global South
  • Rethinking River Basin Development in the Twenty-First Century
  • Transboundary River Basin Development
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Rural Communities
  • Definitions
  • Rural Community as a Social and Theoretical Concept
  • Theoretical and Ideological Debates about Rural Communities
  • Key Types/Characteristics
  • Distinctive Social and Economic Processes
  • Ethnocultural Variation
  • Rural Communities and the Life course
  • Rural Communities in the Information and Globalization Age
  • Issues of Viability and Community Development
  • Planning and the Rural Community Icon
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Rural Geography
  • Introduction
  • The Birth of a Subdiscipline
  • Critical Rural Studies and the Political-Economy Approach
  • The Cultural Turn and the Renaissance of Rural Geography
  • Rural Geography and Cognate Disciplines in International Perspective
  • Current Developments and New Directions
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Rural Populations
  • Introduction: Rural Populations Today
  • Key Trends Shaping Rural Populations
  • Studying Rural Populations
  • Beyond Stereotypes of Rural Populations
  • Conclusion: Recognizing Diversity
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Tourism, Rural
  • Defining Rural Tourism
  • Theoretical Considerations
  • Tourism Impacts and Implications for Sustainable Rural Systems
  • Policy Concerns
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Transport, Rural
  • Introduction
  • Transport and Rural Development
  • Social Constructs
  • New Conceptualizations
  • Developing Countries
  • Future Prospects
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Rurality and Post-Rurality
  • Introduction: The Problem with Rurality
  • Conclusion: Integrating the Four Perspectives
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Russian-Language Geography
  • Introduction
  • Pre-Soviet Stage
  • Soviet Stage
  • Post-Soviet Stage
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • S
  • Sampling
  • Introduction
  • History of Sampling
  • The Logic of Sampling
  • Population
  • Sampling Frame
  • Sampling Methods
  • Other Aspects of Sampling
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Santos, M.
  • Santos, Milton (1926–2001)
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Sauer, C.
  • Sauer, Carl (1889–1975)
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Scale
  • Introduction
  • Current Scale Debates in Human Geography
  • Conclusion: Processes and Relations
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Scale Analytical
  • Introduction
  • Meanings of Scale
  • Metaphors of Scale
  • Modifiable Areal Unit Problem
  • Regression and Scale Dependence
  • Multilevel Modeling
  • Spatial Dependence and Scale
  • Fractals
  • Power Laws
  • Critiques of Scale
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Science and Scientism, Cartography
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Scientific Method
  • Is Human Geography a Science?
  • The Scientific Method in Human Geography
  • Critique
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Scott, A.
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Second Homes
  • Introduction: A Brief Overview
  • The Historical Roots of Second Homes
  • The Changing Geography of Second Homes
  • Tourism, Leisure, and Second Homes
  • Second Homes and Regional Development
  • The Future Landscape of Second Homes?
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Second World
  • Post-World War II
  • End of the Cold War
  • The Enduring East–West Division
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Segregation
  • Introduction
  • Five Periods of Research
  • The Role of Urban Governance
  • Ghettos, Enclaves, and Ethnoburbs
  • Self-Segregation
  • Better Measures of Residential Segregation
  • Life Chances
  • Qualitative Research
  • Issues
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Segregation Indices
  • Introduction
  • Nature and Conceptualizations of Segregation
  • Traditional Measures
  • Spatial Measures of Segregation
  • Related Issues on Measuring Segregation
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Segregation, Urban
  • Introduction
  • Global Views on Variations and Explanations of Segregation
  • Measuring Segregation – Debates and Issues
  • Mobile and ‘Static’ Forms of Segregation
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Selection Bias
  • Introduction
  • Selection Bias in Regression Modeling
  • Examples of Selection Bias in Regression Models
  • Addressing Selection Bias in Regression Models
  • Selection Bias and Geographic Research
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Self-Other
  • Introduction
  • Studies of Otherness in the Social Sciences
  • Self–Other and the Unconscious
  • Some Geographies of Self–Other
  • Self–Other Ambiguity
  • The Others of Others
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Semiotics
  • Key Concepts
  • Architecture and the Semiotics of Objects
  • The City as Symbol and Text
  • Reading Landscapes: Ordinary, Elite, and Symbolic
  • The Semiotics of Popular Culture
  • Maps and Meanings
  • Toponymy
  • Public Memory and Commemoration
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Sense of Place
  • Sense of Place as Critique
  • Applications and Insights
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Sensorium
  • Introduction
  • Situating Vision
  • Humanistic Geographies and the Place of Sense
  • Nonrepresentational Senses of Space–Time
  • Mapping the Multiple Senses of Space
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Services, Professional
  • Introduction: Professional Services and the ‘New Economy’
  • Professional Services: How Do We Know Them When We See Them?
  • On the Historical Growth and Development of Professional Services
  • Understanding the Professional Services Labor Process: Embodied Work and the (Gendered) Performance of Emotional Labor
  • On PSF Clustering: From Transaction Cost Reductions to Interfirm Knowledge Spillovers, Collective Learning, and Innovation
  • Internationalization of Professional Services
  • Future Research Directions
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Services, Rural
  • Introduction
  • Nature of Rural Services
  • The Geographic Rationale of Rural Services
  • Future Growth (and Decline) of Rural Services
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Sexuality
  • Introduction
  • Geographies of Sexuality
  • Space, Discourse, and Sexual Identity
  • Queer Times, Queer Frontiers
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Shift-Share Analysis
  • Introduction
  • The Classic Shift-Share Model
  • Early Development
  • Analytical Issues
  • Shift-Share Extensions
  • Conclusions
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Simulation
  • Overview
  • History and Approaches
  • Critical Evaluation and Challenges
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Situated Knowledge, Reflexivity
  • Introduction
  • Science as Situated Knowledge
  • All Views Are Views to/from Somewhere
  • Situated Knowledge and Moral Geography
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Situationism/Situationist Geography
  • Introduction
  • Critiques of the Spectacle
  • Psychogeography and Reclaiming Cities
  • Utopianism and Sociospatial Transformation
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Situationist City
  • Introduction
  • The Situationist Critique of Urbanism
  • Methods of Analysis and Representation
  • Proposals, Constructions, and Actions
  • The Situationist City Today
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Slums
  • Slums
  • Definition: Physical and Social Aspects of the Slum
  • Changing Patterns and Types of Slums
  • Slum Discourse and Public Policy
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Smith, N.
  • Smith, Neil (1954 –)
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Social Capital
  • Introduction
  • Meanings of Social Capital
  • Travels to Development: The Take-up of Social Capital
  • Social Capital and Development Studies
  • Criticisms
  • Final Words
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Social Capital, Place and Health
  • Introduction
  • Concepts, Definitions, and Measurement
  • Geography and Social Capital
  • Social Capital and Health
  • Qualitative Approaches
  • Social Capital, Public Health, and Policy Implications
  • Conclusions
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Social Class
  • Introduction
  • Classical Definitions of Social Class: Marx and Weber
  • Class as Stratification
  • Revisions to Classical Theories: Neo-Marxians and Neo-Weberians
  • Geographical Approaches to the Analysis of Class Relations
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Social Geography
  • Background
  • Geographies of Social Patterns and Everyday Life
  • Critiquing Disadvantage and Difference
  • Diverse Deconstructions of Social Life: Postmodern and Post-Structural Geographies
  • Rematerializing and Feeling Social Geography
  • Further Social Geographies: Chasms and Connections
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Social Justice, Urban
  • Definition
  • Evolution and Main Concepts
  • Challenging Neoliberalism
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Social Movements
  • Introduction
  • Social Movements and Research Trends
  • Lessons from the Environmental Movement
  • Social Movements as a Subject Matter of Political Geography
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Nature, Social
  • Introduction
  • Critiques of the Social Nature Literature
  • Conclusion: Toward Hybridity?
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Social Studies of Scientific Knowledge
  • Introduction
  • History of Scientific and Geographical Knowledge
  • Rethinking the Place of Science in Nature–Society Relations
  • Remapping the Human
  • Critiques
  • New Directions
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Socialism
  • Origins
  • Utopianism
  • Scientific Socialism, Internationalism, and State Power
  • Socialisms and Geographers
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Society–Space
  • Introduction
  • Society–Space as Structured Coherence
  • Society–Space as a Strategic Field
  • Issues
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Soja, E.
  • Soja, Ed (1941–)
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Sound and Music
  • The Difficult Nature of Sound (and Music)
  • Cartographies: Diffusion
  • Cartographies: Cultural ‘Distinctiveness’ and Place
  • Cartographies: Dissemination
  • Economies of Sound
  • Experiencing Sound
  • Future Directions in Research
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Soundscapes
  • Sight, Sound, and Music
  • The Embodiments of Sound
  • The Diffusion of Soundscapes
  • Future Directions
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • South Asia
  • Introduction
  • The Distinctiveness of South Asia
  • The Cultural Origins
  • The Imperial Intrusion of Modernity
  • Westphalian South Asia
  • South Asia and the Diaspora
  • A Common Future?
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Southeast Asia
  • Realism and Constructivism
  • Physical Geography
  • Historical Antecedents
  • Convenient Constructs and Contingent Devices
  • Realizing Southeast Asia
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Sovereignty
  • Introduction: Final and Absolute Legal–Political Authority
  • Sovereignty as Supreme Command, Sovereignty as Political Authority
  • Sovereignty and State Territoriality
  • Sovereignty, Security, and the Limits of Political Community
  • Spatialities of Power, Plural
  • Global Sovereignty, States of Exception
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Space II
  • Introduction
  • Absolute Conceptions of Space
  • Relational Conceptions of Space
  • Ontogenetic Conceptions of Space
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Space I
  • Introduction
  • Space in the Philosophical Tradition
  • Spatial Science
  • Ways of Thinking Space
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Space-Time
  • Introduction
  • Diffusion
  • Time Geography
  • Biographies and Geographies: Structuration
  • Place, Biography, and History: New Regional Geographies
  • Planes, Trains, and WiFi? Technology and Space
  • Time as Unifying Force: GIScience, Human and Physical Geographies
  • The Problem(s) with Space–Time
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Space-Time Modeling
  • Introduction
  • Incorporating Time into Database and GIS
  • From Space–Time to Geographic Dynamics
  • Change in the Context of Geographic Dynamics
  • Movement in the Context of Geographic Dynamics
  • Space–Time Ontologies and Beyond
  • Summary
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Spanish Language Geography
  • Geography in Spain
  • Geography in Latin America
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Spatial Analysis, Critical
  • A Contradictio in Terminis?
  • Criticizing Spatial Analysis and Beyond
  • More Progressive Research Questions
  • Challenging Positivist Worldviews
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Spatial Autocorrelation
  • Introduction
  • Conceptual Meanings of Spatial Autocorrelation
  • Illustrations of Spatial Autocorrelation
  • Estimators of Spatial Autocorrelation
  • Graphical Portrayals of Spatial Autocorrelation
  • Theoretical Statistical Properties of Spatial Autocorrelation
  • Summary and Contemporary Issues
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Spatial Clustering, Detection and Analysis of
  • Introduction
  • Fundamental Considerations for Cluster Detection
  • Spatial Clustering Analysis for Point Data
  • Clustering Detection for Linear and Areal Data
  • Other Issues in Spatial Cluster Detection and Analysis
  • Summary
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Spatial Data Mining, Cluster and Pattern Recognition
  • Introduction
  • Classification by Clustering
  • Classification and Supervised Learning
  • Accuracy and Validation
  • Feature Selection
  • Knowledge Discovery
  • Treatment of Spatial Data
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Spatial Data Mining, Geovisualization
  • Geospatial Data
  • Geovisualization Software
  • Spatial Uncertainty in Geovisualization
  • Geovisualization for Spatial Data Mining
  • Future Research
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Spatial Data Models
  • Introduction
  • Spatial Data Models for Human Geography
  • Spatial Representation
  • Identifying Spatial Objects, Regions, and Fields
  • GIS Data Models for Spatial Objects, Regions, and Fields
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Spatial Databases
  • Introduction
  • The Relational Data Model
  • Spatial Relational Databases
  • Other Spatial Database Models
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Spatial Division of Labor
  • Origins: From the Ancient Greeks to Adam Smith and Karl Marx
  • Spatial Divisions of Labor
  • The New International Division of Labor
  • New Spatial Divisions of Labor: Value Chains, Commodity Chains, and Global Production Networks
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Spatial Expansion Method
  • Introduction
  • An Example
  • Dual Expansions
  • Applications
  • Concluding Remarks
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Spatial Filtering/Kernel Density Estimation
  • Density Estimation
  • Relationships between Choropleth Maps and Density Maps
  • Kernel Density Methods
  • Typical Input Data for Density Maps
  • Mathematical Discussion
  • Effects of Varying the Grid Size
  • Effects of Varying the Window Width
  • The Adaptive Kernel Method
  • Illustration of Density Estimation Methods
  • Protecting the Privacy of Point Data
  • Issues of Statistical Significance
  • Some Limitations
  • Software for Kernel Density Applications
  • Conclusions
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Spatial Interaction Models
  • Introduction
  • Simple Gravity Model
  • Spatial Interaction Models
  • Family of Constrained SI Models
  • Recent Extensions and Elaborations
  • Applications
  • Limitations
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Spatial Interpolation
  • Introduction
  • A Classification of Spatial Interpolation Methods
  • Point Interpolation
  • Areal Interpolation
  • Future Directions
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Spatial Ontologies
  • Definition: Spatial Ontologies
  • How Do Spatial Ontologies Look Like?
  • Formalization and Ontologies
  • Ontology Research in GIScience
  • Spatial Ontologies of Land Use: An Example
  • Spatial Ontologies: Present and Future
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Spatial Science
  • Origins
  • Location Theory, Hypothesis Testing, and Quantitative Analysis
  • Moving on I – from Normative to Behavioral Theory
  • Moving on II – Methods
  • Contemporary Spatial Science
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Spatially Autoregressive Models
  • Background: The Literal Meaning of Autoregression
  • Introduction: The Meaning of Spatial Correlation
  • The Auto-Normal Probability Model
  • The Auto-Poisson Probability Model
  • The Auto-Binomial Probability Model
  • Summary and Contemporary Issues
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Squatter Settlements
  • Introduction
  • Definitions
  • Distribution and Growth of Informal Settlements
  • Approaches to Informal Settlements
  • Conclusions
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • State
  • Introduction
  • Tracing the State
  • Theorizing the State: Three Positions
  • Historical Specificity: Periodization and Territory
  • Future Issues and Directions for Research
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • State Theory
  • What Is the State?
  • The Origins of the State and State-Building
  • Marxist Approaches to the State
  • State-Centered Theories
  • Foucauldian Approaches
  • Feminist Approaches
  • Discourse Analysis and Stateless State Theory
  • New Directions of Research
  • Final Remarks
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Statistics, Inferential
  • Introduction
  • Sampling Distributions
  • Estimation
  • Hypothesis Testing
  • Concluding Remarks
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Statistics, Spatial
  • Introduction: Motivations and Justifications
  • Methods for Event Data
  • Methods for Flows in Networks
  • Methods for Lattice Data
  • Methods for ‘Geostatistical’ Data
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Statistics, Overview
  • Introduction
  • Sampling and Statistical Description
  • Testing Hypotheses
  • Measuring Associations
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Generalized Linear Models and Categorical Data Analysis
  • Statistical Models
  • Spatial Statistics
  • Space and Time
  • New Frontiers
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Storper, M.
  • Storper, Michael (1954–)
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Street Names and Iconography
  • Introduction
  • Addressing History: The Politics of Commemorative Street (Re)Naming
  • The Power of Commemorative Street Names
  • Semantic Displacements
  • Reading History: City-Text
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Structural Adjustment
  • Introduction
  • The Neoliberal Turn and the Underlying Principles of SAPs
  • What Is Structural Adjustment?
  • Impacts and Effects
  • The Politics of Sovereignty and Accountability
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Structural Equations Models
  • Introduction
  • A Generic Structural Model and Its Interpretation
  • Estimation
  • Identifiability
  • Goodness-of-Fit Measures
  • The Assumption of Multivariate Normality
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Structural Marxism
  • Introduction
  • Structural Marxism and Marxist Human Geography
  • Structural Marxism and Its Critics
  • Marxian Counter-Critiques
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Structuralism/Structuralist Geography
  • Introduction
  • Structuralist Thinkers
  • Structuralist Geography?
  • Conclusion: Ex-Structuralists and Post-Structuralists
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Structuration Theory
  • Giddens’ Theory of Structuration
  • Bourdieu’s Theory of Practice
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Readings
  • Relevant Websites
  • Structurationist Geography
  • Structuration Theory and the Spatial Contexts of Social Agency
  • The Integration of the Theory of Structuration into New Regional Geography
  • Discussion
  • Late-Modern Ontology and Structurationist Geography
  • From ‘Space’ to ‘Action’
  • Regionalization as World Binding
  • Summary
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Subaltern
  • Origins and Definitions
  • The Subaltern in Postcolonial Theory
  • Subaltern Historiographies of Geography
  • Subaltern Historical Geographies: History from Below
  • Space, Place, and the Subaltern
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Subalternity
  • Introduction
  • Gramsci and Subalternity
  • Subaltern Studies and the Geopolitics of Representation
  • From Subaltern Studies to Postcolonial Criticism
  • Subalternity and Its Futures
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Subjectivity
  • Introduction
  • The Origin of the Knowing Subject
  • Subjective Knowledge
  • Structure/Agency
  • Post-Subjectivity
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Suburbanization
  • The Roots and Spread of Suburbia
  • The Relationship with the City
  • Suburban Futures/Issues
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Superpower
  • Superpower Rivalry
  • Superpower Rivalries
  • Hyperpower: The Endgame of Superpower or Empire by Another Name?
  • Conclusions
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Surrealism/Surrealist Geographies
  • Introduction
  • Threads of Revolt
  • Surrealist Urban Dreams
  • Architecture, Space, and Fantasy
  • Engaging Surrealist Geographies
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Surveillance
  • Introduction
  • Surveillance and the Social Sciences
  • Panoptic Visions
  • Omnioptic Visions
  • Automatic Surveillance
  • Toward a Surveillance Assemblage
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Surveying
  • History
  • Methods
  • Instruments
  • Techniques
  • Applications
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Sustainability
  • Introduction: Origins
  • Finding Sustainability
  • Governing Sustainability
  • Analytical Challenges in Understanding and Creating Sustainability
  • Uneven Development
  • Contested Articulation and Appropriation
  • Practices and Planning: Sustainable Production and Consumption in Communities
  • Conclusions: From Recognition and Appropriation toward Experimentation
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Sustainable Development
  • Introduction
  • Framing Sustainable Development
  • Mainstream Sustainable Development
  • The Poverty Consensus: Current Engagement of Development Policy with Local and Global Environments
  • Geography and the Poverty–Environment Nexus
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Symbolic Interactionism
  • Introduction
  • Symbolic Geographies
  • Interactive Geographies
  • Symbolic Interactionism and Contemporary Human Geography
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Symbolism, Iconography
  • Theoretic Overview of Symbolism and Iconography
  • Mechanics of Symbolization
  • Practics of Symbolization
  • Maps and Map Language
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Systems
  • The Origins of Systems Theory
  • Isolated, Closed, and Open Systems
  • Degrees of Organization
  • Regulation and Variety
  • The Application of Systems Theory in the Social Sciences
  • Self-Image and Reflexivity
  • Related Fields
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Systems Theory
  • Emergence of Systems Thinking in Contemporary Science
  • From Systems Thinking to Systems Science
  • Social Systems
  • Cybernetics
  • Complexity Science
  • Contribution of Systems Theory and Complexity Science to Geography
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • T
  • Taylor, G.
  • Taylor, Griffith (1880–1963)
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Taylor, P.
  • Taylor, Peter (1944–)
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Technological Change
  • Introduction and Overview
  • Technological Change and Economic Growth
  • Intellectual Property
  • The Social and Geographical Construction of Technology
  • Spaces of Science and Technological Change
  • Technology and Capital
  • Futures of Technology: A Concluding Comment
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Technology and Regional Development
  • Introduction
  • Geographic Sources of Technological Innovation
  • Geographic Mechanisms of Technological Innovation
  • Actors of Innovation and the Scale(s) of Explanation
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Technology Industries
  • Basic Concepts and Definitions
  • Technology Industries and Location
  • Technology Transfer as a Spatial Process
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Telecommunications
  • Popular Misconceptions about Telecommunications
  • Telecommunications and Finance
  • Telecommunications and Global Cities
  • Telecommunications and Back Office Relocations
  • Telecommunications and Urban Space
  • The Internet
  • The Oligopolization of Telecommunications
  • Conclusions
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Territorial Production Complexes
  • A Basic Explanation of the Concept
  • The Characteristics of a TPC in Relation to Other Concepts and Approaches
  • How Is the Concept Embedded in the Socialist Economic and Planning Ideas?
  • Other Limitations and Weaknesses of the Concept
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Territory and Territoriality
  • Introduction
  • Preliminaries Issues
  • Analytics
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Terrorism
  • Introduction
  • What and Who of Terror, Terrorist, and Terrorism
  • Spatiality of Terror: Globalization, Scale, and State Violence
  • Unpacking the Discourses of Terrorism
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Text and Textuality
  • Introduction
  • Text as Authoritative Edition
  • Textuality
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Text, Textual Analysis
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Urban Order
  • Introduction
  • The Epochal City
  • The Urban Hierarchy
  • Cities and Regions
  • Ignored Urbanism and Other Orders
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Theocracy
  • Introduction
  • Three Definitions of Theocracy
  • Theocracy and Geography
  • Modern Christian Theocracies
  • Modern Islamic Theocracies
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Therapeutic Landscapes
  • Introduction
  • Origins of the Concept
  • Applications of the Concept
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Thiessen Polygon
  • Definition
  • Discoveries and Rediscoveries of Thiessen Polygons
  • Methods of Constructing Thiessen Polygons
  • Variations of Thiessen Polygons: Generalized Voronoi Diagrams
  • Applications of Thiessen Polygons in Geography
  • Summary and Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Future Reading
  • Third World
  • Introduction
  • UNCTAD and the Fourth World
  • The Meaning of Development
  • New Geopolitics and State Failure
  • One World
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Third World Cities
  • Introduction
  • Deconstructing Third World City Research
  • Conclusions – Cities within Cities
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Thrift, N.
  • Thrift, Nigel (1949–)
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Time and Historical Geography
  • Introduction
  • Historical Geographies of Time
  • Time in Historical Geography
  • Time and Historical Geography
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Time Geographic Analysis
  • Introduction
  • Basic Ideas of Classical Time Geography
  • Application of Time-Geographic Analysis
  • Geographic Information System, Three-Dimensional Geovisualization and Time-Geographic Analysis
  • Criticisms on Time Geography
  • Future Issues
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Time Series Analysis
  • Introduction
  • Spectral Analysis
  • Spatial Forecasting
  • Space–Time Forecasting Models
  • Predicting Epidemic Return Times
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Time Geography
  • Introduction
  • On the History of Time-Geography
  • The Notation System and the Conceptual Apparatus
  • Time-Geography Then and Now
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Time-Space Diaries
  • Introduction
  • Design Dimensions
  • Some Salient Issues
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Tourism
  • Overview of History of Tourism
  • The Globalization of Tourism and the Increasing Diversity of the Tourist Product
  • Early Theoretical Explanations of Tourism
  • Later Theoretical Explanations of Tourism
  • The Recent Broadening of Theories about Tourism
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Trade Blocs
  • Introduction
  • Trade Blocs: Pros and Cons
  • The Geography of Trade Blocs
  • Trade Blocs and Developing Countries
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Transatlantic
  • Transatlantic
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Transcripts (Coding and Analysis)
  • Introduction
  • Practical Issues: Transcription in Research Projects
  • Coding and the Rigorous Analysis of Transcripts
  • Final Thoughts
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Transitional Economies
  • Introduction
  • The Washington Consensus
  • Transition in the Former Soviet Union
  • The Social Costs of Transition
  • Institutions and Geographies Matter
  • Transition or Transformation?
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Translation
  • Introduction
  • Toward a Critical Theorization of Translation
  • Exploring Translation Practices in Human Geography Research
  • The Politics of Translation
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Transnational Corporations in Developing Countries
  • Introduction
  • The Changing Geography of the TNC
  • TNCs and the Global South
  • Performing Production Systems and Market b/Orders
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Transnational Ethnic Networks
  • The Overseas Chinese Business Networks (OCBN): An Illustration
  • Cautionary Remarks
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Transnationalism and Labor Geography
  • Labor Geography
  • Transnationalism
  • Transnationalism and Labor Markets
  • Transnationalism and Workplace Processes
  • Transnationalism and Reproductive Labor
  • Transnational Organizing
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Transnationalism and Technology Transfer
  • The Rise of Transnational Technical Community and Technology Transfer
  • The Limit of Transnationalism in Technology Innovation
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Transnationalism
  • Transnationalism by Discipline
  • Dimensions of Transnationalism
  • Political Aspects of Transnationalism
  • Criticisms of Transnationalism
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Transnationality
  • Introduction
  • The Logics of Transnationality
  • The Uneven Scape of Transnationality
  • Whither Transnationality Research?
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Transport and Accessibility
  • Accessibility Concept
  • Why Is Accessibility Important?
  • Transport Networks and Accessibility
  • Relationships among Transport Systems, Accessibility, Land Use, and Mobility
  • How to Measure Accessibility?
  • Some Accessibility Indicators
  • Accessibility in Transport Infrastructure Planning
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Transport and Deregulation
  • Basic Concepts
  • Regulation and Ownership
  • Examples from Experience in Britain
  • Airline Deregulation in Europe
  • Issues in Analysis of Deregulation Effects
  • Spatial Variation in Impacts
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Transport and Social Exclusion
  • Introduction
  • Defining Social Exclusion
  • Social Exclusion and Patterns of Transport Disadvantage
  • The Impact of Transport Disadvantage and Social Exclusion
  • Policy Responses
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Transport and Sustainability
  • Introduction
  • The Challenges
  • Policy Issues
  • Conclusions
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Transport Geography
  • Introduction
  • The Development of Transport Geography
  • Differential Collapse in Time–Space and the Increased Importance of Location
  • Telecommunications and the ‘Death of Distance’
  • Transport Innovation and Globalization
  • Transport and Economic Development
  • Centrality, Proximity, and Intermediacy
  • Transport Deregulation, Privatization, and Network Adaptation
  • Urban Expansion, Transport Technology, and Planning
  • Unsustainable Energy Supplies and the Consequences of Peak Oil
  • Mobility and Accessibility
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Transportation and Land Use
  • Introduction
  • Transportation and Land-Use Interaction
  • Theories and Models
  • Lessons Learned and Future Prospects
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Travel and Travel-Writing
  • Why Geographers Are Interested in Travel-Writing
  • Travel and Travel-Writing Defined
  • Towards a Broader Understanding of Travel
  • Politics of Travel
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Trend Surface Models
  • Introduction: Representing Scalar Fields
  • Trend Surfaces and Their Residuals
  • Fitting Trend Surfaces
  • Some Statistical Issues
  • Applications in Human Geography
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Triangulation
  • Triangulation
  • Convergence
  • Complementarity
  • Divergence
  • Studies That Have Used Triangulation
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Tropical Geography
  • Introduction
  • Orientalism, Geography, and the Tropics
  • Tropicality, Regional Geography, and ‘Development’
  • The Degeneration of Tropical Geography
  • Conclusions
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Tuan, Y.-F.
  • Tuan, Y.-F. (1930–)
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • U
  • Uncertainty
  • Introduction
  • Describing and Measuring Uncertainty
  • Modeling Uncertainty
  • Visualizing Uncertainty
  • Propagating Uncertainty
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Underclass
  • Definitions/Introduction
  • Historical and Geographical Contexts
  • A Behavioral Underclass?
  • A Structural Underclass?
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Uneven Development
  • Introduction
  • Uneven Development in Classical Political Economy and Neoclassical Economics
  • Uneven Development in Marxist and Other Critical Political Economy
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Urban Architecture
  • Introduction
  • The Historical Development of Urban Architectural Research in Geography
  • Theme 1: Machines
  • Theme 2: Power
  • Theme 3: Play
  • Theme 4: Globalization
  • Theme 5: Nostalgia
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Urban Design
  • Introduction
  • Re(making) Urban Design
  • Designing and Planning the City
  • Urban Design and Spatial and Social Segregation
  • Technology and the Design of the City
  • The Role of Geography
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Urban Growth Machine
  • Overview
  • Key Concepts
  • Issues and Debates
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Urban Habitats/Nature
  • Introduction
  • Cities as ‘Nature’
  • Transformation of Nature in the City
  • Urban Habitats
  • Research on Urban Nature
  • Urban Nature and Urban Theory
  • Reanimating the City: Geography and Urban Nature
  • Nature, the Ecological City, and Sustainability
  • Conclusion: Toward a ‘More Than Human’ Urban Geography?
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Urban Modeling
  • Online Resources
  • Defining Models
  • Urban Theory, Models, and the Scientific Method
  • Model Principles, Types, and Styles
  • The Model-Building Process
  • Urban Models and Their Applications
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Urban Morphology
  • The Place of Urban Morphology in Human Geography
  • A Historical Geography of Urban Morphology
  • Topics of Debate and Controversy in Urban Morphology
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Urban Policy
  • Introduction
  • Basic Features
  • Moving beyond the Keynesian Welfare State
  • Global Competitiveness
  • Urban Policy beyond the Policymakers
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Urban Regimes
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Urban Representation/Imagination
  • Representing and Imagining the Urban: Two Points of Departure
  • Introduction
  • Urban Geographies as Urban Representations/Imaginations
  • Geographical Research on Urban Representations/Imaginations
  • Geographers’ Engagements with Theorists of Urban Representation/Imagination
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Sustainability, Urban
  • Introduction – On Darwin, Geography, and Urban Sustainability
  • Metropolitan Utopia and the Origins of Urban Sustainability
  • Urban Geography and the Sustainable City: Space, Scale, and Posterity
  • Provisional Dialogues: Spatial Forms and Sustainability
  • Sustainable Challenges for Urban Geography: Space, Time, and Relational Thinking
  • Geographical Challenges for Urban Sustainability
  • Sustainable Cities in Practice
  • Case Study I – England’s Urban Renaissance and the Millennium Village Project
  • Case Study II – Urban Sustainability in the Developing World, Ibadan Nigeria
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Tourism, Urban
  • Introduction
  • Historical and Contemporary Patterns
  • Classifying Urban Tourism
  • Urban Tourism Data
  • Tourism and Urban Development
  • Issues
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Transport, Urban
  • Introduction
  • Urban Passenger Transport
  • Urban Freight Transport
  • Conclusions
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Urban Village
  • Introduction
  • History of the Concept
  • The Continued Relevance of the Concept
  • Wider Significance
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Urbanism
  • Introduction
  • Urbanism and Capitalism
  • Postmodern Urbanism
  • Urban Policy and ‘New Urbanism’
  • Urbanism, the Public Realm and Public Space
  • Transhuman Urbanism
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Urbanization
  • Introduction
  • Changing Processes and Patterns of Urbanization
  • The Second Modernity: Contemporary Processes and Patterns of Urbanization
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Urban–Rural Continuum
  • Introduction
  • Origin of the Concept
  • Critique of the Urban–Rural Continuum Concept
  • The Urban–Rural Continuum Concept Today
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Utopian Cities
  • The Spaces of Utopias
  • Planning Utopias
  • Postmodern Utopias
  • Beyond Utopias of Place and Process
  • Practices and Principles of Hope
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • V
  • Venture Capital
  • Introduction
  • Growth and Evolution
  • How Venture Capital Works
  • Geographical Aspects of Venture Capital
  • Public Policy Issues
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Vichianism (After Vico)
  • Who Was Giambattista Vico?
  • Vico as an Anti-Enlightenment Philosopher of Culture
  • How Was Vico Received?
  • Why Vico Did Not Fit into the Humanist Program: Two Versions of Metaphor
  • Does Vico Have a Future in Geography?
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Vidal de la Blache, P.
  • Vidal de la Blache, Pual (1845–1918)
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Visuality
  • Geography’s Visuality
  • Ocularcentrism and Anti-Ocularcentrism
  • Gendering the Gaze and Situating Vision
  • Looking Lively: Observant Practice
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Visualization, Feminist
  • Feminist Critiques of Vision
  • The Visual in Geography and Its Critiques
  • Feminist Visualization
  • From Map Communication to Geovisualization
  • Critical Cartography and GIS
  • Feminist Critiques of GIS
  • Feminist Visualization in GIS
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Voluntary Sector
  • Introduction
  • Spatial Distribution of Voluntary Activity: The Global Context
  • Voluntarism: Place and the Political Context
  • Place and Voluntary Activity
  • Volunteering
  • Issues
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Vulnerability
  • Introduction
  • Notions of Vulnerability in Five Research and Policy Communities
  • Vulnerability and Daily Life
  • Assessing Vulnerability
  • Specific versus Comprehensive Vulnerability Indexing
  • Issues
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • W
  • War
  • Historical Shift in the Study of War
  • Definitions of War
  • Military Geographies of War
  • Human Geographies of War (and the Military)
  • Political Geographies of War and Peace
  • Challenges and New Directions
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Waste Management
  • Introduction
  • What Is Waste?
  • Why Does Waste Matter?
  • Managing Waste across Time and Space
  • Shifting Paradigms?
  • Governing the Shift to Sustainable Waste Management
  • Attitudes, Values, and Everyday Waste Management Practices
  • Geography and the Future of Waste Management
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Water
  • Introduction/Overview
  • Water Resources
  • Big Water: Water and Modernity
  • Everyday Water
  • Water Cultures/Natures/Networks
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Water Management
  • Global Freshwater Quantity
  • Transboundary Resource Management
  • International Cooperation in Transboundary Resource Allocation
  • Water Quality Considerations
  • Microbiology
  • New Geographical ‘Management’ Perspectives
  • Conclusions
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Waterfront Development
  • Introduction: A Historical Perspective
  • Industrial Waterfronts
  • Industrial Decline
  • The Return to the Waterfront
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Welfare Geography
  • Welfare Geography: Origins
  • Welfare Geography’s Legacies
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Welfare Reform
  • Introduction
  • The Context for Welfare Reform
  • Welfare Reform: Neoliberal Initiatives
  • Geographical Dimensions of Welfare Reform
  • Conclusion
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Wellbeing
  • Introduction
  • History of Understandings of Well-Being
  • Elements of Well-Being: Happiness, Health, and Prosperity?
  • How Do We Measure Well-Being?
  • Relevance and Significance of Well-Being: Why Does Well-Being Matter?
  • The Future of Well-Being?
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Wetlands and Reclamation
  • Introduction
  • Physical Milieus
  • Contrasting Perceptions
  • Preservation and Restoration
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Whiteness
  • Introduction
  • Historical Geographies of Whiteness
  • Embodying Whiteness
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Wilderness
  • Wilderness: Origins and Evolution of the Concept
  • Deconstructing the Idea of Wilderness
  • From Wilderness to Wildness and Re-wilding
  • Whither Wilderness or Wither Wilderness?
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Wilson, A.
  • Wilson, Alan (1939–)
  • See also
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • World-System
  • Introduction
  • The Modern World-System as a Whole: Rise and Demise
  • The Modern World-System Compared to Others
  • The Functioning of the Modern World-System
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • World/Global Cities
  • Definition
  • Background
  • Research Agendas: ‘Cities as Systems Within Systems of Cities’
  • Cities in Globalization: Different Conceptualizations
  • Battling the Lack of Empirical Evidence
  • Critiques and Ensuing Research Agendas
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Wreford Watson, J.
  • Wreford Watson, James (1915–90)
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Relevant Websites
  • Wright, J. K.
  • Wright, J. K. (1891–1969)
  • See also
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Y
  • Youth/Youth Cultures
  • Defining Youth – At Risk and Risky
  • Tribal Youth Subcultures and Resistance
  • Critiquing Tribal Youth: Heterogeneous Cultures and Broader Connections
  • From Studies of Youth Culture to Young People
  • Contesting Youth: Academic Perspectives and Societal Shifts
  • Some Potential Future Directions
  • Glossary
  • Further Reading
  • Subject Index
  • Authors

Product details

  • No. of pages: 8250
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier Science 2009
  • Published: July 1, 2009
  • Imprint: Elsevier Science
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780080449111

About the Editors in Chief

Rob Kitchin

Affiliations and Expertise

Director of NIRSA, National University of Ireland, Maynooth, Ireland.

Nigel Thrift

Affiliations and Expertise

Vice Chancellor, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK

Ratings and Reviews

Write a review

There are currently no reviews for "International Encyclopedia of Human Geography"