Interleukin 2

Interleukin 2

1st Edition - September 28, 1988

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  • Author: Kendall A Smith
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323139946

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Description

Interleukin 2 focuses on interleukin 2 (IL-2) and its impact on immunology. Topics covered include IL-2's mechanism of action, the structure of the IL-2 receptor, the characteristics of natural and recombinant human IL-2, regulation of IL-2 production by the T cell antigen receptor, how IL-2 binding induces the transcription of a novel set of genes, and the pathological roles of IL-2 receptor inducers in adult T cell leukemia. This book is comprised of 12 chapters and begins with a historical overview of IL-2, from the discovery of soluble mitogenic factors in culture media of stimulated lymphocytes to the discovery of IL-2 as the molecule responsible for stimulating T cell proliferation. The physicochemical and biological properties of purified recombinant IL-2 are then described, paying particular attention to natural IL-2 derived from human peripheral blood leukocytes. The chapters that follow discuss the different techniques used to gain insight into the functionally important regions of IL-2, the role of the T cell antigen receptor in regulating the production of IL-2, and the structure of the human high-affinity IL-2 receptor. The book also describes transmembrane signaling by IL-2, IL-2-inducible gene expression in T lymphocytes, abnormal IL-2 receptor expression in adult T cell leukemia, the use of IL-2 receptors in immunosuppressive therapy, and the use of IL-2 as a pharmacologic reagent. This book will be of interest to students and researchers in immunology and biochemistry.

Table of Contents


  • Contributors

    Preface

    Foreword

    1. Interleukin 2: A 10-Year Perspective

    I. Introduction

    II. Interleukin 2

    III. The IL-2 Receptor

    IV. IL-2 Receptor Structure

    V. Functional Consequences of the IL-2 Receptor Bimolecular Structure

    VI. α Chains Are Responsible for Stimulating Cell Cycle Progression

    VII. The Regulation of IL-2 Receptor Expression

    VIII. The IL-2 Receptor Regulation of T Cell Growth

    IX. IL-2 Stimulates T Cell G1 Progression and c-myb Expression

    X. Conclusions

    References

    2. Characteristics of Natural and Recombinant Human Interleukin 2

    I. Introduction

    II. Natural IL-2 Derived from Human PBL

    III. Recombinant IL-2 Derived from E. coli

    IV. Comparison of Biological Activities for Natural and Recombinant IL-2

    V. Summary and Conclusions

    References

    3. Interleukin 2: Approaches to Structure Determination

    I. Introduction

    II. Preliminary Data

    III. Species Homology

    IV. Antibodies as Structure Probes

    V. Recombinant DNA-Derived Proteins and Site-Directed Mutagenesis

    VI. Peptide Synthesis

    VII. Molecular Modeling and Graphics

    VIII. Conclusion

    References

    4. Regulation of Interleukin 2 Production by the T Cell Antigen Receptor

    I. Introduction

    II. The T3/Ti Complex: Obligate Coexpression of T3 with Ti

    III. Jurkat as a Model for the Study of T3/Ti-Mediated Activation

    IV. The Role of Increases in the Concentration of Cytoplasmic Free Ca2+ in T3/Ti-Mediated Signaling

    V. T3/Ti-Mediated Turnover of Polyphosphoinositides

    VI. T3/Ti Activates Protein Kinase C

    VII. Cholera Toxin Inhibits T3/Ti-Mediated Polyphosphoinositide Turnover

    VIII. Induction of IL-2 Transcripts Requires Sustained T3/Ti-Ligand Interactions

    IX. Summary and Future Directions

    References

    5. New Perspectives on the Structure of the Human High-Affinity Interleukin 2 Receptor

    I. Introduction

    II. Characterization of the Human IL-2 Receptor (Tac Antigen)

    III. High- and Low-Affinity Forms of the IL-2 Receptor

    IV. Expression of the Tac cDNA in Eukaryotic Cells

    V. Structural Analysis of the High-Affinity IL-2 Receptor

    References

    6. Transmembrane Signaling by Interleukin 2

    I. Introduction

    II. Transmembrane Events in IL-2-Induced Proliferation

    III. Delayed Events

    IV. Oncogene Expression

    V. Discussion

    References

    7. Mechanisms of Interleukin 2 Action: IL-2-Inducible Gene Expression in T Lymphocytes

    I. Introduction

    II. Early Molecular Events Associated with the Interaction of IL-2 and IL-2 Receptor: Potential Involvement of Protein Kinase C and Calcium

    III. Rationale for Investigating the Expression of Protooncogenes and Other Genes in IL-2-Stimulated T Lymphocytes

    IV. IL-2-Inducible Expression of Genes in Activated T Lymphocytes

    V. Some Possible Explanations for the Patterns of Gene Expression Induced by IL-2, Phorbol Esters, and Mitogenic Lectins in Activated T Lymphocytes

    VI. Mechanisms of IL-2-Mediated Gene Expression

    VII. IL-2-Mediated Signal Transduction: Speculations and Future Directions

    References

    8. Interleukin 2 Binding Induces Transcription of a Novel Set of Genes: Implications for T Lymphocyte Population Dynamics

    I. Introduction

    II. Modes of IL-2 Induction

    III. Mechanics of IL-2 Action

    IV. Measures of IL-2 Responsiveness

    V Significance of Positive IL-2 Receptor Regulation

    VI. Conclusion

    References

    9. Abnormal Interleukin 2 Receptor Expression in Adult T Cell Leukemia

    I. Introduction

    II. Development of Anti-Tac Monoclonal Antibody

    III. Identification of Anti-Tac Antibody as an Anti-IL-2 Receptor Antibody

    IV. Characterization of IL-2 Receptor

    V. IL-2R Expression in B Cells

    VI. IL-2R Expression in ATL

    VII. HTLV-I Infection and IL-2R Expression

    VIII. Possible Role of IL-2 Receptor in the Leukemogenesis of ATL

    IX. IL-2R Expression in T Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    X. Summary

    References

    10. Interleukin 2 Receptor Inducers: Pathological Roles in Adult T Cell Leukemia

    I. Introduction

    II. Studies of IL-2R and ATL

    III. Properties of Human IL-2R Protein

    IV. Cloning of IL-2R Gene

    V. Humoral Control of IL-2R Expression

    VI. Abnormal Regulation of IL-2R Expression in ATL

    VII. ADF Inducing IL-2R Expression

    VIII. IL-2-Dependent and -Independent ATL: Stepwise Progression Model

    IX. Possible Roles of IL-2R Dysregulation in ATL

    X. Conclusion

    References

    11. Interleukin 2 Receptor-Directed Immunosuppressive Therapy

    I. Introduction

    II. Effect of M7/20 Treatment on Murine Cardiac Allografts

    III. Effect of M7/20 Treatment of Murine Skin Allografts

    IV. Effect of M7/20 and Anti-L3T4 Antibodies on Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity (DTH): The Role of Complement and Epitope

    V. Effect of M7/20 Anti-IL-2R Antibody on Murine Autoimmunity: Diabetes Mellitus and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Models

    VI. Effect of ART18 Anti-IL-2R Antibody Treatment on Rat Cardiac Allografts

    VII. Synergistic Effect of Anti-IL-2R mAb and Cyclosporin (CsA) Treatment

    VIII. Effect of Anti-IL-2R on Graft Infiltration

    IX. Effect of ART18 Treatment on Host Alloreactivity

    X. Effect of ART18 Therapy on Pancreatic Islet Allografts

    XI. Anti-IL-2R mAb Treatment of Subhuman and Human Primate Recipients of Kidney Allografts

    XII. Development of a Recombinant IL-2 Toxin by Gene Fusion Technique

    XIII. Discussion

    References

    12. Interleukin 2 as a Pharmacologic Reagent

    I. Introduction

    II. Rationale for the Use of IL-2 In Vivo

    III. Immunotherapeutic Effects of IL-2 in Murine Models

    IV. Human Studies of IL-2 Administration

    V. Summary and Conclusions

    References

    Index


Product details

  • No. of pages: 264
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1988
  • Published: September 28, 1988
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323139946

About the Author

Kendall A Smith

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