Interfacial Phenomena - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123956095, 9780323148344

Interfacial Phenomena

1st Edition

Authors: J.T. Davies
eBook ISBN: 9780323148344
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1961
Page Count: 488
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Description

Interfacial Phenomena examines the fundamental properties of various liquid interfaces. This book discusses the physics of surfaces; electrostatic and electrokinetic phenomena; and adsorption at liquid interfaces. The properties of monolayers; reactions at liquid surfaces; diffusion through interfaces; and disperse systems and adhesion are also deliberated.

Other topics include the vapor pressures over curved surfaces; electrical capacity of the double layer; applications of electrophoresis; and thermodynamics of adsorption and desorption. The experimental methods of spreading films at the oil-water interface; penetration into monolayers; experiments on dynamic systems; and spontaneous emulsification are likewise covered in this text.

This book is beneficial to chemical engineers and students concerned with interfacial phenomena.

Table of Contents


Preface

Chapter 1 The Physics of Surfaces

Conditions at a Phase Boundary

The tension within a Liquid Surface

Kinetics of Molecules in the Surface

Vapour Pressures Over Curved Surfaces

Excess Pressures Inside Bubbles

Solubility from Small Droplets

Surface Tension and Curvature

Total Surface Energy

Surface Entropy

Molecular Theories of Surface Energy

Interfacial Tension

Interfacial Entropy

Cohesion and Adhesion

Spreading

Spreading of One Liquid on Another

Kinetics of Spreading

Spreading from Solids

Relations Between Surface Tensions and Interfacial Tension

Treatment of Gibbs

Antonoff’s Relationship

Drops of Oils on Water

Contact Angles

Theory

Magnitude of Contact Angles of Liquids on Solids

Spreading Coefficients of Liquids on Solids

Adhesion of Liquids to Solids

De-Wetting by Surface-Active Agents

Contact Between Two Liquids and a Solid

Measurements of Surface and Interfacial Tension

The Ring Method

The Drop-Weight Method

The Wilhelmy Plate Method

The Pendant Drop Method

Other Methods

Differential Measurements

Experimental Studies of Solid-Liquid Interfaces

The Plate Method for Obtaining θ

Other Methods for Obtaining θ

The “Wetting Balance” Method for Finding θ, W and Negative S

The Sessile Drop Method for Negative S Values

Direct Measurement of Positive S Values

Indirect Measurement of Positive S Values

Adhesion Energies

References

Chapter 2 Electrostatic Phenomena

Introduction

Distribution Potentials

Diffusion Potentials

Miscellaneous Experimental Results

Interfacial and Surface Potentials

Components of ΔV Due to a Monolayer

Calculation of ψ Near the Surface from the Equations of Gouy

Corrections to the Gouy Equation

Calculation of ψ Near the Surface from the Equations of Donnan

Specific Adsorption—Reversal of Charge

Specific Adsorption—The Stern Theory

Position of Polarized Counter-Ions at a Liquid Surface

Relation of ψδ and ζ

Position of Counter-Ions Held in a Liquid Surface by van der Waals Forces

Film Properties and ψ0

The pH Near a Charged Surface

Weakly Ionized Monolayers

Electrocapillary Curves

Electrical Capacity of the Double Layer

References

Chapter 3 Electrokinetic Phenomena

Surface Conductance

Experimental Methods

Electro-Osmosis

Streaming Potentials

Streaming Currents

Flow through Fine Pores and ζ

Electrophoresis

Experimental Methods

Applications of Electrophoresis

Sedimentation Potentials

Retardation of Settling Velocity and ζ

Influence of Surface Roughness on ζ

The ratio ζ/ψ

Experiments on ζ in relation to ψ0

Freedom of the Counter-Ions

Origin of Charges on Surfaces

Spray Electrification

Freezing Potentials

References

Chapter 4 Adsorption at Liquid Interfaces

Adsorption Processes

Inter-Chain Cohesion and Desorption Energies

The Oil-Water Interface

Polar Groups and Desorption Energies

Surface Concentrations

Fluorinated Compounds

Measurement of Adsorption

Thermodynamics of Adsorption and Desorption

Aqueous Solutions and the Air-Water Surface

Aqueous Solutions and Oil-Water Interfaces

Oil Solutions and the Oil-Water Interface

Organic Vapours and the Air-Water Surface

The Vapour-Mercury Surface

Adsorption Kinetics

Experiments on Rates of Adsorption at the Air-Water Surface

Experiments on Rates of Adsorption at the Oil-Water Interface

Desorption Kinetics

Net Rates of Adsorption or Desorption

Adsorption Equations for Non-Electrolytes

Adsorption Equations for Long-Chain Ions

Calculation of B1/B2

Explicit Isotherms for Adsorption at the Oil-Water Interface

Adsorption in the Absence of Salts

Adsorption from Salt Solutions

The Temkin Isotherm

Surface Equations of State from Adsorption Isotherms

The Linear Isotherm

The Langmuir Isotherm (Un-Ionized Films)

The Küster Isotherm

Relations Between Surface Pressure and Concentration

The Gibbs Equation

Derived Equations for the Air-Water Surface

Checking the Derived Equations for the Air-Water Surface

Derived Equations for the Oil-Water Interface

Checking the Derived Equations for the Oil-Water Interface

Adsorption in an Electric Field

References

Chapter 5 Properties of Monolayers

Introductory

Surface Pressure

Experimental Methods of Spreading Films at the Air-Water Surface

Experimental Methods of Measuring Π at the Air-Water Surface

Experimental Methods of Spreading Films at the Oil-Water Interface

Experimental Methods of Measuring Π at the Oil-Water Interface

Types of Force-Area Curve

“Gaseous” Films

Cohering Films

Charged Films

“Liquid Expanded” Films

“Condensed” Films

Values of A0

Other Films

Molecular Complexes

Partial Ionization of Surface Films

Equilibrium in Films

Films of Polymers

Surface Viscosity

Drag of a Monolayer on and by the Underlying Water

Insoluble Monolayers (A/W): The Canal Method

Insoluble or Soluble Monolayers (A/W): Rotational Torsional Methods

Insoluble or Soluble Monolayers (A/W): The “Viscous Traction” Method

Insoluble or Soluble Monolayers (A/W or O/W): The Generalized “Viscous Traction” Instrument

Viscosities of Insoluble Films

Viscosities of Adsorbed Films

Compressional Moduli of Monolayers

The Elimination of Waves and Ripples

Shear Elastic Moduli of Monolayers

Yield Values of Monolayers

Diffusion in Monolayers

Fibres from Monolayers

References

Chapter 6 Reactions at Liquid Surfaces

Reactions in Monolayers

Rate Constants

Experimental Methods

Steric Factors

Electrical Factors

Reactions in Emulsions

Complex Formation in Monolayers

Penetration into Monolayers

Thermodynamics of Penetration

Penetration from the Vapour Phase

References

Chapter 7 Diffusion through Interfaces

Introductory

Evaporation

Solute Transfer at the Gas-Liquid Surface

Surface Instability

Theoretical Values of RG

Theoretical Values of RL

Experiments on Static Systems

Experiments on Dynamic Systems

Solute Transfer at the Liquid-Liquid Interface

Interfacial Instability

Theoretical Values of RL

Experiments on Static Systems

Experiments on Dynamic Systems

Practical Extraction Columns

Distillation

References

Chapter 8 Disperse Systems and Adhesion

Introductory

Collision Rates in Disperse Systems

Aerosols

Dispersion Methods

Condensation Methods

Kinetics of Nucleation of a Supercooled Vapour

The Stability of Aerosols

Evaporation of Aerosol Droplets

Accelerated Removal of Aerosols

Emulsions

Spontaneous Emulsification

Tests of Mechanism of Spontaneous Emulsification

The Stability of Emulsions

Electrical Barriers

Hydration Barriers—“Deep Surfaces”

Coalescence of Drops—Stability

Emulsion Type

Clumping of Emulsion Droplets

Breaking of Emulsions

“Creaming” of Emulsions

Solids in Liquids

Electrical Barriers

Long-Range Attraction

Criteria of Stability

Electrical Effects in Non-Aqueous Systems

Solvation Barriers

Weak Aggregation

Gases in Liquids

Foams

Factors Determining Foam Stability

Summary of Causes of Foam Stability

Foam Stabilizing Additives

Destruction of Foam—Foam “Breakers” or “Killers”

Anti-Foaming Agents—Foam Inhibitors

Closed Shells of Fluids

Detergency

Flotation of Minerals

Modification of the Habits of Crystals

Liquids in Fine Pores

Adhesion

The Stickiness of Particles, Droplets and Cells

Sliding Friction

Lubrication

Structure of the Lubricating Layer

Mechanism of Boundary Lubrication

Extreme Pressure Lubricants

The Friction of Plastics

Rolling Friction

Wetting

Non-Wetting

References

Principal Symbols

Author Index

Subject Index

Details

No. of pages:
488
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1961
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780323148344

About the Author

J.T. Davies