Interfacial Phenomena

Interfacial Phenomena

1st Edition - January 1, 1961

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  • Author: J.T. Davies
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323148344

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Interfacial Phenomena examines the fundamental properties of various liquid interfaces. This book discusses the physics of surfaces; electrostatic and electrokinetic phenomena; and adsorption at liquid interfaces. The properties of monolayers; reactions at liquid surfaces; diffusion through interfaces; and disperse systems and adhesion are also deliberated. Other topics include the vapor pressures over curved surfaces; electrical capacity of the double layer; applications of electrophoresis; and thermodynamics of adsorption and desorption. The experimental methods of spreading films at the oil-water interface; penetration into monolayers; experiments on dynamic systems; and spontaneous emulsification are likewise covered in this text. This book is beneficial to chemical engineers and students concerned with interfacial phenomena.

Table of Contents

  • Preface

    Chapter 1 The Physics of Surfaces

    Conditions at a Phase Boundary

    The tension within a Liquid Surface

    Kinetics of Molecules in the Surface

    Vapour Pressures Over Curved Surfaces

    Excess Pressures Inside Bubbles

    Solubility from Small Droplets

    Surface Tension and Curvature

    Total Surface Energy

    Surface Entropy

    Molecular Theories of Surface Energy

    Interfacial Tension

    Interfacial Entropy

    Cohesion and Adhesion


    Spreading of One Liquid on Another

    Kinetics of Spreading

    Spreading from Solids

    Relations Between Surface Tensions and Interfacial Tension

    Treatment of Gibbs

    Antonoff’s Relationship

    Drops of Oils on Water

    Contact Angles


    Magnitude of Contact Angles of Liquids on Solids

    Spreading Coefficients of Liquids on Solids

    Adhesion of Liquids to Solids

    De-Wetting by Surface-Active Agents

    Contact Between Two Liquids and a Solid

    Measurements of Surface and Interfacial Tension

    The Ring Method

    The Drop-Weight Method

    The Wilhelmy Plate Method

    The Pendant Drop Method

    Other Methods

    Differential Measurements

    Experimental Studies of Solid-Liquid Interfaces

    The Plate Method for Obtaining θ

    Other Methods for Obtaining θ

    The “Wetting Balance” Method for Finding θ, W and Negative S

    The Sessile Drop Method for Negative S Values

    Direct Measurement of Positive S Values

    Indirect Measurement of Positive S Values

    Adhesion Energies


    Chapter 2 Electrostatic Phenomena


    Distribution Potentials

    Diffusion Potentials

    Miscellaneous Experimental Results

    Interfacial and Surface Potentials

    Components of ΔV Due to a Monolayer

    Calculation of ψ Near the Surface from the Equations of Gouy

    Corrections to the Gouy Equation

    Calculation of ψ Near the Surface from the Equations of Donnan

    Specific Adsorption—Reversal of Charge

    Specific Adsorption—The Stern Theory

    Position of Polarized Counter-Ions at a Liquid Surface

    Relation of ψδ and ζ

    Position of Counter-Ions Held in a Liquid Surface by van der Waals Forces

    Film Properties and ψ0

    The pH Near a Charged Surface

    Weakly Ionized Monolayers

    Electrocapillary Curves

    Electrical Capacity of the Double Layer


    Chapter 3 Electrokinetic Phenomena

    Surface Conductance

    Experimental Methods


    Streaming Potentials

    Streaming Currents

    Flow through Fine Pores and ζ


    Experimental Methods

    Applications of Electrophoresis

    Sedimentation Potentials

    Retardation of Settling Velocity and ζ

    Influence of Surface Roughness on ζ

    The ratio ζ/ψ

    Experiments on ζ in relation to ψ0

    Freedom of the Counter-Ions

    Origin of Charges on Surfaces

    Spray Electrification

    Freezing Potentials


    Chapter 4 Adsorption at Liquid Interfaces

    Adsorption Processes

    Inter-Chain Cohesion and Desorption Energies

    The Oil-Water Interface

    Polar Groups and Desorption Energies

    Surface Concentrations

    Fluorinated Compounds

    Measurement of Adsorption

    Thermodynamics of Adsorption and Desorption

    Aqueous Solutions and the Air-Water Surface

    Aqueous Solutions and Oil-Water Interfaces

    Oil Solutions and the Oil-Water Interface

    Organic Vapours and the Air-Water Surface

    The Vapour-Mercury Surface

    Adsorption Kinetics

    Experiments on Rates of Adsorption at the Air-Water Surface

    Experiments on Rates of Adsorption at the Oil-Water Interface

    Desorption Kinetics

    Net Rates of Adsorption or Desorption

    Adsorption Equations for Non-Electrolytes

    Adsorption Equations for Long-Chain Ions

    Calculation of B1/B2

    Explicit Isotherms for Adsorption at the Oil-Water Interface

    Adsorption in the Absence of Salts

    Adsorption from Salt Solutions

    The Temkin Isotherm

    Surface Equations of State from Adsorption Isotherms

    The Linear Isotherm

    The Langmuir Isotherm (Un-Ionized Films)

    The Küster Isotherm

    Relations Between Surface Pressure and Concentration

    The Gibbs Equation

    Derived Equations for the Air-Water Surface

    Checking the Derived Equations for the Air-Water Surface

    Derived Equations for the Oil-Water Interface

    Checking the Derived Equations for the Oil-Water Interface

    Adsorption in an Electric Field


    Chapter 5 Properties of Monolayers


    Surface Pressure

    Experimental Methods of Spreading Films at the Air-Water Surface

    Experimental Methods of Measuring Π at the Air-Water Surface

    Experimental Methods of Spreading Films at the Oil-Water Interface

    Experimental Methods of Measuring Π at the Oil-Water Interface

    Types of Force-Area Curve

    “Gaseous” Films

    Cohering Films

    Charged Films

    “Liquid Expanded” Films

    “Condensed” Films

    Values of A0

    Other Films

    Molecular Complexes

    Partial Ionization of Surface Films

    Equilibrium in Films

    Films of Polymers

    Surface Viscosity

    Drag of a Monolayer on and by the Underlying Water

    Insoluble Monolayers (A/W): The Canal Method

    Insoluble or Soluble Monolayers (A/W): Rotational Torsional Methods

    Insoluble or Soluble Monolayers (A/W): The “Viscous Traction” Method

    Insoluble or Soluble Monolayers (A/W or O/W): The Generalized “Viscous Traction” Instrument

    Viscosities of Insoluble Films

    Viscosities of Adsorbed Films

    Compressional Moduli of Monolayers

    The Elimination of Waves and Ripples

    Shear Elastic Moduli of Monolayers

    Yield Values of Monolayers

    Diffusion in Monolayers

    Fibres from Monolayers


    Chapter 6 Reactions at Liquid Surfaces

    Reactions in Monolayers

    Rate Constants

    Experimental Methods

    Steric Factors

    Electrical Factors

    Reactions in Emulsions

    Complex Formation in Monolayers

    Penetration into Monolayers

    Thermodynamics of Penetration

    Penetration from the Vapour Phase


    Chapter 7 Diffusion through Interfaces



    Solute Transfer at the Gas-Liquid Surface

    Surface Instability

    Theoretical Values of RG

    Theoretical Values of RL

    Experiments on Static Systems

    Experiments on Dynamic Systems

    Solute Transfer at the Liquid-Liquid Interface

    Interfacial Instability

    Theoretical Values of RL

    Experiments on Static Systems

    Experiments on Dynamic Systems

    Practical Extraction Columns



    Chapter 8 Disperse Systems and Adhesion


    Collision Rates in Disperse Systems


    Dispersion Methods

    Condensation Methods

    Kinetics of Nucleation of a Supercooled Vapour

    The Stability of Aerosols

    Evaporation of Aerosol Droplets

    Accelerated Removal of Aerosols


    Spontaneous Emulsification

    Tests of Mechanism of Spontaneous Emulsification

    The Stability of Emulsions

    Electrical Barriers

    Hydration Barriers—“Deep Surfaces”

    Coalescence of Drops—Stability

    Emulsion Type

    Clumping of Emulsion Droplets

    Breaking of Emulsions

    “Creaming” of Emulsions

    Solids in Liquids

    Electrical Barriers

    Long-Range Attraction

    Criteria of Stability

    Electrical Effects in Non-Aqueous Systems

    Solvation Barriers

    Weak Aggregation

    Gases in Liquids


    Factors Determining Foam Stability

    Summary of Causes of Foam Stability

    Foam Stabilizing Additives

    Destruction of Foam—Foam “Breakers” or “Killers”

    Anti-Foaming Agents—Foam Inhibitors

    Closed Shells of Fluids


    Flotation of Minerals

    Modification of the Habits of Crystals

    Liquids in Fine Pores


    The Stickiness of Particles, Droplets and Cells

    Sliding Friction


    Structure of the Lubricating Layer

    Mechanism of Boundary Lubrication

    Extreme Pressure Lubricants

    The Friction of Plastics

    Rolling Friction




    Principal Symbols

    Author Index

    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 488
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1961
  • Published: January 1, 1961
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323148344

About the Author

J.T. Davies

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