Interactions Between Non-Pathogenic Soil Microorganisms And Plants - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780444416384, 9780444601339

Interactions Between Non-Pathogenic Soil Microorganisms And Plants

1st Edition

Editors: Y.R. Dommergues
eBook ISBN: 9780444601339
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 1st January 1978
Page Count: 480
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Description

Interactions between Non-Pathogenic Soil Microorganisms and Plants provides a comprehensive discussion of the non-pathogenic microorganisms associated with roots. It describes how a myriad of soil microorganisms affect plant growth, and how climatic and edaphic conditions contribute to the magnitude of microbial activity.

The book is divided into 11 chapters that cover the plant-microorganism system; growth, structure, and physiology of roots; and nutrient uptake. It also explains the root exudates and exudation; energy flow in the plant; and rhizosphere. Legume symbiosis and root nodule symbioses in non-leguminous nitrogen fixing plants are also discussed. Moreover, the book explains the mycorrhizae and the impact of climatic and edaphic conditions on soil management and plant growth.

The information that the book presents serves as a useful focal point for further studies on the interactions between plants and soil microorganisms. Thus, it provides an impetus for the development of agricultural practices that could improve food production, while mitigating anthropogenic pollution of agrosytems and waste of energy resources. Students, lecturers, and research workers in plant physiology and anatomy, microbiology, soil science, general ecology, and agronomy will find this book an invaluable reference for their learning and practice.

Table of Contents


List of contributors

Foreword

Chapter 1. The Plant—Microorganism System

1. Introduction

1.1. The plant—microorganism system

1.2. The plant—microorganism system as a compartment of the soil—plant—atmosphere system

1.3. Biological equilibrium of the plant—microorganism system

2. Interrelations between plant roots and microorganisms

2.1. The different plant—microorganism systems

2.2. Types of interaction involved in the different systems

2.3. Prerequisites for the establishment of plant—microorganism systems

3. Influence of environmental factors on the plant—microorganism systems

3.1. General remarks

3.2. Soil factors

3.3. Climatic factors

3.4. Extrinsic bio tic factors

4. References

Chapter 2. Growth and Structure of Roots

1. Introduction

2. Techniques of observation

2.1. Fresh material

2.2. Embedded material

2.3. Ultrasonic fragmentation

2.4. Electron microscopy

2.5. Cine-photo-micrography

3. Root habit

4. Variation in root structure

4.1. Aerial roots

4.2. Water roots

4.3. Adventitious roots

4.4. Prop roots

4.5. Climbing roots

4.6. Storage roots

5. Germination

6. Structure of the cell wall

7. Growth of a typical root

7.1. Root cap

7.2. Apical meristem

7.3. Root hair zone

7.4. Mature region

8. Tissues of the root

8.1. Primary growth

8.2. Secondary thickening

9. Storage root

10. Gymnosperm root

11. Monocotyledonous root without secondary thickening

12. Root-microbial interactions

12.1. Root nodules

12.2. Mycorrhiza

12.3. Rhizomorphs

13. References and further reading

Chapter 3. The Physiology of Roots

1. Introduction

1.1. The basic physiology of the root

1.2. The relationship of physiology to anatomy

1.3. The shoot/root relationship and its experimental modification

2. Basic root metabolism

2.1. Carbohydrate metabolism: respiratory pathways and their intracellular location

2.2. Nitrogen metabolism: assimilation of nitrogen sources, amino acid and protein biosynthesis

2.3. Nucleic acid metabolism

2.4. Lipid metabolism

3. Biochemical interactions in roots

4. Biochemistry of root differentiation

4.1. Gradients in the content of cellular components

4.2. Changes in metabolic patterns during differentiation

5. The nature and source of the natural regulators of root growth

5.1. Root auxins

5.2. Gibberellins

5.3. Cytokinins

5.4. Other natural regulators

6. Hormonal control of root growth and differentiation

6.1. Control of cell division at the root apex

6.2. Control of cell expansion and differentiation

6.3. Initiation of lateral roots

7. Hormonal control of root tropisms

8. Genetic modifications of root physiology

9. References

Chapter 4. Nutrient Uptake

1. Introduction

2. Solution culture

2.1. The culture of plants under aseptic conditions

2.2. Absorption of phosphate

2.3. Absorption of other macro-nutrient elements

2.4. Absorption of trace elements

3. Soil

3.1. Phosphorus

3.2. Trace elements

3.3. Major nutrient cations

4. Possible mechanisms of the microbial effects

5. Conclusions

6. References

Chapter 5. Root Exudates and Exudation

1. History and introduction

1.1. What are exudates?

1.2. What are the roles of exudates?

1.3. Evolution of concepts

2. The physiology of exudation

2.1. Sources of naturally occurring exudates

2.2. Mechanisms of exudation

2.3. Plant factors affecting exudation

3. Environmental factors affecting root exudation

3.1. Effects of light intensity and temperature

3.2. Effects of soil pH and CO2 concentration

3.3. Soil solution salt and ionic concentration

3.4. Soil moisture and moisture stress

3.5. Oxygen concentration

4. Evaluation of methods of investigation

4.1. The use of isotopes

4.2. Foliar application of chemicals

4.3. Gnotobiotics

4.4. Quantification of exudation

4.5. In situ vs. model systems

4.6. Bioassay methods

5. Summary and conclusions

6. References

Chapter 6. Energy Flow in the Plant—Microorganism System

1. Introduction

2. Carbon gain: photosynthesis and net production

2.1. Pathways of CO2 fixation

2.2. Physical environmental effects on photosynthesis

2.3. Plant pathogens

2.4. Internal factors

2.5. Net production in diverse groups of plants

3. Distribution of carbon

3.1. Translocation to the roots

3.2. Fate of carbon translocated to the roots

3.3. Carbon allocation to root-associated microorganisms

4. Carbon turnover

5. Modelling the carbon flow in the plant—microorganism system

6. References

Chapter 7. The Rhizosphere

1. Introduction

2. Some structural aspects

2.1.Mucigel

2.2. Bare epidermis

2.3. Endorhizosphere

2.4. Rhizosphere soil

3. Some metabolic aspects

3.1. Introductory remarks

3.2. Nitrogen fixation

3.3. Denitrification

3.4. Sulfate reduction

3.5. Methane production

4. Spermosphere

5. Concluding remarks

6. References

Chapter 8. Legume Symbiosis

Chapter 8A. Ecology of the Legume Root Nodule Bacteria

1. Introduction

2. Techniques for ecological study of rhizobia

3. Rhizobia and soil physical—chemical features

4. Rhizobia and soil biological features

5. Rhizobia in the rhizosphere

6. Analysis and projection

7. References

Chapter 8B. Physiology of Legume Symbiosis

1. Introduction

2. Infection of legume roots

3. Structure of nodules and their development

4. Physiology and biochemistry of N2 fixation

5. References

Chapter 9. Root Nodule Symbioses in Non-Leguminous ?2-Fixing Plants

1. Introduction

2. Actinomycete symbioses in angiosperm nodules

2.1. Occurrence of root nodules

2.2. Initiation and development of nodules

2.3. Differentiation of the endophyte

2.4. Growth and distribution of the endophyte

2.5. Factors affecting nodulation

2.6. Host-strain specificity and classification of the endophytes

2.7. Physiology of N2 fixation

3. Rhizobium symbiosis in non-leguminous plants

3.1. Occurrence of nodules

3.2. Structure and function of nodules

4. Blue-green algae symbioses in gymnosperm nodules

4.1. Occurrence of nodules

4.2. Development and structure of nodules

4.3. Physiology of N2 fixation

5. Acknowledgments

6. References

Chapter 10. Mycorrhizae

Chapter 10A. Ectomycorrhizae

1. Introduction

2. External and internal characteristics of ectomycorrhizae

3. Taxonomy and physiology of ectomycorrhizal fungi

4. Interactions between fungal symbionts and tree hosts

5. Factors affecting ectomycorrhizal development

6. Ectomycorrhizae as deterrents to feeder root pathogens

7. Ectomycorrhizae and afforestation practices

8. Ectomycorrhizae and reclamation of adverse sites

9. Ectomycorrhizae and reforestation practices

10. Conclusion

11. References

Chapter 10B. Endomycorrhizae

1. Introduction

2. Ericalean mycorrhiza

3. Vesicular—arbuscular mycorrhiza

4. Orchidaceous mycorrhiza

5. The significance of endomycorrhiza

6. Acknowledgements

7. References

8. References added in proof

Chapter 11. Impact on Soil Management and Plant Growth

1. Introduction

2. Utilization of chemicals

2.1. Effect of conventional chemicals on plant—microorganism systems

2.2. New forms of chemical fertilizers

3. Utilization of physical practices

3.1. Indirect manipulation by methods controlling climatic factors

3.2. Indirect manipulation by methods controlling physical edaphic factors

4. Altering the rhizosphere microflora by inoculation

5. Genetic manipulation of microorganisms; plant genetics and plant breeding

5.1. Genetic manipulation of microorganisms

5.2. Plant genetics and plant breeding

6. References

Subject index




Details

No. of pages:
480
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Elsevier 1978
Published:
Imprint:
Elsevier
eBook ISBN:
9780444601339

About the Editor

Y.R. Dommergues