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Interaction of The Chemical Senses With Nutrition - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123978554, 9780323147972

Interaction of The Chemical Senses With Nutrition

1st Edition

Editor: Morley Kare
eBook ISBN: 9780323147972
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th April 1986
Page Count: 502
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Interaction of the Chemical Senses with Nutrition provides an understanding of the relationship of smell and taste to nutrition. This book discusses how the flavor of food can have substantial physiological effects influencing ingestion, digestion, and metabolism. Organized into five parts encompassing 21 chapters, this book starts with an overview of the significant role of saliva, which is involved in diet–taste relationships through dietary effects on saliva and salivary effects on taste perception. This text then reviews the literature on early salt acceptance in humans, contrasting and comparing those findings with data on the development of sweet preference. Other chapters consider the gustatory and anticipatory cephalic stimuli detected during a meal, which yield nutritional information and help in the efficient digestion of food. The final chapter deals with the transition stage in nutritional research. This book is a valuable resource for nutritionists, psychophysicists, scientists, public health professionals, and researchers.

Table of Contents




Samuel Lepkovsky

Part I Effects of Nutritive State on Chemical Senses

1 Importance of Saliva in Diet-Taste Relationships

I. Introduction

II. The Salivary Glands

III. Dietary Influences on Saliva

IV. Salivary Influences on Taste Perception

V. Research Needs


2 Factors Affecting Acceptance of Salt by Human Infants and Children

I. Introduction

II. Responses to Salt and Sugar in Early Development: A Review

III. Developmental Shifts in Salt Acceptance

IV. Research Needs


3 Effects of Dietary Protein on the Taste Preference for Amino Acids in Rats

I. Introduction

II. Taste Preference and Protein Intake in Rats during Growth

III. Changes of Taste Preference in Rats Fed a Diet with or without L-Lysine Deficiency

IV. Relation among Protein Intake, Taste Preference, and Genetic Predispositions

V. Research Needs

VI. Conclusion


4 Preference Threshold for Maltose Solutions in Rats Treated Chronically with the Components of an Oral Contraceptive

I. Introduction

II. Methods

III. Results

IV. Discussion

V. Summary


5 The Chemical Senses and Nutrition in the Elderly

I. Introduction: Nutritional Status in the Elderly

II. Chemosensory Loss in the Elderly: Review of the Literature

III. Chemosensory Preference and Biochemical Indexes in the Elderly

IV. Discussion and Conclusions

V. Research Needs


6 Micronutrients and Taste Stimulus Intake

I. Introduction

II. Effects of Deficiencies on Taste Preferences

III. Experimental Data

IV. Future Research


7 Effect of Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus on Gustation and Olfaction

I. Introduction

II. Methods

III. Results

IV. Discussion

V. Summary


Part I Discussion

Part II Effects of the Cephalic Phase on Digestion and Absorption

8 Intragastric Feeding of Fats

I. Introduction

II. Review of Intragastric Feeding

III. Research Needs


9 The Stomach and Satiety

I. Introduction

II. Gastric Emptying of Liquids

III. Intestinal Control of Gastric Emptying

IV. The Two Phases of Gastric Emptying

V. The Stomach and Glucose Consumption

VI. The Stomach and Chow Intake

VII. Cholecystokinin and Gastric Distention

VIII. Conclusions


10 The Cephalic Phase of Gastric Secretion

I. Introduction

II. The Cephalic Phase of Gastric Secretion

III. Research Needs


11 The Gut Brain and the Gut-Brain Axis

I. Introduction

II. The Gut Brain

III. The Gut-Brain Axis

IV. Peptides

V. Research Goals

VI. Summary


12 Cephalic Phase of Digestion: The Effect of Meal Frequency

I. Introduction

II. Critical Review and Discussion of Subject Matter


Part II Discussion

Part III Consequences of Food Palatability to Nutrition

13 Changing Hedonic Responses to Foods during and after a Meal


Sensory-Specific Satiety: Basic Studies

Nutrient-Specific Satiety

The Role of Sensory Properties of Food in Satiety

Changes in the Palatability of Uneaten Foods

Effects of Variation in the Sensory Properties of Foods on Food Intake



14 Role of Variety of Food Flavor in Fat Deposition Produced by a "Cafeteria" Feeding of Nutritionally Controlled Diets


"Cafeteria" Feeding as a Model for Dietary Obesity

Preference Tests for Food Flavors and Texture

"Cafeteria" Feeding Experiments with Nutritionally Controlled Diets

V. Conclusions


15 Quantitative Relationship between Palatability and Food Intake in Man

I. Introduction

II. A Brief-Exposure Taste Test for Measuring Intrinsic Palatability

III. Relationship of Intrinsic Palatability to Food Consumption

IV. Needs for Future Research

V. Summary and Conclusions


Part III Discussion

Part IV Interplay of Chemical Senses with Nutrient Metabolism

16 Taste and the Autonomic Nervous System

I. Introduction

II. The Afferent Limb

III. The Efferent Limb

IV. The Central Projections


17 Caudal Brainstem Integration of Taste and Internal State Factors in Behavioral and Autonomic Responses

I. Introduction

II. The CBS Receives Input from Oral Exteroceptors That Evaluate the Sensory Characteristics of Food

III. The CBS Is a Site of Metabolic Interoceptors

IV. The CBS Contains Simple Reflex Connections between Oral Exteroceptor Input and Autonomic and Behavioral Effector Output

V. The CBS Contains Connections between Exteroceptive Input and Behavioral Effector Output for the Production of Discriminative Responses to Taste

VI. Interoceptive Input from Food Deprivation and Insulin-Induced Hypoglycemia Is Integrated with Oral Afferent Information within the CBS to Control the Ingestive Consummatory Behavior of Chronically Decerebrate Rats

VII. Conclusion


18 Possible Participation of Oro-, Gastro-, and Enterohepatic Reflexes in Preabsorptive Satiation

I. Introduction

II. Regulation of Glycemia

III. Hepatic Receptors and Control of Food Intake

IV. The Hepatic Hypothesis of Feeding

V. Preabsorptive Satiation

VI. Oropharyngeal Receptors

VII. Gastric Distention Receptors

VIII. Gastrointestinal Chemoreceptors

IX. Gastrointestinal Hormones

X. Possible Relation between Satiation and Lipostasis

XI. Conclusions


19 Effects of Protein and Carbohydrate Ingestion on Brain Tryptophan Levels and Serotonin Synthesis: Putative Relationship to Appetite for Specific Nutrients

I. Introduction

II. Diet, Brain Tryptophan Uptake, and Serotonin Synthesis

III. Diet, Brain Tryptophan and Serotonin, and Appetite

IV. Summary and Conclusions


20 Time Course of Food Intake and Plasma and Brain Amino Acid Concentrations in Rats Fed Amino Acid-Imbalanced or -Deficient Diets

I. Introduction

II. Time Course of the Food-Intake Response

III. Feeding Patterns

IV. Dietary Choice

V. Amino Acid Concentrations in Plasma, Brain, and Cerebrospinal Fluid

VI. Operant Response

VII. Brain Areas Implicated

VIII. Amino Acid and Neurotransmitter Concentrations in Brain

IX. Monoamines in the Prepyriform Cortex


Part IV Discussion

Part V Conclusion

21 Concluding Remarks




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© Academic Press 1986
28th April 1986
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:

About the Editor

Morley Kare

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