Interaction of The Chemical Senses With Nutrition

Interaction of The Chemical Senses With Nutrition

1st Edition - April 28, 1986

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  • Editor: Morley Kare
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323147972

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Description

Interaction of the Chemical Senses with Nutrition provides an understanding of the relationship of smell and taste to nutrition. This book discusses how the flavor of food can have substantial physiological effects influencing ingestion, digestion, and metabolism. Organized into five parts encompassing 21 chapters, this book starts with an overview of the significant role of saliva, which is involved in diet–taste relationships through dietary effects on saliva and salivary effects on taste perception. This text then reviews the literature on early salt acceptance in humans, contrasting and comparing those findings with data on the development of sweet preference. Other chapters consider the gustatory and anticipatory cephalic stimuli detected during a meal, which yield nutritional information and help in the efficient digestion of food. The final chapter deals with the transition stage in nutritional research. This book is a valuable resource for nutritionists, psychophysicists, scientists, public health professionals, and researchers.

Table of Contents


  • Contributors

    Participants

    Preface

    Samuel Lepkovsky

    Part I Effects of Nutritive State on Chemical Senses

    1 Importance of Saliva in Diet-Taste Relationships

    I. Introduction

    II. The Salivary Glands

    III. Dietary Influences on Saliva

    IV. Salivary Influences on Taste Perception

    V. Research Needs

    References

    2 Factors Affecting Acceptance of Salt by Human Infants and Children

    I. Introduction

    II. Responses to Salt and Sugar in Early Development: A Review

    III. Developmental Shifts in Salt Acceptance

    IV. Research Needs

    References

    3 Effects of Dietary Protein on the Taste Preference for Amino Acids in Rats

    I. Introduction

    II. Taste Preference and Protein Intake in Rats during Growth

    III. Changes of Taste Preference in Rats Fed a Diet with or without L-Lysine Deficiency

    IV. Relation among Protein Intake, Taste Preference, and Genetic Predispositions

    V. Research Needs

    VI. Conclusion

    References

    4 Preference Threshold for Maltose Solutions in Rats Treated Chronically with the Components of an Oral Contraceptive

    I. Introduction

    II. Methods

    III. Results

    IV. Discussion

    V. Summary

    References

    5 The Chemical Senses and Nutrition in the Elderly

    I. Introduction: Nutritional Status in the Elderly

    II. Chemosensory Loss in the Elderly: Review of the Literature

    III. Chemosensory Preference and Biochemical Indexes in the Elderly

    IV. Discussion and Conclusions

    V. Research Needs

    References

    6 Micronutrients and Taste Stimulus Intake

    I. Introduction

    II. Effects of Deficiencies on Taste Preferences

    III. Experimental Data

    IV. Future Research

    References

    7 Effect of Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus on Gustation and Olfaction

    I. Introduction

    II. Methods

    III. Results

    IV. Discussion

    V. Summary

    References

    Part I Discussion

    Part II Effects of the Cephalic Phase on Digestion and Absorption

    8 Intragastric Feeding of Fats

    I. Introduction

    II. Review of Intragastric Feeding

    III. Research Needs

    References

    9 The Stomach and Satiety

    I. Introduction

    II. Gastric Emptying of Liquids

    III. Intestinal Control of Gastric Emptying

    IV. The Two Phases of Gastric Emptying

    V. The Stomach and Glucose Consumption

    VI. The Stomach and Chow Intake

    VII. Cholecystokinin and Gastric Distention

    VIII. Conclusions

    References

    10 The Cephalic Phase of Gastric Secretion

    I. Introduction

    II. The Cephalic Phase of Gastric Secretion

    III. Research Needs

    References

    11 The Gut Brain and the Gut-Brain Axis

    I. Introduction

    II. The Gut Brain

    III. The Gut-Brain Axis

    IV. Peptides

    V. Research Goals

    VI. Summary

    References

    12 Cephalic Phase of Digestion: The Effect of Meal Frequency

    I. Introduction

    II. Critical Review and Discussion of Subject Matter

    References

    Part II Discussion

    Part III Consequences of Food Palatability to Nutrition

    13 Changing Hedonic Responses to Foods during and after a Meal

    Introduction

    Sensory-Specific Satiety: Basic Studies

    Nutrient-Specific Satiety

    The Role of Sensory Properties of Food in Satiety

    Changes in the Palatability of Uneaten Foods

    Effects of Variation in the Sensory Properties of Foods on Food Intake

    Conclusions

    References

    14 Role of Variety of Food Flavor in Fat Deposition Produced by a "Cafeteria" Feeding of Nutritionally Controlled Diets

    Introduction

    "Cafeteria" Feeding as a Model for Dietary Obesity

    Preference Tests for Food Flavors and Texture

    "Cafeteria" Feeding Experiments with Nutritionally Controlled Diets

    V. Conclusions

    References

    15 Quantitative Relationship between Palatability and Food Intake in Man

    I. Introduction

    II. A Brief-Exposure Taste Test for Measuring Intrinsic Palatability

    III. Relationship of Intrinsic Palatability to Food Consumption

    IV. Needs for Future Research

    V. Summary and Conclusions

    References

    Part III Discussion

    Part IV Interplay of Chemical Senses with Nutrient Metabolism

    16 Taste and the Autonomic Nervous System

    I. Introduction

    II. The Afferent Limb

    III. The Efferent Limb

    IV. The Central Projections

    References

    17 Caudal Brainstem Integration of Taste and Internal State Factors in Behavioral and Autonomic Responses

    I. Introduction

    II. The CBS Receives Input from Oral Exteroceptors That Evaluate the Sensory Characteristics of Food

    III. The CBS Is a Site of Metabolic Interoceptors

    IV. The CBS Contains Simple Reflex Connections between Oral Exteroceptor Input and Autonomic and Behavioral Effector Output

    V. The CBS Contains Connections between Exteroceptive Input and Behavioral Effector Output for the Production of Discriminative Responses to Taste

    VI. Interoceptive Input from Food Deprivation and Insulin-Induced Hypoglycemia Is Integrated with Oral Afferent Information within the CBS to Control the Ingestive Consummatory Behavior of Chronically Decerebrate Rats

    VII. Conclusion

    References

    18 Possible Participation of Oro-, Gastro-, and Enterohepatic Reflexes in Preabsorptive Satiation

    I. Introduction

    II. Regulation of Glycemia

    III. Hepatic Receptors and Control of Food Intake

    IV. The Hepatic Hypothesis of Feeding

    V. Preabsorptive Satiation

    VI. Oropharyngeal Receptors

    VII. Gastric Distention Receptors

    VIII. Gastrointestinal Chemoreceptors

    IX. Gastrointestinal Hormones

    X. Possible Relation between Satiation and Lipostasis

    XI. Conclusions

    References

    19 Effects of Protein and Carbohydrate Ingestion on Brain Tryptophan Levels and Serotonin Synthesis: Putative Relationship to Appetite for Specific Nutrients

    I. Introduction

    II. Diet, Brain Tryptophan Uptake, and Serotonin Synthesis

    III. Diet, Brain Tryptophan and Serotonin, and Appetite

    IV. Summary and Conclusions

    References

    20 Time Course of Food Intake and Plasma and Brain Amino Acid Concentrations in Rats Fed Amino Acid-Imbalanced or -Deficient Diets

    I. Introduction

    II. Time Course of the Food-Intake Response

    III. Feeding Patterns

    IV. Dietary Choice

    V. Amino Acid Concentrations in Plasma, Brain, and Cerebrospinal Fluid

    VI. Operant Response

    VII. Brain Areas Implicated

    VIII. Amino Acid and Neurotransmitter Concentrations in Brain

    IX. Monoamines in the Prepyriform Cortex

    References

    Part IV Discussion

    Part V Conclusion

    21 Concluding Remarks

    Text

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 502
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1986
  • Published: April 28, 1986
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323147972

About the Editor

Morley Kare

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