From this modern and profusely illustrated book, the reader will learn not just the basics, which are amply reviewed, but also how plant anatomy is integrated with a wide variety of other disciplines, such as plant breeding, forensic analysis, medicine, food science, wood and fiber products, and the arts. The author presents the basic concepts and terminology of plant anatomy with a special emphasis on its significance and applications to other disciplines, and addresses the central role of anatomy by consolidating previously scattered information into a single volume.
Integrative Plant Anatomy highlights the important contribution made by studying anatomy to the solutions of a number of present and future problems. It succeeds in integrating diverse areas of botany, as well as the non-biological sciences, the arts, and numerous other fields of human endeavor.
- Presents both the classical and modern approaches to the subject
- Teaches the importance of the subject to other disciplines such as the nonbiological sciences, the arts, and other fields of human endeavor
- Written and organized to be useful to students and instructors, but also to be accessible and appealing to a general audience
- Bridges the gap between conventional textbooks and comprehensive reference works
- Includes key terms and extensive additional readings
- Richly illustrated with line drawings and photographs
Professional botanists, academics, and agricultural and forestry professionals
Copyright © 2001 Harcourt/Academic Press All rights reserved. THIS MATERIAL may not be used, directly or indirectly, for any paid service, such as document delivery, interlibrary loan, or any other systematic supply or distribution of material. Copyright and other notices or disclaimers may not be removed, modified or obscured. Harcourt/Academic Press or Harcourt General, Inc. reserve the right to withdraw on-line access to this content without notice at any time.
PREFACE xv ACKNOWLEDGMENTS xvii Part I. ANATOMICAL FOUNDATION OF THE PLANT BODY: AN OVERVIEW 1 1 Plant Growth, Development, and Cellular Organization 3 Plant Growth 3 Meristem Function 4 Cell Differentiation 6 Terms Used in the Description of Plant Cells 9 Embryology 10 The Plant Cell 13 The Cell Wall 14 The Cell Plate and Middle Lamella 15 The Primary Wall 15 Plasmodesmata 23 The Secondary Wall 24 Warty Layer 27 Wall Pits 28 Cell Membranes 30 Cytoplasmic Organelles 32 Vacuome 37 Starch 38 Nucleus 39 Nonprotoplasmic Mineral Desposition 40 Summary 44 Additional Reading 46 2 Origin and Structure of the Primary Plant Body 51 Structure and Function of the Angiosperm Vegetative Shoot Apex 51 Shoot Apex Organization 52 Chimeras 55 I CONTENTS vii Structure and Function of the Root Apex 57 Differentiation of Primary Tissues 62 Leaf Initiation and Development 64 Classification of Tissues 66 Dermal Tissue System 67 Cuticle and Epicuticular Waxes 68 Specialized Epidermal Cells 70 Fundamental Tissue System 74 Parenchyma 74 Collenchyma 76 Sclerenchyma 79 Sclereids 80 Fibers 82 Laticiferous Tissue System 85 Vascular Tissue Systems 86 Xylem 89 Tracheids 90 Vessel Elements 90 Primary Xylem Tracheary Elements 92 Phloem 93 Sieve Tube Elements 94 Companion Cells 99 Sieve Cells 101 Differentiation of Primary Vascular Tissues 102 Primary Xylem Differentiation 103 Cytodifferentiation of Tracheary Cells 107 Primary Phloem Differentiation 110 Vascular Differentiation in Leaves 112 Summary 115 Additional Reading 116 3 Tissue Organization in Stems, Leaves, and Roots 121 Stems 121 Vascular Bundles 122 Stem Structure 126 Leaves 129 Lamina Structure 132 Leaf Venation 134 Gymnosperm Leaves 141 Roots 142 Origin of Lateral Roots 148 Mycorrhizae 150 Root and Bacteria Interactions 153 Summary 155 Additional Reading 157 viii CONTENTS CONTENTS ix 4 Origin and Structure of the Secondary Plant Body 161 Vascular Cambium Formation 162 Structure and Function of the Vascular Cambium 166 Cell Division in the Cambium 170 Anomalous Secondary Growth 173 Secondary Xylem (Wood) 178 Secondary Phloem 185 Structure and Function of the Cork Cambium and Periderm 186 Secondary Growth in Monocotyledons 195 Periderm Formation in Monocotyledons 197 Summary 198 Additional Reading 201 Part II EVOLUTIONARY, PHYSIOLOGICAL, AND ECOLOGICAL PLANT ANATOMY 203 5 Evolution and Systematics 205 Systematic Plant Anatomy 205 Variation in Anatomical Characters 206 Xylem Evolution 208 Use of Wood Anatomy in Systematics 216 Nodal Anatomy 219 Foliar Epidermis 221 Trichomes 225 Mineral Inclusions 227 Ultrastructure 229 Phylogenetic Systematics 229 Summary 233 Additional Reading 234 6 Macromorphology 237 Floral Morphology and Anatomy 238 Homology of Floral Appendages 240 Conservative and Vestigial Vascular Bundles 244 Nectaries of Salix 246 Pseudomonomerous Gynoecia 247 Inverted Vascular Bundles 250 The Inferior Ovary 250 Leaves and Stipules 252 Two-Bundled Structures in Monocotyledons 254 Summary 255 Additional Reading 256 II x CONTENTS 7 Structure and Function 259 Vascular Tissues 260 Phloem Structure and Translocation 260 Minor Leaf Veins and Phloem Loading and Unloading 265 Kranz Anatomy and Photosynthesis 267 Xylem Structure and Water Movement 272 Water Conductance 277 Hydraulic Segmentation and Safety 282 Water Flow 284 Anatomical Responses to Mineral Deficiency 286 Summary 289 Additional Reading 290 8 Ecological Anatomy 295 Habitat and Plant Structure 295 Ecological Leaf Anatomy 297 Sun and Shade Leaves 298 Xeromorphic Leaves 301 Ericoid Leaves 302 Sclerophyllous Leaves 302 Succulent Leaves 303 Poikilohydric Plants 304 Halophytic Leaves 306 Alpine Plants 307 Epiphytic Plants 308 Hydromorphic Leaves 308 Ecological Wood Anatomy 312 Growth Rings 313 Hydraulic Architecture 315 Adaptive Radiation in Dilleniaceae 318 Roots 320 Xeromorphic Roots 320 Hydromorphic Roots 321 Flooded and Drought-Stressed Roots 322 Aerial Roots 322 Frost Hardiness 322 Anatomy and Pollution 324 Anatomy and Plant Resistance 325 Effects of Pollution on Wood 326 Gaseous Air Pollutants 327 Ozone Injury to Plants 328 Acid Rain 329 Carbon Dioxide 329 Ionizing Radiation 330 Ultraviolet B Radiation 331 CONTENTS xi Insecticides and Herbicides 332 Summary 333 Additional Reading 334 Part III ECONOMIC AND APPLIED PLANT ANATOMY 339 9 Genetics and Plant Breeding 341 Molecular Genetic Analysis 342 Anatomy as an Indicator of Hybridization 342 Gene Expression and Anatomical Traits 345 The Wilted Gene 345 Trichome Development 347 Corn Leaf Development 347 Cell Wall Genes 348 Floral Development 349 Anatomy, Heredity, and Plant Breeding 349 Wood Quality 350 Summary 352 Additional Reading 353 10 Defense Mechanisms and Structural Responses of Plants to Diseases, Pests, and Mechanical Injury 357 The Nature of Plant Defenses 358 Responses of Plants to Wounding and Invasion by Microorganisms 359 Abscission 362 Tissue Regeneration 362 Grafting 368 Cytological Reactions to Invasion by Parasites 369 Structural Bases of Resistance 371 Trichomes 372 Laticifers 372 Dutch Elm Disease and Tyloses 373 Heartwood 375 Structural Aspects of Virus Movement in Plants 376 Summary 378 Additional Reading 380 11 Herbs, Spices, and Drugs 383 Classification of Secretory Structures 384 External Secretory Structures 385 III xii CONTENTS Internal Secretory Structures 386 Anatomy of Secretory Structures 387 Secretory Cells and Cavities 389 Anatomical and Pharmacognostic Studies on Herb, Spice, and Drug Plants 394 Cinnamon 394 Ginger 394 Peppermint 394 Cinchona 396 Cascara Sagrada 396 Nirbisi 396 Summary 396 Additional Reading 397 12 Fibers, Fiber Products, and Forage Fiber 399 Extraxylary Fibers 400 Xylary Fibers and Paper Manufacture 402 Reaction Wood 406 Compression Wood 407 Tension Wood and Gelatinous Fibers 408 Forage "Fiber" and Animal Nutrition 410 Grass Leaf Digestion 413 Legume Digestion 414 Summary 416 Additional Reading 417 13 Forensic Science and Animal Food Habits 421 Plant Anatomy as Forensic Evidence 422 Plant Cell Identification 423 Application of Anatomical Evidence in Criminal and Civil Law 425 Animal Food Habits 431 Summary 433 Additional Reading 434 14 Archaeology, Anthropology, and Climatology 437 Wood Anatomy and the Environment 438 Dendrochronology 439 Methods of Dendrochronology 441 Dendrochronology Case Studies 444 Dendroclimatology 446 Tree Rings and Other Environmental Factors 447 Diets and Artifacts of Prehistoric Peoples 448 Summary 450 Additional Reading 451 CONTENTS xiii 15 Properties and Utilization of Wood 453 Features and Appearance of Sawed or Split Lumber 454 Physical Properties of Wood 459 Specific Gravity and Density 459 Wood and Water 460 Permeability 463 Sapwood and Heartwood 465 Mechanical Properties of Wood 465 Stiffness and Strength 467 Hardness and Toughness 468 Application of Wood Anatomy to the Field of Biomedical Research 469 Summary 470 Additional Reading 471 16 The Arts and Antiques 473 Identification and Deterioration of Plant Tissues and Cells Used in Object Construction 474 Deterioration 475 Dendrochronological Dating 476 Green-Stained Wood 480 Identification of Antique Upholstery Filling and Wooden Furniture 484 Antique Musical Instruments 485 Musical Instruments and Wood Technical Properties 485 Stringed Instruments 485 Wind Instruments 489 Summary 489 Additional Reading 492 GENERAL ANATOMICAL REFERENCES 495 PLANT ANATOMY AND THE WORLD WIDE WEB 499 GLOSSARY 503 INDEX 517
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- © Academic Press 2000
- 10th March 2000
- Academic Press
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William C. Dickison is professor of biology at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. He is the author of numerous articles on plant anatomy that have been published in journals ranging from the Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society and the American Journal of Botany toSystematic Botany and the Botanical Gazette. With Richard A. White, he coedited Contemporary Problems in Plant Anatomy, which was published by Academic Press in 1984.
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, U.S.A.
"This is an ambitious and scholarly text, and Dr. Dickison should be congratulated for his efforts." --Thomas L. Rost, University of California at Davis
"I commend the author for his fresh and novel approach to the study of plant anatomy. Presently, there is no textbook available that interrelates plant anatomy with systematics, physiology, ecology, genetics, anthropology, and the other fields of study covered in the manuscript; this approach has merit and addresses a need as far as plant anatomy and its applications are concerned." --Terence W. Lucansky, University of Florida
"The author is completely successful in fulfilling his objective of conveying the importance of plant anatomy as a field of endeavor with widespread applications to other fields. Dickison's approach is refreshingly different and likely to have great appeal to the novice.... For example, the manuscript was easy to read, unlike most [plant] anatomy books, because of minimal use of technical jargon." --Dale M.J. Mueller, Texas A&M University