Integrative Plant Anatomy

Integrative Plant Anatomy

1st Edition - March 10, 2000

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  • Author: William Dickison
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780122151705
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080508917

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From this modern and profusely illustrated book, the reader will learn not just the basics, which are amply reviewed, but also how plant anatomy is integrated with a wide variety of other disciplines, such as plant breeding, forensic analysis, medicine, food science, wood and fiber products, and the arts. The author presents the basic concepts and terminology of plant anatomy with a special emphasis on its significance and applications to other disciplines, and addresses the central role of anatomy by consolidating previously scattered information into a single volume. Integrative Plant Anatomy highlights the important contribution made by studying anatomy to the solutions of a number of present and future problems. It succeeds in integrating diverse areas of botany, as well as the non-biological sciences, the arts, and numerous other fields of human endeavor.

Key Features

  • Presents both the classical and modern approaches to the subject
  • Teaches the importance of the subject to other disciplines such as the nonbiological sciences, the arts, and other fields of human endeavor
  • Written and organized to be useful to students and instructors, but also to be accessible and appealing to a general audience
  • Bridges the gap between conventional textbooks and comprehensive reference works
  • Includes key terms and extensive additional readings
  • Richly illustrated with line drawings and photographs


Professional botanists, academics, and agricultural and forestry professionals

Table of Contents

  • Copyright © 2001 Harcourt/Academic Press All rights reserved.
    THIS MATERIAL may not be used, directly or indirectly, for any paid
    service, such as document delivery, interlibrary loan, or any other
    systematic supply or distribution of material. Copyright and other
    notices or disclaimers may not be removed, modified or obscured.
    Harcourt/Academic Press or Harcourt General, Inc. reserve the right to
    withdraw on-line access to this content without notice at any time.

    PREFACE xv
    Part I.
    1 Plant Growth, Development, and Cellular Organization 3
    Plant Growth 3
    Meristem Function 4
    Cell Differentiation 6
    Terms Used in the Description of Plant Cells 9
    Embryology 10
    The Plant Cell 13
    The Cell Wall 14
    The Cell Plate and Middle Lamella 15
    The Primary Wall 15
    Plasmodesmata 23
    The Secondary Wall 24
    Warty Layer 27
    Wall Pits 28
    Cell Membranes 30
    Cytoplasmic Organelles 32
    Vacuome 37
    Starch 38
    Nucleus 39
    Nonprotoplasmic Mineral Desposition 40
    Summary 44
    Additional Reading 46
    2 Origin and Structure of the Primary Plant Body 51
    Structure and Function of the Angiosperm Vegetative Shoot Apex 51
    Shoot Apex Organization 52
    Chimeras 55
    Structure and Function of the Root Apex 57
    Differentiation of Primary Tissues 62
    Leaf Initiation and Development 64
    Classification of Tissues 66
    Dermal Tissue System 67
    Cuticle and Epicuticular Waxes 68
    Specialized Epidermal Cells 70
    Fundamental Tissue System 74
    Parenchyma 74
    Collenchyma 76
    Sclerenchyma 79
    Sclereids 80
    Fibers 82
    Laticiferous Tissue System 85
    Vascular Tissue Systems 86
    Xylem 89
    Tracheids 90
    Vessel Elements 90
    Primary Xylem Tracheary Elements 92
    Phloem 93
    Sieve Tube Elements 94
    Companion Cells 99
    Sieve Cells 101
    Differentiation of Primary Vascular Tissues 102
    Primary Xylem Differentiation 103
    Cytodifferentiation of Tracheary Cells 107
    Primary Phloem Differentiation 110
    Vascular Differentiation in Leaves 112
    Summary 115
    Additional Reading 116
    3 Tissue Organization in Stems, Leaves, and Roots 121
    Stems 121
    Vascular Bundles 122
    Stem Structure 126
    Leaves 129
    Lamina Structure 132
    Leaf Venation 134
    Gymnosperm Leaves 141
    Roots 142
    Origin of Lateral Roots 148
    Mycorrhizae 150
    Root and Bacteria Interactions 153
    Summary 155
    Additional Reading 157
    viii CONTENTS
    4 Origin and Structure of the Secondary Plant Body 161
    Vascular Cambium Formation 162
    Structure and Function of the Vascular Cambium 166
    Cell Division in the Cambium 170
    Anomalous Secondary Growth 173
    Secondary Xylem (Wood) 178
    Secondary Phloem 185
    Structure and Function of the Cork Cambium and Periderm 186
    Secondary Growth in Monocotyledons 195
    Periderm Formation in Monocotyledons 197
    Summary 198
    Additional Reading 201
    Part II
    5 Evolution and Systematics 205
    Systematic Plant Anatomy 205
    Variation in Anatomical Characters 206
    Xylem Evolution 208
    Use of Wood Anatomy in Systematics 216
    Nodal Anatomy 219
    Foliar Epidermis 221
    Trichomes 225
    Mineral Inclusions 227
    Ultrastructure 229
    Phylogenetic Systematics 229
    Summary 233
    Additional Reading 234
    6 Macromorphology 237
    Floral Morphology and Anatomy 238
    Homology of Floral Appendages 240
    Conservative and Vestigial Vascular Bundles 244
    Nectaries of Salix 246
    Pseudomonomerous Gynoecia 247
    Inverted Vascular Bundles 250
    The Inferior Ovary 250
    Leaves and Stipules 252
    Two-Bundled Structures in Monocotyledons 254
    Summary 255
    Additional Reading 256
    7 Structure and Function 259
    Vascular Tissues 260
    Phloem Structure and Translocation 260
    Minor Leaf Veins and Phloem Loading and Unloading 265
    Kranz Anatomy and Photosynthesis 267
    Xylem Structure and Water Movement 272
    Water Conductance 277
    Hydraulic Segmentation and Safety 282
    Water Flow 284
    Anatomical Responses to Mineral Deficiency 286
    Summary 289
    Additional Reading 290
    8 Ecological Anatomy 295
    Habitat and Plant Structure 295
    Ecological Leaf Anatomy 297
    Sun and Shade Leaves 298
    Xeromorphic Leaves 301
    Ericoid Leaves 302
    Sclerophyllous Leaves 302
    Succulent Leaves 303
    Poikilohydric Plants 304
    Halophytic Leaves 306
    Alpine Plants 307
    Epiphytic Plants 308
    Hydromorphic Leaves 308
    Ecological Wood Anatomy 312
    Growth Rings 313
    Hydraulic Architecture 315
    Adaptive Radiation in Dilleniaceae 318
    Roots 320
    Xeromorphic Roots 320
    Hydromorphic Roots 321
    Flooded and Drought-Stressed Roots 322
    Aerial Roots 322
    Frost Hardiness 322
    Anatomy and Pollution 324
    Anatomy and Plant Resistance 325
    Effects of Pollution on Wood 326
    Gaseous Air Pollutants 327
    Ozone Injury to Plants 328
    Acid Rain 329
    Carbon Dioxide 329
    Ionizing Radiation 330
    Ultraviolet B Radiation 331
    Insecticides and Herbicides 332
    Summary 333
    Additional Reading 334
    Part III
    9 Genetics and Plant Breeding 341
    Molecular Genetic Analysis 342
    Anatomy as an Indicator of Hybridization 342
    Gene Expression and Anatomical Traits 345
    The Wilted Gene 345
    Trichome Development 347
    Corn Leaf Development 347
    Cell Wall Genes 348
    Floral Development 349
    Anatomy, Heredity, and Plant Breeding 349
    Wood Quality 350
    Summary 352
    Additional Reading 353
    10 Defense Mechanisms and Structural Responses of Plants
    to Diseases, Pests, and Mechanical Injury 357
    The Nature of Plant Defenses 358
    Responses of Plants to Wounding and Invasion by Microorganisms 359
    Abscission 362
    Tissue Regeneration 362
    Grafting 368
    Cytological Reactions to Invasion by Parasites 369
    Structural Bases of Resistance 371
    Trichomes 372
    Laticifers 372
    Dutch Elm Disease and Tyloses 373
    Heartwood 375
    Structural Aspects of Virus Movement in Plants 376
    Summary 378
    Additional Reading 380
    11 Herbs, Spices, and Drugs 383
    Classification of Secretory Structures 384
    External Secretory Structures 385
    xii CONTENTS
    Internal Secretory Structures 386
    Anatomy of Secretory Structures 387
    Secretory Cells and Cavities 389
    Anatomical and Pharmacognostic Studies on Herb, Spice, and Drug Plants 394
    Cinnamon 394
    Ginger 394
    Peppermint 394
    Cinchona 396
    Cascara Sagrada 396
    Nirbisi 396
    Summary 396
    Additional Reading 397
    12 Fibers, Fiber Products, and Forage Fiber 399
    Extraxylary Fibers 400
    Xylary Fibers and Paper Manufacture 402
    Reaction Wood 406
    Compression Wood 407
    Tension Wood and Gelatinous Fibers 408
    Forage "Fiber" and Animal Nutrition 410
    Grass Leaf Digestion 413
    Legume Digestion 414
    Summary 416
    Additional Reading 417
    13 Forensic Science and Animal Food Habits 421
    Plant Anatomy as Forensic Evidence 422
    Plant Cell Identification 423
    Application of Anatomical Evidence in Criminal and Civil Law 425
    Animal Food Habits 431
    Summary 433
    Additional Reading 434
    14 Archaeology, Anthropology, and Climatology 437
    Wood Anatomy and the Environment 438
    Dendrochronology 439
    Methods of Dendrochronology 441
    Dendrochronology Case Studies 444
    Dendroclimatology 446
    Tree Rings and Other Environmental Factors 447
    Diets and Artifacts of Prehistoric Peoples 448
    Summary 450
    Additional Reading 451
    CONTENTS xiii
    15 Properties and Utilization of Wood 453
    Features and Appearance of Sawed or Split Lumber 454
    Physical Properties of Wood 459
    Specific Gravity and Density 459
    Wood and Water 460
    Permeability 463
    Sapwood and Heartwood 465
    Mechanical Properties of Wood 465
    Stiffness and Strength 467
    Hardness and Toughness 468
    Application of Wood Anatomy to the Field of Biomedical Research 469
    Summary 470
    Additional Reading 471
    16 The Arts and Antiques 473
    Identification and Deterioration of Plant Tissues and Cells Used in
    Object Construction 474
    Deterioration 475
    Dendrochronological Dating 476
    Green-Stained Wood 480
    Identification of Antique Upholstery Filling and Wooden Furniture 484
    Antique Musical Instruments 485
    Musical Instruments and Wood Technical Properties 485
    Stringed Instruments 485
    Wind Instruments 489
    Summary 489
    Additional Reading 492
    GLOSSARY 503
    INDEX 517

Product details

  • No. of pages: 560
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2000
  • Published: March 10, 2000
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780122151705
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080508917

About the Author

William Dickison

William C. Dickison is professor of biology at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. He is the author of numerous articles on plant anatomy that have been published in journals ranging from the Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society and the American Journal of Botany toSystematic Botany and the Botanical Gazette. With Richard A. White, he coedited Contemporary Problems in Plant Anatomy, which was published by Academic Press in 1984.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, U.S.A.

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