Integration and Optimization of Unit Operations

Integration and Optimization of Unit Operations

Review of Unit Operations from R&D to Production: Impacts of Upstream and Downstream Process Decisions

1st Edition - June 23, 2022

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  • Editor: Barry A. Perlmutter
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128235027
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128236185

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Description

The chemical industry changes and becomes more and more integrated worldwide. This creates a need for information exchange that includes not only the principles of operation but also the transfer of practical knowledge. Integration and Optimization of Unit Operations provides up-to-date and practical information on chemical unit operations from the R&D stage to scale-up and demonstration to commercialization and optimization. A global collection of industry experts systematically discuss all innovation stages, complex processes with different unit operations, including solids processing and recycle flows, and the importance of integrated process validation. The book addresses the needs of engineers who want to increase their skill levels in various disciplines so that they are able to develop, commercialize and optimize processes. After reading this book, you will be able to acquire new skills and knowledge to collaborate across disciplines and develop creative solutions.

Key Features

  • Shows the impacts of upstream process decisions on downstream operations
  • Provides troubleshooting strategies at each process stage
  • Asks challenging questions to develop creative solutions to process problems

Readership

Chemical engineers in R&D, pilot plant, operations, development and production, chemical engineers involved chemical production, process development as well as project engineering; Engineering companies and consultants; University engineering students in their senior courses before entering the workforce

Table of Contents

  • Cover image
  • Title page
  • Table of Contents
  • Copyright
  • Contributors
  • About the editor
  • Preface
  • Chapter 1: Crystallization
  • Abstract
  • 1.1: Fundamentals and laboratory scale process development
  • 1.2: Pilot scale crystallization studies
  • 1.3: Commercialization of crystallization processes
  • References
  • Chapter 2: Fermentation and downstream processing: Part 1
  • Abstract
  • 2.1: Introduction
  • 2.2: Microbiology and biochemistry basics
  • 2.3: Fermentation media and environment
  • 2.4: Growth kinetics and substrate utilization
  • 2.5: From vial to production fermenter
  • 2.6: Oxygen transfer and utilization
  • 2.7: Mixing in aerobic fermentation vessels
  • 2.8: Sterilization
  • 2.9: Heat generation
  • 2.10: Scale-up
  • References
  • Chapter 3: Fermentation and downstream processing: Part 2
  • Abstract
  • 3.1: Fermenter design
  • 3.2: Fermenter instrumentation, control and operation
  • 3.3: Continuous culture
  • 3.4: Downstream processing
  • 3.5: Concluding remarks
  • Nomenclature
  • References
  • Chapter 4: Liquid filtration
  • Abstract
  • 4.1: Do you need a filter?
  • 4.2: Lab testing before you choose the filter
  • 4.3: Choosing the filter
  • 4.4: The ABCs of liquid filtration
  • 4.5: The mechanics of liquid filtration
  • 4.6: Troubleshooting
  • 4.7: The filter cake
  • 4.8: Preventative maintenance program
  • Further reading
  • Chapter 5: Cake-building filter technologies
  • Abstract
  • 5.1: Batch processing of filter cakes
  • 5.2: Contained filter presses for cake washing, dewatering, and drying
  • 5.3: Nutsche filter and filter dryers
  • 5.4: Continuous processing of filter cakes
  • Chapter 6: Centrifugation
  • Abstract
  • 6.1: Centrifuge choice and analysis of available equipment
  • 6.2: Typical centrifuge operation
  • 6.3: Technical considerations of equipment selection
  • 6.4: Other considerations of centrifuge operation
  • 6.5: Final remarks
  • Chapter 7: Dryers
  • Abstract
  • 7.1: Purpose of drying
  • 7.2: Dispersed solid-liquid system
  • 7.3: Drying processes
  • 7.4: Convective drying with hot gas
  • 7.5: Conductive and radiative drying
  • 7.6: Evaporation of liquid from a solid packing
  • 7.7: Drying facilities
  • 7.8: Troubleshooting
  • References
  • Chapter 8: Pressure filter dryer
  • Abstract
  • 8.1: General considerations of using a pressure filter dryer
  • 8.2: Principles of the pressure filter dryer
  • 8.3: Filter choice and analysis of available equipment
  • 8.4: Technical considerations of equipment selection
  • 8.5: General operation of a pressure filter dryer
  • 8.6: Final remarks
  • Chapter 9: Process automation systems
  • Abstract
  • 9.1: Process automation in production facilities
  • 9.2: Process control system (continuous process)
  • 9.3: Process control systems (batch process)
  • 9.4: Safety instrumented systems
  • 9.5: Alarm management systems
  • 9.6: Machinery protection
  • 9.7: Measurement, and other fun things to do with instruments
  • 9.8: The effect of technology on process automation
  • Chapter 10: Process automation life cycles
  • Abstract
  • 10.1: Planning for process automation
  • 10.2: Front end engineering design
  • 10.3: Delivery phase, detailed engineering, and procurement
  • 10.4: Installation and commissioning
  • 10.5: Automation system operation and obsolescence
  • 10.6: Conclusion
  • Chapter 11: Process automation platforms
  • Abstract
  • 11.1: Background
  • 11.2: Staffing of a manufacturing facility
  • 11.3: Finding the balance
  • 11.4: The new paradigm of autonomous operations
  • 11.5: Upgrading the level of automation
  • 11.6: Where to start when considering investment in higher levels of autonomy
  • 11.7: Conclusions
  • Chapter 12: Mixing and blending
  • Abstract
  • 12.1: Introduction: Why mixing matters
  • 12.2: Upstream considerations
  • 12.3: The second shaft
  • 12.4: The third shaft
  • 12.5: Additional mixer design considerations
  • 12.6: Rheology considerations
  • 12.7: Overmixing is just as bad as undermixing: Know the finishing point
  • 12.8: Reliable scale-up
  • 12.9: Mechanical aspects and troubleshooting
  • 12.10: Case study: Why push toward efficiency?
  • 12.11: Final remarks
  • References
  • Further reading
  • Chapter 13: Process development and integration by mathematical modeling and simulation tools
  • Abstract
  • 13.1: Fundamentals and workflow
  • 13.2: The steps for building a mathematical model
  • 13.3: Steady-state and dynamic simulations
  • 13.4: Process simulation for optimization
  • 13.5: Process development workflow for continuous manufacturing
  • 13.6: Correlation between CQAs, CPPs, CMAs
  • References
  • Chapter 14: Process safety
  • Abstract
  • 14.1: Lab-scale operations
  • 14.2: Pilot plant operations
  • 14.3: Production scale operations
  • References
  • Chapter 15: Process commissioning
  • Abstract
  • 15.1: Commissioning
  • 15.2: Competency
  • 15.3: Checks prior to the start of commissioning
  • 15.4: Commissioning protocols
  • 15.5: Specific process engineering responsibilities
  • 15.6: Handover of the plant to the user
  • 15.7: Overall recommendations for process engineers
  • Appendix: Example Commissioning Protocol for a new Hydrochloric Acid Tanker Offloading Pump
  • Chapter 16: Holistic process integration and optimization: Large-scale hybrid process applications
  • Abstract
  • Acknowledgments
  • 16.1: Introduction
  • 16.2: Life cycles of generic activities for large-scale bulk chemicals production
  • 16.3: Systems integration design for specialty products manufacture and sales
  • 16.4: Gated process development with digital interlinks
  • 16.5: Digital control life cycles of integrated large-scale production plants
  • 16.6: Environmental impact monitoring and control
  • 16.7: Systems integration of plant operations within eco-industrial parks
  • 16.8: Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 17: From idea to 1 million ton year commercial plant
  • Abstract
  • 17.1: The framework
  • 17.2: The execution
  • 17.3: At last: Safety first
  • Chapter 18: Scale-up challenges: Examples from refining and catalysis
  • Abstract
  • 18.1: Challenges in refining scale-up
  • 18.2: Challenges in catalyst scale-up
  • 18.3: Decision gate for catalyst scale-up
  • References
  • Chapter 19: Scale-up challenges: Wastewater
  • Abstract
  • 19.1: Challenges in wastewater treatment
  • References
  • Chapter 20: Hemp/biomass process steps
  • Abstract
  • 20.1: Hemp cultivation overview
  • 20.2: Extraction
  • 20.3: Innovations and other extraction technologies
  • 20.4: Cannabinoid isolation
  • 20.5: Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 21: Techno-economic analyses
  • Abstract
  • 21.1: Introduction
  • 21.2: Technology assessment
  • 21.3: Making cost-of-manufacturing estimates during the early stages of a project
  • 21.4: Putting the costs together: Example problems
  • 21.5: Handling uncertainties during early project stages
  • 21.6: Combining costs with revenues to compute economic indicators
  • References
  • Chapter 22: Project management
  • Abstract
  • 22.1: Introduction
  • 22.2: The project engineering process
  • 22.3: Predictive tools
  • 22.4: Industries served by process engineers
  • 22.5: Process plant components
  • 22.6: Process safety and process engineering work flow
  • 22.7: Putting it all together with practical knowledge
  • 22.8: Engineering: In-house resources and EPC firms
  • 22.9: Project execution
  • Chapter 23: Decommissioning
  • Abstract
  • 23.1: Options for decommissioning
  • 23.2: How to begin decommissioning
  • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 462
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2022
  • Published: June 23, 2022
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128235027
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128236185

About the Editor

Barry A. Perlmutter

Barry A. Perlmutter is President of Perlmutter & Idea Development LLC, P&ID. He has 40 years of technical engineering and business marketing experience in solid-liquid separation, filtration, centrifugation, and process drying. His skills focus on process solutions, innovation strategy and business development and market expansion. Barry has published and presented worldwide and is responsible for introducing many European technologies into the marketplace. He is an author of Elsevier’s “Solid-Liquid Filtration: Practical Guides in Chemical Engineering” and a new E-book “Framework for Selecting Automated Filtration Technologies for Clarification Applications .” Barry began his career with the US Environmental Protection Agency and then entered the world of solid-liquid separation at Pall Corporation. For eleven years, he continued at Rosenmund Inc. as VP of Engineering and Sales including Comber and Guedu Dryers and Ferrum Centrifuges. From the process industries, Barry joined Process Efficiency Products, now part of Amiad USA, as a Director of Marketing and Sales for the manufacturing of filtration, separation and adsorption technologies for cooling tower and HVAC water, process fluids, and water and wastewater treatment. He then became President & Managing Director of BHS-Filtration Inc. (BHS-Sonthofen Inc.) where he grew the filtration, drying, mixing and recycling business of BHS for more than 20 years including the integration of AVA GmbH dryers. His current company, P&ID, allows Barry to provide consulting services for process and project development with operating companies and business development, marketing & sales strategies for process technology suppliers. He received a BS degree in Chemistry from Albany State (NY) University, MS degree from the School of Engineering at Washington University, St. Louis and an MBA from the University of Illinois, Chicago.

Affiliations and Expertise

President of Perlmutter & Idea Development LLC., North Carolina, U.S.A.

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