Instrumentation Systems

Instrumentation Systems

Flight Testing

2nd Edition - January 1, 1959

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  • Editor: Enoch J. Durbin
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483222318

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Flight Testing, Volume IV: Instrumentation Systems serves as a guide to flight test instrumentation systems for establishing flight test programs. This book provides aircraft flight testers with the information required to appreciate the capabilities and limitations of the instrumentation techniques, indicating some of the many alternatives possible in flight instrumentation. It considers the systems concept in planning flight test instrumentation and functional organization of the component parts of an instrumentation system, followed by a discussion of the components of a flight data acquisition and reduction system that are organized into functional categories. Within these categories, a comparison is made between the various data collection systems and data reducing systems. The similarities, advantages, and limitations of each type of system component and significance of the fundamental properties of each device are also noted in this volume. This compilation is written primarily for persons not well-trained in electronics with special emphasis toward promoting the systems point of view in considering the problems of measurement in flight.

Table of Contents

  • Preface



    Part I Introduction

    IA The Systems Concept in Planning Flight Test Instrumentation

    IA:1 Introduction

    IA:2 Systems Planning

    IB The Functional Organization of the Component Parts of an Instrumentation System

    IB:1 Introduction

    IB:2 Functional Categories

    IB:3 Typical Systems

    Part II Data Collection

    IIA Sensing and Transducing Techniques

    IIA1 Characteristics of Measuring Instruments

    IIA1:1 Summary

    IIA1:2 The Operation of Measurement

    IIA2 Dynamic Response of Instrument Systems

    IIA2:1 Introduction

    IIA2:2 The Response of a Linear System to a Sinusoidal Input

    I1A2:3 The Response of a Linear System to an Arbitrary Input

    IIA2:4 Choice of Instrument Dynamic Response for a Particular Measurement

    IIA2:5 Nonlinear Effects in Measuring Systems

    IIA2:6 Methods of Proving Damping Proportional to Velocity

    IIA2:7 Methods for Determining Dynamic Response


    IIA3 Displacement Measurement as the Basis of Transducing Techniques

    IIA3:1 Introduction

    IIA3:2 Mechanical and Optical Methods of Deflection Transmission

    IIA3:3 Electrical Transducers

    IIA3:4 Electrical Axes without Amplifiers

    IIA3:5 Servo Systems


    IIA4 Temperature Sensing Techniques

    IIA4:1 Introduction

    IIA4:2 Temperature Sensing Devices Used in Flight Testing

    IIA4:3 Thermometer Applications in Flight Testing

    IIA4:4 Dynamic Response of Thermometers

    IIA4:5 Calibration Methods


    IIA5 Pressure Sensing Techniques

    IIA5:1 Introduction

    IIA5:2 Pressure Measuring Devices

    IIA5:3 The Measurement of Static and Total Pressures

    IIA5:4 System Response to Changing Pressures

    IIA5:5 Calibration Methods


    IIA6 Acceleration and Vibration Sensing Techniques

    IIA6:1 Relative and Absolute Vibration Measuring Instruments

    IIA6:2 Absolute Vibration Instruments for Use in Structural Research

    IIA6:3 Instruments for Measuring Accelerations in Aeronautical Measurement

    IIA6:4 Statistical Accelerometers for Fatigue Research

    IIA6:5 Angular Accelerometers

    IIA6:6 Calibration Methods


    IIA7 Force and Strain Sensing Techniques

    IIA7:1 Introduction

    IIA7:2 Comparison of Inductive, Capacitive, and Resistive Gaging

    IIA7:3 The Bonded Wire Resistance Strain Gage

    IIA7.4 Unbonded Strain Gages


    IIA8 Attitude Sensing Techniques

    IIA8:1 Introduction

    IIA8:2 Measurement of Angular Position Relative to the Earth


    IIA9 Fluid Flow Sensing Techniques

    IIA9:1 Introduction

    IIA9:2 Bernoulli Equation

    IIA9:3 Direct Velocity Measurement

    IIA9:4 Direct Mass Flow Measurements

    IIA9:5 Summary


    IIA10 Atmospheric Water Vapor and Icing Sensing Techniques

    IIA10: 1 Introduction

    IIA10:2 Definitions and Units

    IIA10:3 Measuring Techniques

    IIA10:4 Calibration Techniques


    IIA11 Airflow Direction and Character Sensing Techniques

    IIA11:1 Airflow Direction Sensing

    IIA11:2 Assessment of Flow Quality


    IIA12 Tachometry

    IIA13 The Techniques for Sensing Combustible Gases and Vapors

    IIA13:1 Introduction

    IIA13:2 Limits of Inflammability of Combustible Gases in Air

    IIA13:3 Experimental Determination of Inflammability Limits

    IIA13:4 Correlation of Inflammability Limits

    IIA13:5 Methods of Sensing and Transducing Inflammable Gases

    IIA13:6 Catalytic Combustion

    IIA13:7 The Nature of the Catalytic Effect

    IIA13:8 Catalyst Poisoning

    IIA13:9 Systems Utilizing the Change in Resistance of a Heated Filament

    IIA13:10 Temperature Compensation

    IIA13:11 Pressure Compensation

    IIA13:12 Other Systems Employing a Catalytic Filament

    IIA13:13 Conclusions


    IIA14 Techniques for Making Instrumentation Equipment and Installation in Airplanes Safe in the Presence of Combustible Atmospheres

    IIA14:1 Introduction

    IIA14:2 Categories of Equipment That Must be Used in Potentially Hazardous Areas

    IIA14:3 Explosive Environments

    IIA14:4 Tests for Ascertaining the Safety of Equipment

    IIA14:5 Techniques for Making Equipment Safe in Hazardous Areas

    IIA14:6 Conclusion


    IIA15 Thrust Sensing and Transducing Techniques

    IIA15:1 Introduction

    IIA15:2 Determination of Effective Thrust

    IIA15:3 Thrust Calculation

    IIA15:4 Measuring Thrust of an Engine Pod

    IIA15:5 Visual Cockpit Thrust Indicators

    IIA15:6 Optimum Cruise Control

    IIA15:7 Accuracy of Measurement

    IIA15:8 Summary



    IIB Signal Modifiers

    IIB:1 Introduction

    IIB:2 Conversion of the Output of a Transducer into a Voltage or Current

    IIB:3 Prerecording Computation

    IIB:4 Amplification

    IIB:5 Amplifier Power Supplies

    IIB:6 Multichannel Instruments

    IIB:7 Electrical Filters and Equalizing Networks

    IIB:8 Electrical Integration and Differentiation

    IIB:9 General Characteristics and Performance



    IIC Radio Link Systems

    IIC1 Telemetry

    IIC1:1 Introduction

    IIC1:2 Flight Test Applications of Radio Telemetering

    IIC1:3 General Analyses of Telemetering Systems

    IIC1:4 Typical Applications

    IIC1:5 Typical Operational Problems

    IIC1:6 Evaluation


    IIC2 French Telemetering Systems

    IIC2:1 Introduction

    IIC2:2 The ONERA Telemeter

    IIC2:3 The SFENA Telemeter

    IIC2:4 The TURCK Telemeter

    IIC2:5 The DEFA-APX Telemeter

    IIC2:6 ONERA Telemeter with Large Band Width

    IIC2:7 SEXTA Remote Control Apparatus


    IID Recorders

    IID:1 Graphic Methods

    IID:2 Photographic Methods

    IID:3 Electric Methods

    IID:4 Methods of Semirecorders

    IIE Ground Tracking Systems for Determining Position and Velocity

    IIE:1 Introduction

    IIE:2 Direct Timing Methods

    IIE:3 Photographic Methods

    IIE:4 Radio Methods


    Part III Data Reduction Systems

    IIIA Introduction to Data Reduction Systems

    IIIA:1 Introduction and Fundamental Precepts

    IIIA:2 Processing Equipment

    IIIA:3 Computers

    IIIA:4 Special Techniques and Problems


    IIIB The Role of the Digital Computer in Aeronautical Research and Development

    IIIB:1 The Stored-Program Digital Computer

    IIIB:2 Order Modification

    IIIB:3 What Computers Can Do, and When They Should be Used

    IIIB:4 Typical Applications

    IIIB:5 How a Computer Solves a Problem

    IIIB:6 A Data-Reduction Example

    IIIB:7 One or Many

    IIIB:8 Communication Difficulties

    IIIB:9 Logical Computing Systems

    IIIB:10 Characteristics of Commercially Available Machines

    IIIB:11 Personnel Requirements

    IIIB:12 Conclusions


    Part IV Data Analysis

    IVA Systematic Errors

    IVA:1 Introduction

    IVA:2 Static Errors

    IVA:3 Dynamic Errors

    IVC Power Spectral Methods of Analysis and their Application to Problems in Airplane Dynamics

    IVC:1 Introduction

    IVC:2 Response Determination for Arbitrary Disturbances

    IVC:3 Random Processes

    IVC:4 The Measurement of Power Spectra

    IVC:5 Applications



Product details

  • No. of pages: 520
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Pergamon 1959
  • Published: January 1, 1959
  • Imprint: Pergamon
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483222318

About the Editor

Enoch J. Durbin

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