Insect Ecology

Insect Ecology

An Ecosystem Approach

2nd Edition - February 27, 2006

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  • Authors: Timothy Schowalter, Timothy Schowalter
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080508818

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Description

Dr. Timothy Schowalter has succeeded in creating a unique, updated treatment of insect ecology. This revised and expanded text looks at how insects adapt to environmental conditions while maintaining the ability to substantially alter their environment. It covers a range of topics- from individual insects that respond to local changes in the environment and affect resource distribution, to entire insect communities that have the capacity to modify ecosystem conditions.Insect Ecology, Second Edition, synthesizes the latest research in the field and has been produced in full color throughout. It is ideal for students in both entomology and ecology-focused programs.

Key Features

NEW TO THIS EDITION:

* New topics such as elemental defense by plants, chaotic models, molecular methods to measure disperson, food web relationships, and more

* Expanded sections on plant defenses, insect learning, evolutionary tradeoffs, conservation biology and more

* Includes more than 350 new references

* More than 40 new full-color figures

Readership

Natural resource managers and environmental policy-makers, as well as students and instructors of insect ecology.

Table of Contents

  • Chapter 1. Overview
    I. Scope of Insect Ecology
    II. Ecosystem Ecology
    A. Ecosystem Complexity
    B. The Hierarchy of Subsystems
    C. Regulation
    III. Environmental Change and Disturbance
    IV. Ecosystem Approach to Insect Ecology
    V. Scope of This Book

    SECTION I: Ecology of Individual Insects

    Chapter 2. Responses to Abiotic Conditions
    I. The Physical Template
    A. Biomes
    B. Environmental Variation
    C. Disturbances
    II. Surviving Variable Abiotic Conditions
    A. Thermoregulation
    B. Water Balance
    C. Air and Water Chemistry
    D. Other Abiotic Factors
    III. Factors Affecting Dispersal Behavior

    A. Life History Strategy
    B. Crowding
    C. Nutritional Status
    D. Habitat and Resource Conditions
    E. Mechanism of Dispersal
    IV. Responses to Anthropogenic Changes
    V. Summary

    Chapter 3. Resource Acquisition
    I. Resource Quality
    A. Resource Requirements
    B. Variation in Food Quality
    C. Plant Chemical Defenses
    D. Arthropod Defenses
    E. Factors Affecting Expression of Defenses
    F. Mechanisms for Exploiting Variable Resources
    II. Resource Acceptability
    III. Resource Availability
    A. Foraging Strategies
    B. Orientation
    C. Learning
    IV. Summary

    Chapter 4. Resource Allocation
    I. Resource Budget
    II. Allocation of Assimilated Resources
    A. Resource Acquisition
    B. Mating Activity
    C. Reproductive and Social Behavior
    D. Competitive, Defensive and Mutualistic Behavior
    III. Efficiency of Resource Use
    A. Factors Affecting Efficiency
    B. Tradeoffs
    IV. Summary

    SECTION II: Population Ecology

    Chapter 5. Population Systems
    I. Population Structure
    A. Density
    B. Dispersion
    C. Metapopulation Structure
    D. Age Structure
    E. Sex Ratio
    F. Genetic Composition
    II. Population Processes
    A. Natality
    B. Mortality

    C. Dispersal
    III. Life History Characteristics
    IV. Parameter Estimation
    V. Summary

    Chapter 6. Population Dynamics
    I. Population Fluctuation
    II. Factors Affecting Population Size
    A. Density Independent Factors
    B. Density Dependent Factors
    C. Regulatory Mechanisms
    III. Models of Population Change
    A. Exponential and Geometric Models
    B. Logistic Model
    C. Complex Models
    D. Computerized Models
    E. Model Evaluation
    IV. Summary

    Chapter 7. Biogeography
    I. Geographic Distribution
    A. Global Patterns
    B. Regional Patterns
    C. Island Biogeography

    D. Landscape and Stream Continuum Patterns
    II. Spatial Dynamics of Populations
    A. Expanding Populations
    B. Metapopulation Dynamics
    III. Anthropogenic Effects on Spatial Dynamics
    A. Fragmentation
    B. Disturbances to Aquatic Ecosystems
    C. Species Introductions
    IV. Conservation Biology
    V. Models
    VI. Summary

    SECTION III: Community Ecology

    Chapter 8. Species Interactions
    I. Classes of Interactions
    A. Competition
    B. Predation
    C. Symbiosis
    II. Factors Affecting Interactions
    A. Abiotic Conditions
    B. Resource Availability and Distribution
    C. Indirect Effects of Other Species
    III. Consequences of Interactions

    A. Population Regulation
    B. Community Regulation
    IV. Summary

    Chapter 9. Community Structure
    I. Approaches to Describing Communities
    A. Species Diversity
    B. Species Interactions
    C. Functional Organization
    II. Patterns of Community Structure
    A. Global Patterns
    B. Biome and Landscape Patterns
    III. Determinants of Community Structure
    A. Habitat Area and Complexity
    B. Habitat Stability
    C. Resource Availability
    D. Species Interactions
    IV. Summary

    Chapter 10. Community Dynamics
    I. Short-term Change in Community Structure
    II. Successional Change in Community Structure
    A. Patterns of Succession
    B. Factors Affecting Succession

    C. Models of Succession
    III. Paleoecology
    IV. Diversity vs. Stability
    A. Components of Stability
    B. Stability of Community Variables
    V. Summary

    SECTION IV: Ecosystem Level

    Chapter 11. Ecosystem Structure and Function
    I. Ecosystem Structure
    A. Trophic Structure
    B. Spatial Variability
    II. Energy Flow
    A. Primary Productivity
    B. Secondary Productivity
    C. Energy Budets
    III. Biogeochemical Cycling
    A. Abiotic and Biotic Pools
    B. Major Cycles
    C. Factors Influencing Cycling Processes
    IV. Climate Modification
    V. Modeling
    VI. Summary


    Chapter 12. Herbivory
    I. Types and Patterns of Herbivory
    A. Herbivory Functional Groups
    B. Measurement of Herbivory
    C. Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Herbivory
    II. Effects of Herbivory
    A. Plant Productivity, Survival and Growth Form
    B. Community Dynamics
    C. Water and Nutrient Fluxes
    D. Effects on Climate and Disturbance Regime
    III. Summary

    Chapter 13. Pollination, Seed Predation and Seed Dispersal
    I. Mechanisms and Patterns of Pollination
    A. Mechanisms of Pollination
    B. Pollination Efficiency
    C. Patterns of Insect Pollination Among Ecosystems
    II. Effects of Pollination
    III. Mechanisms and Patterns of Seed Predation and Dispersal
    A. Mechanisms of Seed Predation and Dispersal
    B. Efficiency of Seed Production and Dispersal
    C. Patterns of Seed Mortality and Dispersal Among Ecosystems
    IV. Effects of Seed Predation and Dispersal

    V. Summary

    Chapter 14. Decomposition and Pedogenesis
    I. Types and Patterns of Detritivory and Burrowing
    A. Detritivore and Burrower Functional Groups
    B. Measurement of Detritivory, Burrowing and Decomposition Rates
    C. Spatial and Temporal Patterns in Processing of Organic Matter
    II. Effects of Detritivory and Burrowing
    A. Decomposition and Mineralization
    B. Soil Structure and Infiltration
    C. Primary Production and Vegetation Dynamics
    III. Summary

    Chapter 15. Insects as Regulators of Ecosystem Processes
    I. Development of the Concept
    II. Ecosystems as Cybernetic Systems
    A. Properties of Cybernetic Systems
    B. Ecosystem Homeostasis
    C. Definition of Stability
    D. Regulation of NPP by Biodiversity
    E. Regulation of NPP by Insects
    IV. Summary

    SECTION V: Synthesis

    Chapter 16. Synthesis
    I. Summary
    II. Synthesis
    III. Applications
    A. Management of Crop, Forest, and Urban “Pests”
    B. Conservation/restoration Ecology
    C. Indicators of Environmental Conditions
    IV. Critical Issues
    V. Conclusions

    Bibliography
    I. Summary
    II. Synthesis
    III. Applications
    A. Management of Crop, Forest, and Urban “Pests”
    B. Conservation/restoration Ecology
    C. Indicators of Environmental Conditions
    IV. Critical Issues
    V. Conclusions
    Bibliography

Product details

  • No. of pages: 576
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2006
  • Published: February 27, 2006
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080508818

About the Authors

Timothy Schowalter

Timothy D. Schowalter received his Ph.D. degree in Entomology from the University of Georgia in 1979. He is currently a Professor of Entomology at Louisiana State University, where he also served as the department head until 2015. Previously, he was a professor of entomology at Oregon State University, Corvallis. Dr. Schowalter served as Program Director for Integrative and Theoretical Ecology at the National Science Foundation, where he was involved in developing global change and terrestrial ecosystem research initiatives at the federal level. He also served as a U.S. delegate to international conventions to develop collaboration between U.S. Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) sites and long-term sites in Hungary and East Asia and the Pacific.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor of Entomology, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA

Timothy Schowalter

Timothy D. Schowalter received his Ph.D. degree in Entomology from the University of Georgia in 1979. He is currently a Professor of Entomology at Louisiana State University, where he also served as the department head until 2015. Previously, he was a professor of entomology at Oregon State University, Corvallis. Dr. Schowalter served as Program Director for Integrative and Theoretical Ecology at the National Science Foundation, where he was involved in developing global change and terrestrial ecosystem research initiatives at the federal level. He also served as a U.S. delegate to international conventions to develop collaboration between U.S. Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) sites and long-term sites in Hungary and East Asia and the Pacific.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor of Entomology, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA

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