Insect Colonization and Mass Production

Insect Colonization and Mass Production

1st Edition - January 1, 1966

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  • Editor: Carroll Smith
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323144117

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Insect Colonization and Mass Production reviews the great strides that have been made in the colonization and mass production of insects, including the methods used in rearing representative species and the general principles of nutrition and management that can be applied to the colonization of other species. The book highlights some of the notable successes in mass production and some examples of groups in which the difficulties inherent in laboratory rearing have not yet been overcome. Organized into five sections encompassing 39 chapters, this book begins with an overview of research in entomology that is facilitated by the availability of thriving insect colonies, along with the possibility of controlling insects directly by utilizing the insects, themselves, or by utilizing products derived from insects. Each chapter contains some historical background, as well as a description of the most efficient methods of production. Some chapters are concerned with only a single species, serving as an example of its taxonomic group, and to a lesser extent of other insects with similar nutritional and environmental requirements. Other chapters discuss rearing methods for entire groups of species that share common requirements. Insects covered by the book range from lice and ticks to fleas, flies, moths, yellow fever mosquitoes, and different species of worms. This book will be of interest to entomologists as well as students involved in insect physiology, behavior, and genetics.

Table of Contents

  • List of Contributors


    1. Introduction

    I. Use of Insect Colonies to Facilitate Research in Entomology

    II. Use of Colonized Insects to Develop Methods of Control

    III. Mass Rearing of Insects for Use in Control

    IV. Conclusions

    Section A. Animal Parasites and Haematophagous Arthropods

    2. Body Lice

    II. Introduction

    III. General Conditions of Maintenance

    IIII. Methods of Feeding

    IIV. Starting Colonies from Wild Lice


    3. Parasitic Mites

    I. Basic Principles

    II. Basic Methods

    III. Specific Examples with Bionomic Data


    4. Ticks

    I. Introduction

    II. Rearing Room

    III. Source of Tick Material

    IV. Selection of Hosts

    V. Maintenance of Parasitic Stages

    VI. Maintenance of Free-Living Stages

    VII. Artificial Feeding

    VIII. Selected Examples of Rearing


    5. Rat Fleas

    I. Laboratory Rearing of Fleas

    II. Materials and Methods for Rearing Fleas

    III. Factors Affecting Production of Fleas

    IV. Need for Vigilance against Contamination of Cultures


    6. Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say

    I. Introduction

    II. Source of Insects

    III. Rearing Room

    IV. Care of the Adults

    V. Collection of Eggs

    VI. Care of the Larvae

    VII. Care of the Pupae

    VIII. Discussion


    7. Culex pipiens fatigans Wied.

    I. Introduction

    II. Colonies for General Purposes

    III. Maintaining Colonies for High Variability in Stock

    IV. Maintenance of Pure Strains for Genetic Studies

    V. Mass Rearing


    8. Culicoides Biting Midges

    I. Introduction

    II. History

    III. General Considerations for Colonization

    IV. Colonization Procedures


    9. Black Flies

    I. Introduction

    II. Initiating Cultures with Material from Larval Habitats

    III. Laboratory-Rearing Techniques

    IV. The Initiation of Simulium Cultures from Eggs

    V. Physiological Activity in Confinement

    VI. Discussion


    10. Stable Flies

    I. Introduction

    II. Rearing Conditions

    III. Adult Care

    IV. Collection and Handling of Eggs

    V. Larval Rearing

    VI. Separation and Care of Pupae

    VII. Life Cycle


    11. Tsetse Flies

    I. Introduction

    II. Implications of the Reproductive Physiology

    III. Techniques

    IV. Conclusions


    12. Bed Bugs

    I. Introduction

    II. Rearing and Feeding Chambers

    III. Repository Materials and Egg Collections

    IV. Nutritional Requirements and Rearing Environments

    V. Laboratory Host Animals

    VI. Discussion


    13. Reduviid Bugs

    I. Laboratory Culture of Triatominae

    II. Laboratory Culture of Predaceous Reduviidae


    Section B. Domestic and Stored Product Insects

    14. House Flies

    I. Introduction

    II. Rearing and Handling Laboratory Colonies

    III. Some Variations and Comments

    IV. Rearing from Single Pairs and Small Groups

    V. Mass Culture


    15. Cockroaches

    I. Introduction

    II. General Requirements

    III. Rearing Procedure for Periplaneta americana (L.)

    IV. Rearing Procedure for Blattella germanica (L.)

    V. Procedures Used for Other Species

    VI. Parasites

    VII. Methods Used to Handle Cockroaches


    16. Coleoptera Infesting Stored Products

    I. Introduction

    II. Internal Feeders

    III. External Feeders


    17. Lepidoptera Infesting Stored Products

    I. Nutritional Requirements

    II. Rearing Media

    III. Obtaining Culture Stocks

    IV. Rearing Chambers

    V. Rearing Containers

    VI. Seeding with Adults

    VII. Seeding with Eggs

    VIII. Seeding with Larvae

    IX. Seeding with Pupae

    X. Life History

    XI. Rearing Precautions


    Section C. Phytophagous Insects and Mites

    18. Defined Diets for Phytophagous Insects

    I. Introduction

    II. Definition of Defined Diet

    III. Chemical, Physical, and Biological Requirements for Feeding

    IV. Composition of Diets

    V. Preparation of Diets and Rearing Procedures

    VI. Nutritional Requirements for Growth

    VII. Reproduction

    VIII. Nutrient Reserves

    IX. Conclusion


    19. Southern Pine Beetles



    20. Grasshoppers

    I. Introduction

    II. Literature Review

    III. Equipment

    IV. Methods

    V. Desirable Species for Colonization


    21. European Corn Borer

    I. Introduction

    II. Artificial Diet

    III. Handling of Larvae

    IV. Handling of Pupae

    V. Handling Adults

    VI. Handling Egg Masses

    VII. Disease Prevention

    VIII. Diapause

    IX. Laboratory Colony


    22. Codling Moths

    I. Introduction

    II. Methods of Collection

    III. The Green Apple Method of Rearing

    IV. Mass Rearing

    V. Semisynthetic Diets for Colonizing Codling Moths


    23. Pink Bollworms

    I. General Biology

    II. Review of Literature on Artificial Diets

    III. Mass Rearing Procedure

    IV. Automation and Mass Rearing


    24. Corn Rootworms

    I. Introduction

    II. Rearing of the Southern Corn Rootworm

    III. Rearing of the Western and Northern Corn Rootworm


    25. False Wireworms

    I. Introduction

    II. Rearing of Eleodes suturalis

    III. Rearing of Other False Wireworms


    26. Aegeriidae, with Special Reference to the Peach Tree Borer

    I. Biological Characteristics of the Family

    II. Economic Importance of the Family

    III. Problems in Colonization

    IV. Colonization of the Peach Tree Borer


    27. Boll Weevils

    I. Egg Production

    II. Larval Diets and Rearing

    III. Problems in Mass Rearing


    28. Wheat Stem Sawflies

    I. Rearing Wheat Stem Sawfly Larvae on Artificial Media

    II. Rearing Adults from Infested Stubble


    29. Lygus Bugs

    I. Food and Oviposition Medium

    II. Collection and Maintenance of Cultures


    30. Aphids

    I. Introduction

    II. General Biology and Methods

    III. Colonizing Some Common Species


    31. Phytophagous Mites

    I. Introduction

    II. Establishing the Colony


    32. Coneworms

    I. Rearing Method for Dioryctria abietella

    II. Rearing Method for Dioryctria amatella


    33. Cabbage Loopers

    I. Introduction

    II. Laboratory Sanitation

    III. Factors Affecting Oviposition

    IV. Handling Eggs

    V. Larval Rearing

    VI. Handling Pupae and Imagos

    VII. Production Costs


    34. Tobacco Hornworms

    I. Introduction

    II. Mating and Oviposition

    III. Feeding Requirements

    IV. Collection of Larvae, Pupation, Storage of Pupae, Emergence

    V. Conclusion


    Section D. Insect Parasites, Predators, and Pathogens

    35. Insect Parasites and Predators

    I. Introduction

    II. Mass Liberations

    III. Establishment of Exotic Species

    IV. Methods of Mass Production


    36. Insect Viruses

    I. Introduction

    II. Possible Methods of Insect Virus Production

    III. Semisynthetic Diet Used to Rear Heliothis and Trichoplusia

    IV. Microbial Contamination

    V. Production of the Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus of Heliothis

    VI. Production of the Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus of Trichoplusia ni

    VII. Virus Purification, Standardization, and Storage

    VIII. Application to Other Insect Viruses

    Appendix A: Costs and Sources of Diet Ingredients

    Appendix B: Equipment Used in Heliothis Program

    Appendix C: Equipment Used in Trichoplusia Program


    Section E. Insects by the Million

    37. Screw-Worms

    I. Introduction

    II. Distribution

    III. Biology

    IV. Colonization of Wild Strains

    V. Genetic Selection

    VI. Diseases, Parasites, and Predators

    VII. Mass Production, Irradiation, and Release Procedures for the Southeastern and Southwestern (United States) Screw-Worm Eradication Programs

    VIII. Nutritional Requirements


    38. Tephritid Fruit Flies

    I. Introduction

    II. Some Important Biological and Ecological Parameters in Laboratory and Field

    III. Practical Mass Production Procedures, Formulas, and Facilities

    IV. Production Costs


    39. Yellow Fever Mosquitoes

    I. Introduction

    II. Procedures

    III. Discussion


    Author Index

    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 640
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1966
  • Published: January 1, 1966
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323144117

About the Editor

Carroll Smith

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