Insect Colonization and Mass Production - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123956019, 9780323144117

Insect Colonization and Mass Production

1st Edition

Editors: Carroll Smith
eBook ISBN: 9780323144117
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1966
Page Count: 640
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Insect Colonization and Mass Production reviews the great strides that have been made in the colonization and mass production of insects, including the methods used in rearing representative species and the general principles of nutrition and management that can be applied to the colonization of other species. The book highlights some of the notable successes in mass production and some examples of groups in which the difficulties inherent in laboratory rearing have not yet been overcome. Organized into five sections encompassing 39 chapters, this book begins with an overview of research in entomology that is facilitated by the availability of thriving insect colonies, along with the possibility of controlling insects directly by utilizing the insects, themselves, or by utilizing products derived from insects. Each chapter contains some historical background, as well as a description of the most efficient methods of production. Some chapters are concerned with only a single species, serving as an example of its taxonomic group, and to a lesser extent of other insects with similar nutritional and environmental requirements. Other chapters discuss rearing methods for entire groups of species that share common requirements. Insects covered by the book range from lice and ticks to fleas, flies, moths, yellow fever mosquitoes, and different species of worms. This book will be of interest to entomologists as well as students involved in insect physiology, behavior, and genetics.

Table of Contents

List of Contributors


1. Introduction

I. Use of Insect Colonies to Facilitate Research in Entomology

II. Use of Colonized Insects to Develop Methods of Control

III. Mass Rearing of Insects for Use in Control

IV. Conclusions

Section A. Animal Parasites and Haematophagous Arthropods

2. Body Lice

II. Introduction

III. General Conditions of Maintenance

IIII. Methods of Feeding

IIV. Starting Colonies from Wild Lice


3. Parasitic Mites

I. Basic Principles

II. Basic Methods

III. Specific Examples with Bionomic Data


4. Ticks

I. Introduction

II. Rearing Room

III. Source of Tick Material

IV. Selection of Hosts

V. Maintenance of Parasitic Stages

VI. Maintenance of Free-Living Stages

VII. Artificial Feeding

VIII. Selected Examples of Rearing


5. Rat Fleas

I. Laboratory Rearing of Fleas

II. Materials and Methods for Rearing Fleas

III. Factors Affecting Production of Fleas

IV. Need for Vigilance against Contamination of Cultures


6. Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say

I. Introduction

II. Source of Insects

III. Rearing Room

IV. Care of the Adults

V. Collection of Eggs

VI. Care of the Larvae

VII. Care of the Pupae

VIII. Discussion


7. Culex pipiens fatigans Wied.

I. Introduction

II. Colonies for General Purposes

III. Maintaining Colonies for High Variability in Stock

IV. Maintenance of Pure Strains for Genetic Studies

V. Mass Rearing


8. Culicoides Biting Midges

I. Introduction

II. History

III. General Considerations for Colonization

IV. Colonization Procedures


9. Black Flies

I. Introduction

II. Initiating Cultures with Material from Larval Habitats

III. Laboratory-Rearing Techniques

IV. The Initiation of Simulium Cultures from Eggs

V. Physiological Activity in Confinement

VI. Discussion


10. Stable Flies

I. Introduction

II. Rearing Conditions

III. Adult Care

IV. Collection and Handling of Eggs

V. Larval Rearing

VI. Separation and Care of Pupae

VII. Life Cycle


11. Tsetse Flies

I. Introduction

II. Implications of the Reproductive Physiology

III. Techniques

IV. Conclusions


12. Bed Bugs

I. Introduction

II. Rearing and Feeding Chambers

III. Repository Materials and Egg Collections

IV. Nutritional Requirements and Rearing Environments

V. Laboratory Host Animals

VI. Discussion


13. Reduviid Bugs

I. Laboratory Culture of Triatominae

II. Laboratory Culture of Predaceous Reduviidae


Section B. Domestic and Stored Product Insects

14. House Flies

I. Introduction

II. Rearing and Handling Laboratory Colonies

III. Some Variations and Comments

IV. Rearing from Single Pairs and Small Groups

V. Mass Culture


15. Cockroaches

I. Introduction

II. General Requirements

III. Rearing Procedure for Periplaneta americana (L.)

IV. Rearing Procedure for Blattella germanica (L.)

V. Procedures Used for Other Species

VI. Parasites

VII. Methods Used to Handle Cockroaches


16. Coleoptera Infesting Stored Products

I. Introduction

II. Internal Feeders

III. External Feeders


17. Lepidoptera Infesting Stored Products

I. Nutritional Requirements

II. Rearing Media

III. Obtaining Culture Stocks

IV. Rearing Chambers

V. Rearing Containers

VI. Seeding with Adults

VII. Seeding with Eggs

VIII. Seeding with Larvae

IX. Seeding with Pupae

X. Life History

XI. Rearing Precautions


Section C. Phytophagous Insects and Mites

18. Defined Diets for Phytophagous Insects

I. Introduction

II. Definition of Defined Diet

III. Chemical, Physical, and Biological Requirements for Feeding

IV. Composition of Diets

V. Preparation of Diets and Rearing Procedures

VI. Nutritional Requirements for Growth

VII. Reproduction

VIII. Nutrient Reserves

IX. Conclusion


19. Southern Pine Beetles



20. Grasshoppers

I. Introduction

II. Literature Review

III. Equipment

IV. Methods

V. Desirable Species for Colonization


21. European Corn Borer

I. Introduction

II. Artificial Diet

III. Handling of Larvae

IV. Handling of Pupae

V. Handling Adults

VI. Handling Egg Masses

VII. Disease Prevention

VIII. Diapause

IX. Laboratory Colony


22. Codling Moths

I. Introduction

II. Methods of Collection

III. The Green Apple Method of Rearing

IV. Mass Rearing

V. Semisynthetic Diets for Colonizing Codling Moths


23. Pink Bollworms

I. General Biology

II. Review of Literature on Artificial Diets

III. Mass Rearing Procedure

IV. Automation and Mass Rearing


24. Corn Rootworms

I. Introduction

II. Rearing of the Southern Corn Rootworm

III. Rearing of the Western and Northern Corn Rootworm


25. False Wireworms

I. Introduction

II. Rearing of Eleodes suturalis

III. Rearing of Other False Wireworms


26. Aegeriidae, with Special Reference to the Peach Tree Borer

I. Biological Characteristics of the Family

II. Economic Importance of the Family

III. Problems in Colonization

IV. Colonization of the Peach Tree Borer


27. Boll Weevils

I. Egg Production

II. Larval Diets and Rearing

III. Problems in Mass Rearing


28. Wheat Stem Sawflies

I. Rearing Wheat Stem Sawfly Larvae on Artificial Media

II. Rearing Adults from Infested Stubble


29. Lygus Bugs

I. Food and Oviposition Medium

II. Collection and Maintenance of Cultures


30. Aphids

I. Introduction

II. General Biology and Methods

III. Colonizing Some Common Species


31. Phytophagous Mites

I. Introduction

II. Establishing the Colony


32. Coneworms

I. Rearing Method for Dioryctria abietella

II. Rearing Method for Dioryctria amatella


33. Cabbage Loopers

I. Introduction

II. Laboratory Sanitation

III. Factors Affecting Oviposition

IV. Handling Eggs

V. Larval Rearing

VI. Handling Pupae and Imagos

VII. Production Costs


34. Tobacco Hornworms

I. Introduction

II. Mating and Oviposition

III. Feeding Requirements

IV. Collection of Larvae, Pupation, Storage of Pupae, Emergence

V. Conclusion


Section D. Insect Parasites, Predators, and Pathogens

35. Insect Parasites and Predators

I. Introduction

II. Mass Liberations

III. Establishment of Exotic Species

IV. Methods of Mass Production


36. Insect Viruses

I. Introduction

II. Possible Methods of Insect Virus Production

III. Semisynthetic Diet Used to Rear Heliothis and Trichoplusia

IV. Microbial Contamination

V. Production of the Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus of Heliothis

VI. Production of the Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus of Trichoplusia ni

VII. Virus Purification, Standardization, and Storage

VIII. Application to Other Insect Viruses

Appendix A: Costs and Sources of Diet Ingredients

Appendix B: Equipment Used in Heliothis Program

Appendix C: Equipment Used in Trichoplusia Program


Section E. Insects by the Million

37. Screw-Worms

I. Introduction

II. Distribution

III. Biology

IV. Colonization of Wild Strains

V. Genetic Selection

VI. Diseases, Parasites, and Predators

VII. Mass Production, Irradiation, and Release Procedures for the Southeastern and Southwestern (United States) Screw-Worm Eradication Programs

VIII. Nutritional Requirements


38. Tephritid Fruit Flies

I. Introduction

II. Some Important Biological and Ecological Parameters in Laboratory and Field

III. Practical Mass Production Procedures, Formulas, and Facilities

IV. Production Costs


39. Yellow Fever Mosquitoes

I. Introduction

II. Procedures

III. Discussion


Author Index

Subject Index


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© Academic Press 1966
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:

About the Editor

Carroll Smith

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