Inorganic Membranes: Synthesis, Characterization and Applications

Inorganic Membranes: Synthesis, Characterization and Applications

1st Edition - March 13, 2008

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  • Editors: Reyes Mallada, Miguel Menéndez
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780444530707
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080558004

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The withstanding properties of inorganic membranes provide a set of tools for solving many of the problems that the society is facing, from environmental to energy problems and from water quality to more competitive industries. Such a wide variety of issues requires a fundamental approach, together with the precise description of applications provided by those researchers that have been close to the industrial applications. The contents of this book expand the lectures given in a Summer School of the European Membrane Society. They combine an easily accessible description of the technology, suitable for the graduate level, with the most advanced developments and the prospective of future applications. The large variety of membrane types makes almost compulsory to select a specialist for each of them, and this has been the approach selected in this book. In the case of porous membranes, the advances are related to the synthesis of microporous materials such as silica, carbon and zeolite membranes and hollow fibre membranes. A chapter covers the increasingly relevant hybrid membranes. Attention is also devoted to dense inorganic membranes, experiencing constantly improved properties. The applications of all these membranes are considered throughout the book.

Key Features

  • Covers all the inorganic membranes field, by different experts
  • It comes from a European Summer School
  • It includes future directions in the field


Researchers, Students

Table of Contents

  • 1. Stability of porous ceramic membranes

    1. Introduction
    1.1. General considerations on porous ceramic membranes
    1.2. Stability of porous ceramic membranes
    2. Chemical Stability
    2.1. Background
    2.2. Experiments
    2.2.1. Membrane supports or macroporous membranes
    2.2.2. Mesoporous and microporous membranes
    3. Thermal Stability
    3.1. Background
    3.1.1. The sintering process
    3.1.2. Phase transformations
    3.1.3. Support
    3.2. Experiments
    3.2.1. Effect of the sintering process
    3.2.2. Effect of phase transformations
    3.2.3. Effect of the support
    3.2.4. Hydrothermal stability
    4. Resuming
    5. References

    2. Microporous silica membrane – basic principles and recent advances

    1. Introduction
    2. Specific properties of amorphous silica – comparison with other oxides
    3. Synthesis methods
    3.1. Sol-gel routes
    3.1.1. Conventional sol-gel routes
    3.1.2. Tailoring of the porosity in sol-gel derived membranes
    3.2. CVD routes
    3.2.1. Thermal CVD
    3.2.2. Plasma-enhanced CVD
    4. Design and performance of microporous silica membranes
    4.1. Silica membrane applications
    4.1.1. Pervaporation
    4.1.2. Gas separation
    4.2. Gas transport in almost dense silica membranes
    4.3. Membrane supports and intermediate layers
    4.4. Thermal stability of silica membranes on steam
    5. Conclusion
    6. References

    3. From polymeric precursors to hollow fibre carbon and ceramic membranes

    General introduction
    1. Part 1: Polymeric precursors of hollow fibre carbon membranes
    1.1. Introduction
    1.2. Preparation of carbon membranes-A general process
    1.3. Precursor Selection
    1.4. Preparation of carbon hollow fibre membrane
    1.4.1. Preparation of hollow fibre membrane
    1.4.2. Stabilization Process
    1.5. Pyrolysis process
    1.6. Post treatment
    2. Part 2: Polymeric precursors of hollow fibre ceramic membranes
    2.1. Introduction
    2.2. Preparation of spinning suspension
    2.3. Spinning of ceramic hollow fibre precursors
    2.4. Sintering
    2.5. Example: Preparation of porous Al2O3 hollow fibre membranes
    3. References

    4. Organic-inorganic membranes
    1. Introduction
    2. Polymers with impermeable fillers
    2.1. Effect of the aspect ratio
    2.2. Effect of the surface chemistry
    2.2.1. Acidity
    2.2.2. Solubility / leaching out
    2.2.3. Adhesion
    2.3. Effect of the free volume
    3. Polymers with permeable filler: Mixed matrix membranes
    4. Organic-inorganic covalent network
    5. References

    5. Preparation and characterization of zeolite membranes

    1. Introduction
    1.1. What is different in a zeolite membrane?
    1.2. New zeolitic membrane materials
    1.3. Commercial aspects

    2. Preparation of zeolite membranes by in situ liquid-phase hydrothermal synthesis
    2.1. Previous aspects
    2.2. The method
    3. Preparation of zeolite membranes by secondary (seeded) growth
    4. Preparation of membranes by the dry gel method
    5. Special issues
    5.1. Influence of the support
    5.2. Calcination
    5.3. Post-treatments
    5.4. Zoned or two-layered zeolite membranes
    6. Characterization
    7. Application of zeolite membranes
    7.1. Separation of mixtures
    7.2. Zeolite membrane reactors
    7.3. Zeolitic microreactors
    7.4. Zeolite-based sensors
    8. References

    6. Industrial applications of porous ceramic membranes (pressure-driven processes)

    1. Introduction. Pressure-driven membrane processes
    2. Porous ceramic membranes used in pressure-driven filtration
    3. Industrial applications of ceramic membranes
    3.1. Chemical/Petrochemical industry
    3.2. Metal/Mechanical/Automotive
    3.2.1. Recovery of cleaning alkaline solutions (and removal of oils)
    3.2.2. Further processing of membrane concentrates from oil/water emulsion filtration
    3.3. Textile/Pulp and Paper/Tannery
    3.4. Biotechnology, Cosmetic and Pharmaceutical Industries
    3.5. Food and beverages
    3.5.1. Juices and Wine
    3.5.2. Sugars and starch
    3.5.3. Sanitary conditions
    3.5.4. Beer production
    3.5.5. Dairy Products
    4. Ceramic membrane applications in water and wastewater treatment
    4.1. Water management in industry
    4.2. Secondary and tertiary waste water treatment
    4.3. Membrane Bioreactors (MBR)
    5. References

    7. Pervaporation and gas separation using microporous membranes

    1. Introduction
    2. Types of microporous membranes
    2.1. Zeolite membranes
    2.2. Silica-based membranes
    3. Applications
    3.1. Gas separation
    3.2. Pervaporation
    4. Modelling of mass transport through microporous membranes
    5. Conclusions

    8. Synthesis, characterization and applications of palladium membranes

    1. Introduction
    2. Preparation of palladium-based membranes
    2.1. Dense palladium-based membranes
    2.2. Rolled Pd and Pd-Ag thin wall permeator tubes
    2.3. Palladium-based composite metal membranes
    2.4. Supported palladium-based membranes
    2.5. Laminated metal membranes
    2.6. Other studies on metal membranes
    2.7. Palladium-based composite porous membranes
    3. Characterization of palladium-based membranes
    3.1. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)
    3.2. X-Ray Diffraction analysis (XRD)
    3.3. Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) analysis and Energy Dispersion Spectrometry (XEDS)analysis
    3.4. Optical microscopy
    3.5. Gas permeation analysis
    4. Palladium membrane reactors
    4.1. A brief history on the development of membrane reactors
    4.2. Commercial and potential applications of palladium-based membrane reactors
    4.3. The role of the hydrogen gas
    4.4. High temperature membrane reactors
    4.5. Some case studies of membrane reactors in the literature
    5. Conclusions

    9. Mathematical modelling of Pd-alloy Membrane Reactors
    1. Introduction
    2. Pd and Pd-alloy membranes
    2.1. Elementary step of H2 permeation and Sievert’s law
    2.2. Literature data of H2 permeation
    2.3. Concentration polarization
    3. Thermodynamic equilibrium in Pd-alloy membrane reactor
    4. Models of Pd-alloy membrane reactors
    4.1. Mass balances
    4.1.1. Tubular membrane reactor
    4.1.2. Batch membrane reactor
    4.1.3. Continuous stirred tank membrane reactor
    4.2. Energy balances
    4.2.1. Tubular membrane reactor
    4.2.2. Batch membrane reactor
    4.2.3. Continuous stirred tank membrane reactor
    4.3. Literature models
    4.4. Isothermal model results of Pd-alloy MRS
    4.4.1. Tubular membrane reactor
    4.4.2. Continuous stirred tank membrane reactor
    4.5. Nonisothermal models of Pd-alloy mrs
    4.5.1. Tubular membrane reactor
    5. Acknowledgements
    6. List of symbols
    7. References

    10. Oxygen and Hydrogen separation membranes based on dense ceramic mixed conductors
    1. Introduction
    2. Theory
    2.1. Defects
    2.2. Diffusivity, Mobility and Conductivity; The Nernst-Einstein Relation
    2.3. Transport Theory for Dense Mixed Conducting Gas Separation Membranes - General Expressions
    2.4. From Charged to Well-Defined Species: The Electrochemical Equilibrium
    2.5. The Voltage Over a Sample
    2.6. Flux of a Particular Species
    2.7. Fluxes in a Mixed Proton, Oxygen Ion, and Electron Conductor
    2.8. Fluxes in a Mixed Proton and Electron Conductor
    2.9. Fluxes in a Mixed Proton and Oxygen Ion Conductor
    2.10. Fluxes in a Mixed Proton, Oxygen Ion, and Electron Conductor Revisited
    2.11. Permeation of Neutral Hydrogen Species
    2.12. Surface Kinetics issues in Mixed Conductors
    3. Materials properties
    3.1. Stability requirements
    3.1.1. Thermal stability
    3.1.2. Chemical stability
    2. A. CO2 stability
    2. B. Water vapour stability
    3.1.3. Kinetic stability
    3. A. Kinetic demixing
    3. B. Kinetic decomposition
    3. C. Microstructural instability
    3.1.4. Mechanical stability

    3.2. Classes of materials
    3.2.1. Oxygen separation membranes
    1. A. Fluorite based
    1. B. Perovskite based
    1. C. Bismuth based
    1. D. New possibilities
    3.2.2. Hydrogen separation membranes
    2. A. Perovskite based
    2. B. CaF2 related structures
    2. C. Pyrochlore based
    2. D. Monazite based
    2. E. Tungsten based
    2. F. Phosphate based
    2. G. Other possibilities
    3.3. Effects of the microstructure on the contribution of grain boundary
    4 Applications
    5 Challenges and prospects
    6 Conclusions

Product details

  • No. of pages: 480
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier Science 2008
  • Published: March 13, 2008
  • Imprint: Elsevier Science
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780444530707
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080558004

About the Editors

Reyes Mallada

Miguel Menéndez

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Zaragoza, Spain

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