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Innovative Neuromodulation - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128004548, 9780128005965

Innovative Neuromodulation

1st Edition

Editors: Jeffrey Arle Jay Shils
eBook ISBN: 9780128005965
Hardcover ISBN: 9780128004548
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 16th January 2017
Page Count: 340
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Innovative Neuromodulation serves as an extensive reference that includes a basic introduction to the relevant aspects of clinical neuromodulation that is followed by an in-depth discussion of the innovative surgical and therapeutic applications that currently exist or are in development.

This information is critical for neurosurgeons, neurophysiologists, bioengineers, and other proceduralists, providing a clear presentation of the frontiers of this exciting and medically important area of physiology. As neuromodulation remains an exciting and rapidly advancing field—appealing to many disciplines—the editors’ initial work (Essential Neuromodulation, 2011) is well complemented by this companion volume.

Key Features

  • Presents a comprehensive reference on the emerging field of neuromodulation that features chapters from leading physicians and researchers in the field
  • Provides commentary for perspectives on different technologies and interventions to heal and improve neurological deficits
  • Contains 300 full-color pages that begin with an overview of the clinical phases involved in neuromodulation, the challenges facing therapies and intraoperative procedures, and innovative solutions for better patient care


Neurosurgeons, neurophysiologists, neurologists, anesthesiologists, and interventional neuroradiologists

Table of Contents

  • Biographies
  • List of Contributors
  • Preface
  • Acknowledgments
  • Introduction—Opportunities and Challenges
    • References
  • Section I: Creativity Theory and Performing Artists
    • Chapter 1. Microarrays in the Brain: Can They Be Used for Brain–Machine Interface Control?
      • Abstract
      • Building a Brain–Machine Interface
      • The Architecture of a Brain–Machine Interface
      • What Does the Motor Cortex Do?
      • Low Performance Level and Limited Ability to Generalize
      • So the Answer to What the Motor Cortex Does Is…
      • Future Possibilities
      • Direct Control Versus Indirect Decoding
      • Concluding Remarks
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
    • Chapter 2. Feedback-Sensitive and Closed-Loop Solutions
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Cranial Nerve Electrical Stimulation for Seizure Control
      • Brain Stimulation for Epilepsy: Historical Perspective
      • Brain Stimulation In Vitro and In Vivo
      • Thalamic Brain Stimulation
      • Location of Brain Stimulation
      • Electrical Parameters for Brain Stimulation
      • Possible Mechanisms of Action
      • Closed-Loop Brain Stimulation
      • Clinical Applications
      • The RNS System: Pivotal and Long-Term Results
      • Seizure Prediction
      • Adverse Effects and Technical Challenges
      • Summary
      • References
    • Chapter 3. Directional Deep Brain Stimulation
      • Abstract
      • Deep Brain Stimulation Inhibits Neuronal Firing
      • DBS Hardware
      • Accurate DBS Lead Targeting and Placement is Critical for Success of the Therapy
      • Directional DBS Leads Confer Several Benefits
      • Directional DBS in Parkinson’s Disease and Essential Tremor
      • Directional DBS Clinical Proof of Concept
      • Application of Directional DBS to Other Diseases
      • References
    • Chapter 4. Waveform Variation in Neuromodulation
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Modifications of Traditional Waveform Parameters and Shapes
      • Deep Brain Stimulation
      • Spinal Cord Stimulation
      • Other Considerations
      • References
  • Section II: New Modes of Therapy
    • Chapter 5. Ultrasound Neuromodulation: A Chapter for Innovative Neuromodulation
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Physics of Ultrasound
      • Historical Perspective of Ultrasonic Neuromodulation
      • Experimental Cortical Neuromodulation
      • Neuromodulation of Visual-Evoked Potentials
      • Experimental Neuromodulation of Deep Cerebral Structures
      • Hippocampal Neuromodulation With Ultrasound
      • Cortical Neuromodulation in Large Animals and Humans
      • Mechanisms of Ultrasonic Neuromodulation
      • Clinical Applications of FUS Neuromodulation
      • Future Clinical Applications of FUS Neuromodulation
      • Conclusions
      • References
    • Chapter 6. Optogenetics
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Opsins
      • In Vivo Optogenetic Applications
      • Outlook: Nonhuman Primates and Human Tissue
      • References
    • Chapter 7. Introduction to Basic Mechanisms of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation
      • Basic Principles of Nerve Stimulation With Magnetic Pulses
      • Effect of TMS on Motor Cortex
      • I-Waves
      • TMS of Motor Cortex Excites Inhibitory as Well as Excitatory Neurons: Paired Pulse Evidence
      • Models
      • Synaptic Plasticity
      • References
    • Chapter 8. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation: From Historical Foundations to Future Directions
      • Abstract
      • History
      • Technical Aspects
      • Parameters of Stimulation
      • Safety
      • Clinical Application
      • Future Directions
      • Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 9. Viral Vectors and Other Modulatory Biologics
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Viral Vectors
      • Adenovirus
      • Adeno-Associated Virus
      • Herpes Simplex Virus
      • Lentivirus (Retrovirus)
      • Nonviral Vector-Mediated Gene Therapy
      • Viral-Mediated Neuromodulation and Gene Therapy for Neurological Disease
      • Parkinson Disease
      • Chronic Pain
      • Epilepsy
      • Psychiatric Disorders
      • Conclusions
      • References
  • Section III: Innovative Thinking
    • Chapter 10. Neuroprosthetic Advances
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • From an Electrophysiological “Brace” Toward a Neuroprosthetic Device
      • Neuroprosthetic Devices for Control of Movement via Peripheral Sensory Nerve Stimulation
      • Neuroprosthetic Devices Based on Spinal Cord Stimulation of Posterior Structures of the Spinal Cord
      • Neuroprosthesis for Motor Control Available Today
      • References
    • Chapter 11. Neuromodulation for Memory
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Validation of Hemispheric Encoding-Retrieval Asymmetry (HERA) Model
      • Motor Memory—Interhemispheric Competition Model
      • Recovery of Motor Memory After Stroke
      • Deep Brain Stimulation for Declarative Memory and Dementia
      • Optogenetic Isolation of Memory Engrams
      • Conclusion
      • Key Questions
      • References
    • Chapter 12. Deep Brain Stimulation for Vegetative State and Minimally Conscious State
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Patients and Methods
      • Results
      • Discussion and Conclusions
      • References
    • Chapter 13. Neuromodulation as a Bypass—Spinal Cord Injury
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Recording
      • Proof of Concept
      • Results
      • Discussion
      • Conclusion
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
    • Chapter 14. Neuromodulation for Psychiatric Disorders
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Accepted Indications
      • Experimental
      • Neuromodulation in Other Psychiatric Indications
      • Conclusion
      • References
  • Index


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© Academic Press 2017
16th January 2017
Academic Press
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About the Editors

Jeffrey Arle

Jeffrey Arle

Jeff Arle, MD, PhD, FAANS

Dr. Arle is currently the Associate Chief of Neurosurgery at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center in Boston, the Chief of Neurosurgery at Mt. Auburn Hospital in Cambridge, and an Associate Professor of Neurosurgery at Harvard Medical School. He received his BA in Biopsychology from Columbia University in 1986 and his MD and PhD from the University of Connecticut in 1992. His dissertation work for his doctorate in Biomedical Sciences was in computational modeling in the Cochlear Nucleus. He then went on to do a residency in neurosurgery at the University of Pennsylvania, incorporating a double fellowship in movement disorder surgery and epilepsy surgery under Drs. Patrick Kelly, Ron Alterman, and Werner Doyle, finishing in 1999.

He edited the companion text Essential Neuromodulation with Dr. Shils, the first edition published by Elsevier in 2011. He has now practiced in the field of functional neurosurgery for 17 years and is experienced in all areas of neuromodulation from deep brain stimulators to vagus nerve, spinal cord, peripheral nerve, and motor cortex stimulators, contributing frequent peer-reviewed publications and numerous chapters to the literature on many aspects of the neuromodulation field. He currently serves as an associate editor at the journals Neuromodulation and Neurosurgery, is the co-chair of the Research and Scientific Policy Committee for the International Neuromodulation Society, and is on the Board of Directors for the International Society for Intraoperative Neurophysiology. His longstanding research interests are in the area of computational modeling in the understanding and improved design of devices used in neuromodulation treatments.

Affiliations and Expertise

Associate Professor of Neurosurgery, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA

Jay Shils

Jay Shils

Jay L. Shils, Ph.D., D.ABNM, FASNM, FACNS is currently the director of intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring at Rush University Medical School and an Associate Professor in the department of Anesthesiology at Rush Medical Center. He received his Bachelor of Science degree in electrical engineering from Syracuse University, and both his masters and PhD in Bio-Engineering at The University of Pennsylvania using with his thesis dissertation subject – “The Bispectrum of the Human Electroencephalogram” to investigate interactions in the visual system and study EEG in epilepsy. Dr. Shils has been involved in intraoperative neuromonitoring since 1994 specializing in microelectrode neurophysiology for movement disorders. Dr. Shils is the co-editor of two neuromodulation related books which is one of his primary interests and the first edition of this book. Dr, Shils is a past president of the ASNM and the ISIN and is the founding secretary of the ISIN. Dr. Shils is the present secretary of the ASNM. Over the years Dr. Shils has presented at over 100 national and international has published on MER, DBS, neuromodulation, and intraoperative monitoring techniques.

Affiliations and Expertise

Director of Intraoperative Neurophysiological Monitoring and Associate Professor in Anesthesiology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA

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