Infrastructure and Methodologies for the Justification of Nuclear Power Programmes - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9781845699734, 9780857093776

Infrastructure and Methodologies for the Justification of Nuclear Power Programmes

1st Edition

Editors: Agustin Alonso
eBook ISBN: 9780857093776
Hardcover ISBN: 9781845699734
Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
Published Date: 19th January 2012
Page Count: 1024
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Table of Contents

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Woodhead Publishing Series in Energy

Chapter 1: Overview of infrastructure and methodologies for the justification of nuclear power programmes


1.1 The past, current and future phases in the development of nuclear power

1.2 The main factors shaping the deployment of nuclear power

1.3 The bases for the development of nuclear power

1.4 Conclusion

Part I: Infrastructure of nuclear power programmes

Chapter 2: The lifecycle of a nuclear power plant


2.1 Introduction

2.2 Overview of the complete nuclear fuel cycle

2.3 Overview of the nuclear power plant lifecycle

2.4 Requirements for new nuclear power plants

2.5 Sources of further information and advice

Chapter 3: The role of government in establishing the framework for nuclear power programmes


3.1 Introduction

3.2 Role of government in the justification process

3.3 International requirements

3.4 Knowledge management

3.5 Regulatory requirements

3.6 New entrants

3.7 Future trends

Chapter 4: Regulatory requirements and practices in nuclear power programmes


4.1 Introduction

4.2 Basic characteristics of regulatory organizations

4.3 Creation, authority, responsibilities and competence of the regulatory body

4.4 Development, functions and management system of the regulatory body

4.5 Development of the regulatory framework and approaches

4.6 The regulatory function: development of a regulatory pyramid

4.7 Development of the licensing process and major regulatory activities during the licensing process

4.8 The compliance function: verification and oversight during construction and operation

4.9 The enforcement function

4.10 Regulatory transparency and openness, and the relationship with the operating organization and other stakeholders

4.11 Regulatory support and research

4.12 Sources of further information and advice

Chapter 5: Responsibilities of the nuclear operator in nuclear power programmes


5.1 Introduction

5.2 The responsibilities of the nuclear operator

5.3 The means to enact responsibilities and enhance leadership effectiveness

5.4 Responsibilities of the operator in the lifecycle of a nuclear power plant

5.5 Importance of organisations for safe operation

5.6 Building and maintaining an operations organisation

5.7 Monitoring and evaluating organisational effectiveness

5.8 Maintaining organisations

5.9 Basis for safe operation

5.10 Engineering support and design authority

Chapter 6: The need for human resources in nuclear power programmes


6.1 Introduction

6.2 Human resource requirements of the nuclear stakeholders

6.3 High-level nuclear education programmes

6.4 Changing specialization requirements in the nuclear power plant lifecycle

6.5 International experience

6.6 Initial and sustained training programmes

6.7 Sources of further information and advice

Chapter 7: National technical capability development in nuclear power programmes


7.1 Introduction

7.2 Establishing the foundation for national technical development

7.3 Understanding the nuclear power plant (NPP) design

7.4 National participation in siting

7.5 National participation in design, equipment manufacture and construction

7.6 Plant commissioning

7.7 Plant operation

7.8 Longer-term operation and management

7.9 Decommissioning

7.11 Acknowledgements

Part II: Justification of nuclear power programmes

Chapter 8: Application of the justification principle to nuclear power development


8.1 Introduction

8.2 The ethics of the justification principle

8.3 The justification process

8.4 The terms of the justification equation

8.5 The benefits of nuclear energy

8.6 Risks and detriments of nuclear energy

8.7 Conclusions

Chapter 9: Available and advanced nuclear technologies for nuclear power programs


9.1 Introduction

9.2 Classification of advanced nuclear reactors

9.3 Key advances in technology

9.4 Advanced nuclear reactor designs

9.5 Non-electrical applications

9.6 Sources of further information and advice

Chapter 10: Nuclear safety in nuclear power programs


10.1 Introduction

Chapter 11: Radiation protection in nuclear power programmes


11.1 Introduction

11.2 Radiation doses

11.3 Biological effects of radiation

11.4 Attributability of risks and potential health effects to nuclear power plants (NPPs)

11.5 Radiation protection paradigm

11.6 Potential exposures

11.7 Radiation safety standards

11.8 Occupational protection at nuclear power plants (NPPs)

11.9 Public protection at nuclear power plants (NPPs): controlling discharges into the environment

Chapter 12: Emergency planning in nuclear power programmes


12.1 Introduction

12.2 Need for emergency planning as the last barrier of defence and mitigation of the radiological consequences of potential accidents

12.3 International conventions and standards on emergency planning

12.4 Responsible organizations

12.5 Emergency management

12.6 Emergency drills and exercises

12.7 Emergency coordination centres

Chapter 13: Non-proliferation safeguards in nuclear power programmes


13.1 Introduction

13.2 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT)

13.3 International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and international safeguards

13.4 Non-proliferation responsibilities

13.5 Transparency during a nuclear renaissance

13.6 Sources of further information and advice

Chapter 14: Spent fuel and radioactive waste management in nuclear power programmes


14.1 Introduction

14.2 Policies and strategies for management of spent fuel and radioactive waste

14.3 Radioactive waste from nuclear power production

14.4 Management systems for spent nuclear fuel

14.5 Management of low- and intermediate-level waste

14.6 Conclusions

Chapter 15: The economics of nuclear power: past, present and future aspects


15.1 Introduction

15.2 Economics today and tomorrow

15.3 Levelized cost of electricity generation

15.4 Risks and uncertainties

15.5 Conclusions

Chapter 16: Social impacts and public perception of nuclear power


16.1 Introduction

16.2 Social impacts at both national and local levels

16.3 Public perception of nuclear power

16.4 Conclusion

Chapter 17: Environmental impacts and assessment in nuclear power programmes


17.1 Introduction

17.2 Environmental protection

17.3 Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)

17.4 Land planning for new nuclear

17.5 Key controls on environmental impacts

17.6 Overlap with other regulatory controls

17.7 Conclusions

17.8 Future trends

Part III: Development of nuclear power programmes

Chapter 18: Site selection and evaluation for nuclear power plants (NPPs)


18.1 Introduction

18.2 Schematic approach to site selection

18.3 Basic safety principles applicable to nuclear power plant (NPP) siting

18.4 International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) requirements and safety guides on nuclear power plant siting

18.5 Consideration of the feasibility of an emergency plan

18.6 Demographic requirements and site parameters developed and applied by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission

Chapter 19: Bid invitation in nuclear power plant procurement


19.1 Introduction

19.2 Contracting approach and bid invitation specifications

19.3 Basis for preparation of the bid invitation specifi cations

19.4 Purpose, structure and contents

19.5 Letter of invitation

19.6 Instructions to bidders

19.7 Scope of supply

19.8 Technical requirements

19.9 Project implementation

19.10 Technical data sheets

19.11 Draft contract

19.12 Commercial conditions

19.13 Financing requirements

Chapter 20: Licensing for nuclear power plant siting, construction and operation


20.1 Introduction

20.2 The need for licensing

20.3 Licensing application and supporting technical documents

20.4 Safety review of licensing applications and license requirements

20.5 Licensee activities during design, construction, commissioning, operation and decommissioning

20.6 Regulatory compliance during design, construction, commissioning and operation

20.7 Licensing of a country’s first nuclear power plant

20.8 Acknowledgements

20.10 Appendix: Examples of licensing systems

Chapter 21: Quality assurance during design, construction and operation of nuclear power plants


21.1 Introduction

21.2 Definitions

21.3 Quality assurance criteria

21.4 Quality assurance during design

21.5 Quality assurance during construction

21.6 Quality assurance during commissioning

21.7 Quality assurance during operation

21.8 Assessment

21.9 Human resources

21.10 Sources of further information and advice

21.12 Appendix: list of abbreviations and acronyms.

Chapter 22: Commissioning of nuclear power plants (NPPs)


22.1 Introduction

22.2 Codes, standards and other requirements for the commissioning of nuclear power plants (NPPs)

22.3 Commissioning programme and stages of commissioning

22.4 Pre-operational tests

22.5 Nuclear commissioning

22.6 Roles and responsibilities during commissioning

22.7 Commissioning organization and management

22.8 Commissioning procedures

22.9 Test procedures

22.10 Qualification requirements for commissioning personnel and other human factors

22.11 Safety management and development of a safety culture

22.12 Recording and analysis of tests

22.13 Documentation

22.14 International experience

Chapter 23: Operational safety of nuclear power plants


23.1 Introduction

23.2 International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) requirements for nuclear power plant (NPP) operation

23.3 Management, organization and administration of nuclear power plants (NPPs)

23.4 Training and qualification

23.5 Operations

23.6 Maintenance

23.7 Technical support

23.8 Operational experience feedback (OEF)

23.9 Radiation protection

23.10 Chemistry

23.11 Emergency planning and preparedness

23.12 Operational Safety Review Team (OSART)

23.13 Sources of further information and advice

Chapter 24: Decommissioning of nuclear power plants (NPPs)


24.1 Introduction

24.2 Brief history of the development of decommissioning

24.3 Development of decommissioning cost- estimating methodologies

24.4 Development of long-term planning for decommissioning

24.5 Decommissioning technologies and research and development

24.6 Overview of the decommissioning phase of a nuclear power plant (NPP) lifecycle

24.7 Management of decommissioning waste and the recycling of materials

24.8 International experience

24.9 Sources of further information and advice

Part IV: Appendices

Appendix 1: The justification test for new nuclear power development: United Kingdom experience


A1.1 International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and origins

A1.2 European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) legislation and European Court of Justice and UK case law on justification

A1.3 UK regulations

A1.4 Application of justification test to nuclear new build proposals

A1.5 Conclusions

Appendix 2: Nuclear safety culture: management, assessment and improvement of individual behaviour


A2.1 Introduction

A2.2 Definitions

A2.3 The organization

A2.4 Assessing the stage of developmentof safety culture

A2.5 Identifying the lack of safety culture

A2.6 Improvement of safety culture

A2.7 Conclusion

Appendix 3: Nuclear installation safety: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) training programmes, materials and resources


A3.1 Background and introduction

A3.2 Building competence and effectiveness of training

A3.3 Training of leaders for safety, emerging regulators

A3.4 Challenges for building sustainable competence systems

A3.5 IAEA training materials and related resources

A3.6 IAEA training resources on the Web

A3.7 The IAEA interdepartmental group on training and Web-based training resources

A3.8 Regional cooperation, knowledge networks and harmonized approach to training management

A3.9 Conclusions and recommendations for efficient and sustainable training systems to build competence

A3.10 Acknowledgements

A3.12 List of abbreviations and acronyms

A3.13 Annex: Four quadrants competencies model based on TECDOC 1254 and SARCoN guidelines

Appendix 4: Simulator training for nuclear power plant control room personnel


A4.1 Reasons for simulator training

A4.2 Deciding who should be trained in full-scope simulators

A4.3 Operating scenarios for training

A4.4 Competencies to be acquired

A4.5 Defining good simulator training

A4.6 Requirements for simulators

A4.7 Other applications for training simulators

A4.8 Conclusion

Appendix 5: Multinational Design Evaluation Programme (MDEP): multilateral cooperation in nuclear regulation and new reactor design


A5.1 Introduction

A5.2 Programme goals and outcomes

A5.3 Programme implementation

A5.4 Current activities

A5.5 Interim results

A5.6 Future trends



The potential development of any nuclear power programme should include a rigorous justification process reviewing the substantial regulatory, economic and technical information necessary for implementation, given the long term commitments involved in any new nuclear power project. Infrastructure and methodologies for the justification of nuclear power programmes reviews the fundamental issues and approaches to nuclear power justification in countries considering nuclear new build or redevelopment.

Part one covers the infrastructure requirements for any new nuclear power programme, with chapters detailing the role and responsibilities of government, regulatory bodies and nuclear operator and the need for human resources and technical capability at the national level. Part two focuses on issues relevant to the justification process, including nuclear safety, radiation protection and emergency planning. Current designs and advanced reactors and radioactive waste management are also considered, along with the economic, social and environmental impacts of nuclear power development. Part three reviews the development of nuclear power programme, from nuclear power plant site selection and licensing, through construction and operation, and on to decommissioning. Finally, a series of valuable appendices detail the UK experience of justification, nuclear safety culture and training, and the multinational design evaluation programme (MDEP).

With its distinguished editor and expert team of contributors, Infrastructure and methodologies for the justification of nuclear power programmes is an essential reference for international and national stakeholders in this field, particularly governmental, non-governmental and regulatory bodies, nuclear power operators and consultants.

Key Features

  • Offers a comprehensive analysis of the infrastructure and methodologies required to justify the creation of nuclear power programmes in any country
  • Provides coverage of the main issues and potential benefit linked to nuclear power
  • Reviews the implementation of a nuclear power programme with particular reference to the requirements and methods involved in construction


New entrants into nuclear technology and those countries wishing to renovate their nuclear fleets after a long moratorium in the construction of nuclear power plants.


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This book provides guidance on the principles on which appropriate radiation protection can be based., Materials World
Readers from nuclear power industries would find the analysis of the environmental impacts of nuclear installations interesting., Materials World

About the Editors

Agustin Alonso Editor

Agustín Alonso is Emeritus Professor and Chair of Nuclear Technology at Madrid Polytechnic University, Spain, and serves on the IAEA’s International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group (INSAG).

Affiliations and Expertise

Madrid Polytechnic University, Spain