Industrial Biorefineries and White Biotechnology - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780444634535, 9780444634641

Industrial Biorefineries and White Biotechnology

1st Edition

Editors: Ashok Pandey Rainer Höfer Mohammad Taherzadeh Madhavan Nampoothiri Christian Larroche
eBook ISBN: 9780444634641
Hardcover ISBN: 9780444634535
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 20th May 2015
Page Count: 730
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Industrial Biorefineries and White Biotechnology provides a comprehensive look at the increasing focus on developing the processes and technologies needed for the conversion of biomass to liquid and gaseous fuels and chemicals, in particular, the development of low-cost technologies.

During the last 3-4 years, there have been scientific and technological developments in the area; this book represents the most updated information and technological perspective on the topic.

Key Features

  • Provides information on the most advanced and innovative pretreatment processes and technologies for biomass
  • Covers information on lignocellulosic and algal biomass to work on the principles of biorefinery
  • Provides information on integration of processes for the pretreatment of biomass
  • Designed as a textbook for both graduate students and researchers


Chemical Engineers, Biotechnologists, microbiologists/biologists, Agricultural Chemists, Environmental Engineers, Petroleum Engineers and graduate and postgraduate students in these areas

Table of Contents

  • List of Contributors
  • Preface
  • Part A. Industrial Biorefineries
    • Chapter 1. Biorefinery Concepts in Comparison to Petrochemical Refineries
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. The Definition for Biorefinery
      • 3. The Economic Value of Biomass Using Biorefining
      • 4. Classification of Biorefineries
      • 5. Conventional Biorefineries
      • 6. Advanced Biorefineries
      • 7. Whole Crop Biorefinery
      • 8. Oleochemical Biorefinery
      • 9. Lignocellulosic Feedstock Biorefinery
      • 10. Syngas Platform Biorefinery (Thermochemical Biorefinery)
      • 11. Next Generation Hydrocarbon Biorefinery
      • 12. Green Biorefinery
      • 13. Marine Biorefinery
      • 14. Chain Development
      • 15. Biorefinery Concepts in Comparison to Petrochemical Refineries
      • 16. Biorefinery Complexity Index
      • 17. Discussion and Conclusions
    • Chapter 2. Algal Biorefineries
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Algal Research in the USA
      • 3. Macroalgae
      • 4. Microalgae
      • 5. Downstream Processes
      • 6. Products Produced from Algae at Commercial Scales
      • 7. Conclusions
    • Chapter 3A. Pulp Mills and Wood-Based Biorefineries
      • 1. General Aspects
      • 2. Pulping Processes and Their By-Products
      • 3. Pretreatments of Wood Chips Prior to Pulping
      • 4. Thermochemical Conversion Methods
      • 5. Conclusions
    • Chapter 3B. The Pine Biorefinery Platform Chemicals Value Chain
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Extractable Volatile Oils
      • 3. The Tall Oil Value Chain
      • 4. Conclusion
    • Chapter 4A. Sugar- and Starch-Based Biorefineries
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Sugar and Starch Crops
      • 3. Sugarbeet Refining and Processing
      • 4. Alcoholic Fermentation
      • 5. The Ethanol-Based C2—Value Chain
      • 6. Beyond C2 Platform Chemicals by Fermentation
      • 7. Sucrochemistry
      • 8. Starch Refining and Processing
      • 9. Starch Uses
      • 10. Conclusions
    • Chapter 4B. Ethanol from Sugarcane in Brazil: Economic Perspectives
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Ethanol from Sugarcane in Brazil: Context and Evolution
      • 3. Economic Aspects of Ethanol from Sugarcane in Brazil
      • 4. Final Remarks
    • Chapter 5. Vegetable Oil Biorefineries
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Vegetable Oil Feedstock
      • 3. The Whole-Plant Biorefinery Concept—From Plants to Industrial Products
      • 4. Industrial Vegetable Oil Biorefineries
      • 5. Future Challenges of Industrialization
      • 6. Conclusions and Perspectives
    • Chapter 6. Biogas Biorefineries
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Substrates for Biogas Production
      • 3. Biogas Utilization
      • 4. The Chemical Platform Methane
      • 5. Fertilizer Production
      • 6. Mass and Energy Balances
      • 7. Other Biorefinery Concepts with Strong Focus on Biogas Production
      • 8. Perspectives of Biogas Biorefineries
    • Chapter 7. Civilization Biorefineries: Efficient Utilization of Residue-Based Bioresources
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Primary, Secondary, Tertiary, and Quaternary Bioresources
      • 3. Civilization Biorefineries
      • 4. Approaches Toward Civilization Biorefineries
    • Chapter 8. Biomass Pyrolysis for Hybrid Biorefineries
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Pyrolysis-Based Fractionation of Biomass
      • 3. Biomass Pyrolysis for Biorefineries
      • 4. A Pyrolysis-Based Hybrid Biorefinery Concept
      • 5. Conclusion
    • Chapter 9. Single-Cell Biorefinery
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Simultaneous Substrates Utilization in Single Cell
      • 3. Coproduction in Single Cell
      • 4. Single-Cell Biorefinery
      • 5. Conclusion
  • Part B. White Biotechnology
    • Chapter 10. Biocatalysis
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Screening for Novel Biocatalyst
      • 3. Development of Biocatalysts
      • 4. Raw Materials
      • 5. Reaction Media
      • 6. Conclusions
    • Chapter 11. White Biotechnology for Organic Acids
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Conclusion
    • Chapter 12. White Biotechnology for Amino Acids
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. History and Evolutionary Route
      • 3. Production Processes
      • 4. Strain Improvement
      • 5. Amino Acids in Detail
      • 6. Alternative Sources for Amino Acid Production
      • 7. Prospective and Outlook
    • Chapter 13. Industrial Enzymes
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Enzymes Classification
      • 3. Microbial Enzyme Production
      • 4. Industrial Application of Enzymes
      • 5. Enzyme Immobilization
      • 6. Global Enzyme Market Scenario
      • 7. Conclusion
    • Chapter 14. White Biotechnology in Biosurfactants
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Biosurfactants
      • 3. White Biotechnology in Glycolipids Biosurfactants
      • 4. White Biotechnology in Lipopeptide and Lipoprotein Biosurfactants
      • 5. White Biotechnology in Polymeric Biosurfactants
      • 6. Conclusion and Future Perspective
    • Chapter 15. Exopolysaccharides from Prokaryotic Microorganisms—Promising Sources for White Biotechnology Processes
      • 1. Introduction and Definition
      • 2. Advantages and Disadvantages in Microbial Production of EPSs
      • 3. Composition and Structure
      • 4. EPS Properties and Structure–Function Relationships. Microbial Producers. Biofilms
      • 5. Polysaccharide Roles in the Prokaryotic Cell
      • 6. Synthetic Pathways
      • 7. EPS Production
      • 8. Commercially Important Properties and Industrial Applications of Market-Valued EPS
      • 9. New Microbial EPS. EPS from Extremophiles
      • 10. Conclusion
    • Chapter 16. White Biotechnology for Biopolymers: Hydroxyalkanoates and Polyhydroxyalkanoates: Production and Applications
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Strains for Production of PHA
      • 3. PHA Produced in Industrial Scale
    • Chapter 17. Microbial Poly-3-Hydroxybutyrate and Related Copolymers
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. PHB-Producing Microbes
      • 3. Fermentation Strategies
      • 4. Downstream Operations
      • 5. Characterization Techniques
      • 6. Strain Improvement, Mutation, and Metabolic Engineering
      • 7. Substrate Manipulation for the Production of Various Classes of PHB
      • 8. Applications
      • 9. Conclusion and Perspectives
    • Chapter 18. White Biotechnology in Cosmetics
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Functional Properties of Cosmetically Important Compounds
      • 3. Classification of Biotechnologically Derived Cosmetic Ingredients
      • 4. Conclusion
    • Chapter 19. Production and Extraction of Polysaccharides and Oligosaccharides and Their Use as New Food Additives
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Extraction, Production, and Purification of Polysaccharides and Oligosaccharides
      • 3. Food Applications of Polysaccharides and Oligosaccharides
      • 4. Health and Nutritional Benefits of Polysaccharides and Oligosaccharides
      • 5. Regulation and Safety Aspects
      • 6. Conclusions
  • Index


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About the Editor

Ashok Pandey

Professor Ashok Pandey is currently with the Center of Innovative and Applied Bioprocessing, Mohali, Punjab, India; he was the former Deputy Director for CSIR’s National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology at Trivandrum, where he head the Centre for Biofuels and Biotechnology Division. Professor Pandey’s research interests are on bio-based economy for the production of fuels and chemicals. He has over 1000 publications and communications, which include 14 patents and design copyright, 34 books, 99 book chapters, and 391 original and review papers. Professor Pandey is the recipient of many national and international awards and fellowships, including Fellow of International Society for Energy, Environment and Sustainability, National Academy of Science (India), Biotech Research Society, India, and the International Organization of Biotechnology and Bioengineering. He was Chairman of the International Society of Food, Agriculture and Environment, Finland (Food & Health) from 2003-2004. He is Founder President of the Biotech Research Society, India (; International Coordinator and General Secretary of International Forum on Industrial Bioprocesses, France (, and Vice-President of the International Society for Energy, Environment & Sustainability ( and All India Biotech Association ( Professor Pandey is Editor-in-chief of Bioresource Technology, Honorary Executive Advisors of Journal of Water Sustainability and Journal of Energy and Environmental Sustainability and editorial board member of several international and Indian journals. Prof. Pandey was also recently honoured as the Most Cited Author as per the Shanghai Ranking's Global Ranking of Academic Subjects 2016

Affiliations and Expertise

Center of Innovative and Applied Bioprocessing, Mohali, Punjab, India and Former Chief Scientist and Head, Centre for Biofuels and Biotechnology Division, CSIR-National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology, Trivandrum, India

Rainer Höfer

Dr Rainer Höfer is owner of Editorial Ecosiris, which has consultancy and publishing activities in the domains of green chemistry, renewable resources, sustainable development, white biotechnology, and interculturation. He is the founder and owner of Editorial Ecosiris. Recent books by him include: R. Höfer, Ed., Sustainable Solutions for Modern Economies, RSC Publ., Cambridge (2009), A. Kazmi, B. Kamm, S. Henke, L. Theuvsen, R. Höfer, Advanced Oil Crop Biorefineries, A. Kazmi, Ed., RSC Publ. Cambridge (2012) ; J. E. McGrath, M. A. Hickner, R. Höfer (Edts.), Polymers for a Sustainable Environment and Green Energy, Vol. 10 in Polymer Science: A Comprehensive Reference, K. Matyjaszewski, M. Möller (Edts.-in-Chief), Elsevier, Amsterdam, Oxford, Waltham (2012).

Affiliations and Expertise

Editorial Ecosiris, Düsseldorf, Germany

Mohammad Taherzadeh

Mohammad J. Taherzadeh is professor in Biotechnology since 2004 at University of Borås in Sweden. He is also director of Resource Recovery, a research profile with about 50 researchers to convert wastes to energy and value-added products. Prof. Taherzadeh has PhD in Bioscience and MSc and Bsc in Chemical Engineering. He is working on converting wastes and residuals to ethanol, biogas, fish feed and superabsorbents, in which fermentation development using bacteria, yeast and filamentous fungi has a heavy weight. Prof. Taherzadeh has more than 120 publications in scientific peer-reviewed journals, 10 book chapters and two patents. Mohammad is the panel chairman of “biotechnology, chemical technology and environmental technology” of Swedish Research Council, and also in the editorial board of Bioresource Technology and BioResources. Some of the papers published by him during last two years are listed as below:

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Borås in Sweden

Madhavan Nampoothiri

K Madhavan Nampoothiri is presently working as Principal Scientist in Biotechnology Division of CSIR-NIIST, Trivandrum. Born on 30th May 1969a, Dr Nampoothiri took his graduation and post-graduation degrees from University of Kerala. In 1997, he obtained his PhD in Microbial Biotechnology from Cochin University of Science and Technology. He worked as Research Associate in Indian Institute of Science (IISc), Bangalore and as post-doctoral fellow of Alexander von Humboldt Foundation in Germany and Welcome Trust in the University of Newcastle upon Tyne, England. In 2001, he joined in CSIR-NIIST, Trivandrum. He is actively involved in Microbial Biotechnology R&D since past 16 years. He has nearly 90 publications, which include research papers in international journals, reviews articles and book chapters. Dr Nampoothiri has one Indian patent, five US patents and nine European patents. In 2003, he received Young scientist award from the Biotech Research Society, India.

Affiliations and Expertise

CSIR-NIIST, Trivandrum, India

Christian Larroche

Professor Christian Larroche Professor Christian Larroche is graduate in Biochemical Engineering from INSA, Toulouse, (1979), Docteur-Ingénieur in Organic Chemistry from Paul Sabatier Toulouse 3 University (1982), and Docteur ès Sciences (Ph D) in Biochemical Engineering from Blaise Pascal University (1990). He has strong research interest in the area of applied microbiology and biochemical engineering. His skills are related to the study and development of special processes for the use of microorganisms. This includes fungal spores production by solid state cultivation and their use as protein (enzyme) reservoir in biotransformations. A special interest in phase transfer phenomena coupled to metabolic engineering has to be noticed. It is applied to the design and optimisation of biotransformations involving hydrophobic compounds and carried out in biphasic liquid-liquid media. These processes are related both to the food and environment (bioremediation) areas. His interests have recently be extended to bioenergy, and he is presently co-ordinator of two French research programs on biohydrogen production by anaerobic microorganisms grown on complex media.

He is author of about 150 documents including 70 research papers, two patents and 12 book chapters. He has supervised 10 PhD students and 20 MSc lab works. He is member of SFGP (French Society for Process Engineering) and Chief International Coordinator of ICBF Forum, an international network entitled "Food Bioprocessing - A global approach for advancing sustainable production of value added food". He is head of the department of "Study and Development of Processes involving Microorganisms" of the platform for technological development Biotechnology – Material Engineering of Blaise Pascal University and has in charge the team "Solid state fermentations – Biotransformations" of the Chemical and Biochemical Engineering Laboratory in the same university. He has been head of the Biological Engineering department of Polytech Clermont-Ferrand, a School of Engineering of Blaise Pascal University, from 2001 to 2011. He is director of Polytech since January 2012 and, since 2008, vice-president of the university in charge of research valorization and technology transfer.

Affiliations and Expertise

Blaise Pascal University, Aubiere Cedex, France


"Intended for post-graduate students and researchers in applied biology, biotechnology and chemical engineering, this guide to state of the art of biofuel processes and techniques showcases current scholarship and real world implementations of this important and emerging alternative energy technology. The volume is divided into sections covering general principles of biorefining, production of bioethanol from feedstocks, production of biodiesel from vegetable oils, production of biofuels from algae, biohydrogen and biobutanol and other green fuels and individual chapters address specific aspects of the production process, raw materials, and assessments of the efficiency and practicality of each technology."--SciTech Book News