Industrial Applications of Nanocellulose and Its Nanocomposites

Industrial Applications of Nanocellulose and Its Nanocomposites

1st Edition - March 18, 2022

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  • Editors: S.M. Sapuan, M.N.F. Norrrahim, R.A. Ilyas
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780323899093
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323899178

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Nanocellulose is a versatile material that has received much attention from scientists working in a broad range of application fields, such as automotive, composites, adsorbents, paints, coatings, medical implants, electronics, cosmetics, pulp and paper, tissue engineering, medical, packaging, and aerogels. Industrial Applications of Nanocellulose and Its Nanocomposites provides an extensive, up-to-date review of this fast-moving research field. The chapters cover a wide range of aspects, including synthesis, surface modification, and improvement of properties toward target applications. The main objectives of the book are to reflect on recent advancements in the design and fabrication of advanced nanocellulose and discuss important requirements for each application, as well as the challenges that might be faced. The book also includes an overview of the current economic perspectives and safety issues, as well as future directions for nanocellulose-based materials. It will serve as a valuable reference resource for academic and industrial researchers, environmental chemists, nanotechnologists, chemical engineers, polymer chemists, materials scientists, and all those working in the manufacturing industries.

Key Features

  • Comprehensively covers a broad range of industrial applications.
  • Includes case studies on economic perspectives, safety issues, and advanced development of nanocellulose-based products.
  • Discusses nanocellulose production from biological waste.


Academic and industrial researchers, environmental chemists, nanotechnologists, chemical engineers, polymer chemists, materials scientists, and those working in the manufacturing industries.

Table of Contents

  • Cover
  • Title page
  • Table of Contents
  • Copyright
  • Contributors
  • Editors‘ biographies
  • Preface
  • 1: Introduction to nanocellulose production from biological waste
  • Abstract
  • Acknowledgments
  • 1.1: Introduction
  • 1.2: Types of nanocellulose
  • 1.3: Properties of nanocellulose
  • 1.4: Pretreatments of natural fibers
  • 1.5: Nanocellulose preparation
  • 1.6: Nanocellulose from biological waste
  • 1.7: Applications of nanocellulose
  • 1.8: Conclusions
  • References
  • 2: Economic insights into the production of cellulose nanofibrils from oil palm biomass
  • Abstract
  • 2.1: Introduction
  • 2.2: Materials and method
  • 2.3: Results and discussion
  • 2.4: Conclusions
  • References
  • 3: Nanocellulose: Sustainable biomaterial for developing novel adhesives and composites
  • Abstract
  • Acknowledgments
  • 3.1: Introduction
  • 3.2: Lignocellulosic biomaterials
  • 3.3: Bionanomaterials
  • 3.4: Cellulose-based micro/nanomaterials
  • 3.5: Nanocellulose-reinforced adhesives
  • 3.6: Nanocellulose-reinforced composites
  • 3.7: Conclusions and future perspectives
  • References
  • 4: Nanocellulose-based aerogels for various engineering applications
  • Abstract
  • Acknowledgments
  • 4.1: Introduction
  • 4.2: Polymer aerogels—Definition and applications
  • 4.3: Natural polymer-based aerogels and cellulose-based aerogels
  • 4.4: Cellulose- and nanocellulose-based aerogels
  • 4.5: Applications of nanocellulose-based aerogels
  • 4.6: Conclusions
  • References
  • 5: Nanocellulose: Chemistry, preparation, and applications in the food industry
  • Abstract
  • 5.1: Introduction
  • 5.2: Chemistry of cellulose and nanocellulose
  • 5.3: Applications
  • 5.4: Conclusions
  • References
  • 6: Nanocellulose nanocomposites in coating materials
  • Abstract
  • 6.1: Introduction
  • 6.2: Surface modification of nanocellulose coating with silane
  • 6.3: Types of coating of modified nanocellulose
  • 6.4: The properties of nanocellulose nanocomposite in coating materials
  • 6.5: Applications of nanocellulose nanocomposite in coating materials
  • 6.6: Conclusions
  • References
  • 7: Nanocellulose as an adsorbent for heavy metals
  • Abstract
  • 7.1: Introduction
  • 7.2: Heavy metals as chemical contaminants
  • 7.3: Removal of heavy metals by adsorption
  • 7.4: Properties of nanocellulose as an adsorbent
  • 7.5: Adsorption of heavy metals with nanocellulose
  • 7.6: Challenges and future direction
  • References
  • 8: Nanocellulose in sensors
  • Abstract
  • 8.1: Introduction
  • 8.2: Applications of nanocellulose in sensors
  • 8.3: Challenges derived from the use of nanocellulose in sensors
  • 8.4: Conclusions
  • References
  • 9: An overview of cellulose nanofiber physicochemical characterizations and biological studies in relation to nanosafety concerns
  • Abstract
  • Acknowledgments
  • 9.1: Introduction
  • 9.2: Physicochemical properties of CNF suspension
  • 9.3: Potential applications of CNF in industry and consumer products
  • 9.4: Biological safety studies of CNF using a cellular test system
  • 9.5: Biological safety studies of CNF using a mammalian test system
  • 9.6: Biological testing of CNF suspension using an aquatic test system
  • 9.7: Conclusions
  • References
  • 10: Nanocellulose hydrogels
  • Abstract
  • Acknowledgments
  • 10.1: Introduction
  • 10.2: Production and properties of nanocellulose hydrogels
  • 10.3: Hydrogels using nanocellulose as reinforcing agents
  • 10.4: Main potential applications of nanocellulose hydrogels
  • 10.5: Final considerations
  • References
  • 11: Nanocellulose applications in packaging materials
  • Abstract
  • 11.1: Introduction
  • 11.2: Polymer-reinforced cellulose nanofiber composites
  • 11.3: Modifications to improve the properties of polymer-reinforced cellulose nanofiber composites
  • 11.4: Fabrication methods of polymer-reinforced cellulose nanofiber composites
  • 11.5: Conclusions
  • References
  • 12: Active biocomposite packaging films: Compatibility of carrageenan with cellulose nanofiber from empty fruit bunches
  • Abstract
  • 12.1: Introduction
  • 12.2: Carrageenan
  • 12.3: Cellulose
  • 12.4: Compatibility between seaweed and cellulose
  • 12.5: Glycerol as a plasticizer
  • 12.6: Antioxidants in food packaging materials
  • 12.7: Alpha-tocopherol
  • 12.8: Biocomposite packaging film
  • References
  • 13: Enhanced thermal stability of cellulose nanocrystals for processing polymer nanocomposites at a high temperature
  • Abstract
  • 13.1: Introduction
  • 13.2: Process to enhance the thermal stability of CNC
  • 13.3: Thermally stable CNC-reinforced polymer nanocomposites
  • References
  • 14: Nanocellulose nanocomposites for biomedical applications
  • Abstract
  • 14.1: Introduction
  • 14.2: Biological properties of cellulose-based biomedical materials
  • 14.3: Advanced nanocellulose materials for biomedical applications
  • 14.4: Conclusions and future perspectives
  • References
  • 15: Nanocellulose biocomposites in specialty papermaking
  • Abstract
  • 15.1: Introduction
  • 15.2: Cellulose nanofiber (CNF)
  • 15.3: Nanocellulose biocomposites in food packaging
  • 15.4: Nanocellulose biocomposites in high-durability paper
  • 15.5: Nanocellulose biocomposites in printing paper
  • 15.6: The future of nanocellulose biocomposites in specialty papermaking
  • References
  • 16: Nanocellulose composites in the pulp and paper industry
  • Abstract
  • 16.1: Introduction
  • 16.2: Nanocellulose
  • 16.3: Methods of incorporation of nanocellulose into paper-based products
  • 16.4: Paper-based products incorporated with nanocellulose
  • 16.5: Properties of nanocellulose-incorporated paper-based products
  • 16.6: Challenges and future perspectives of nanocellulose in pulp and paper applications
  • 16.7: Conclusions
  • References
  • 17: Nanocellulose nanocomposites in textiles
  • Abstract
  • 17.1: Introduction
  • 17.2: Functionalization of nanocellulose in the textile industry
  • 17.3: Applications of nanocellulose in the textile industry
  • 17.4: Challenges related to application of nanocellulose in the textile industry
  • 17.5: Conclusions
  • References
  • 18: Nanocellulose as a bioadsorbent for water and wastewater purification
  • Abstract
  • Acknowledgments
  • 18.1: Introduction
  • 18.2: Chemical contaminants
  • 18.3: Currently available bioadsorbents
  • 18.4: Functionalization of nanocellulose
  • 18.5: Nanocellulose as a bioadsorbent
  • 18.6: Future direction and recommendations
  • 18.7: Conclusions
  • References
  • 19: Nanocellulose composites in the automotive industry
  • Abstract
  • 19.1: Introduction
  • 19.2: The advantages of nanocellulose
  • 19.3: Nanocellulose composites for automotive applications
  • 19.4: Performance of thermosetting polymers as a composite matrix
  • 19.5: Performance of nanocellulose-reinforced thermosetting polymer composites
  • 19.6: Future perspectives of nanocellulose
  • 19.7: Conclusions
  • References
  • 20: Advances in nanocellulose nanocomposites for bone repair
  • Abstract
  • 20.1: Introduction
  • 20.2: Tissue engineering
  • 20.3: Cellulose nanocomposites
  • 20.4: Cellulose nanocomposites for bone repair and regeneration
  • 20.5: Concluding remarks
  • References
  • 21: Nanocellulose composites for electronic applications
  • Abstract
  • Acknowledgments
  • 21.1: Introduction
  • 21.2: Types of nanocellulose
  • 21.3: Mechanical properties of nanocellulose polymer composites
  • 21.4: Thermal properties of nanocellulose composites
  • 21.5: Electrical properties of nanocellulose composites
  • 21.6: Conductive nanocellulose composites
  • 21.7: Nanocellulose in sensors
  • 21.8: Nanocellulose in piezoelectric and electroactive effects
  • 21.9: Nanocellulose in electronic components
  • 21.10: Nanocellulose as a separator in lithium-ion batteries
  • 21.11: Summary
  • References
  • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 546
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Woodhead Publishing 2022
  • Published: March 18, 2022
  • Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780323899093
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323899178

About the Editors

S.M. Sapuan

S.M. Sapuan is a researcher and an A Grade Professor of Composite Materials in Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), and the Head of the Laboratory of Biocomposite Technology, INTROP, UPM. He has a BEng in Mechanical Engineering from the University of Newcastle, Australia, an MSc in Engineering Design from Loughborough University, United Kingdom, and a PhD in Material Engineering from De Montfort University, United Kingdom. He is a professional engineer and a fellow of the Society of Automotive Engineers, the Academy of Sciences Malaysia, the Plastics & Rubber Institute Malaysia, the Malaysian Scientific Association, the International Biographical Association, and the Institute of Materials, Malaysia. He is an honorary member and was the Vice-President of the Asian Polymer Association based in IIT Delhi, and the founding chairman and honorary member of the Society of Sugar Palm Development and Industry, Malaysia. He is the coeditor-in-chief of 'Functional Composites and Structures', and a member of the editorial boards of more than two dozen journals. To date, he has authored or coauthored more than 1,800 publications, including over 815 journal papers, 46 books, and 160 chapters in book and other publications. Furthermore, he has delivered over 40 plenary and keynote lectures and over 150 invited lectures, organized 26 journal special issues as a guest editor, presented over 500 technical articles in conferences and seminars, reviewed over 1,000 journal papers, and has 8 patents to his credit. He has successfully supervised 86 PhD students, 70 MSc students, and 15 postdoctoral researchers, mainly in the areas of mechanical engineering and composites. He received nine Outstanding Researcher Awards from UPM. He was awarded an ISESCO Science Award (Gold Medal) in Technology, a Plastic and Rubber Institute Malaysia (PRIM) Fellowship Award, and a Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM) First Prize Publication Award. He also received a Khwarizimi International Award, a SEARCA Regional Professorial Chair Award, and a Kuala Lumpur Royal Rotary Gold Medal Research Award. He won two National Book Awards. He received an Endeavour Research Promotion Award by Teerthanker Mahaveer University/IEEE India, a Citation of Excellence Award from Emerald Publishing, United Kingdom, a Malaysia’s Research Star Award by Elsevier/Ministry of Education Malaysia, and a Publons Peer Review Award from Publons, USA. Publons also recognized him as a Certified Publons Academic Mentor. Later, he received a Professor of Eminence Award from Aligarh Muslim University, India, a Top Research Scientists’ Malaysia Award from the Academy of Science Malaysia, Gold in Invention and Innovation Awards, Malaysia Technology Expo, and a PERINTIS Publication Award from PERINTIS, Malaysia. He was listed among the world’s top 2% scientists by Stanford University.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, Laboratory of Biocomposite Technology, Institute of Tropical Forestry and Forest Products (INTROP); Advanced Engineering Materials and Composites Research Centre (AEMC), Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

M.N.F. Norrrahim

M.N.F. Norrrahim is working as a postdoctoral fellow in the Research Center for Chemical Defence, National Defence University of Malaysia. His research interests are in the fields of nanotechnology, composites, materials science, biopolymers, organic synthesis, and biotechnology. He received his bachelor’s degree in Industrial Biotechnology (Hons) from Universiti Selangor, Malaysia, in 2010. Upon completing his bachelor’s degree, he was awarded the Graduate Research Fellowship (GRF) by the Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM) to undertake an MSc degree in Materials Science and Engineering. He then continued with a PhD in Nanotechnology at UPM and received a scholarship from the Ministry of Higher Education of Malaysia. He has authored or coauthored 32 articles in renowned journals on nanotechnology, materials science, chemistry, and biotechnology-related subjects. He has also authored 20 book chapters and 3 conference proceedings/seminars. He has received several local and international innovation awards.

Affiliations and Expertise

Postdoctoral Fellow, Research Center for Chemical Defence (CHEMDEF), National Defence University of Malaysia (UPNM), Kem Perdana Sungai Besi, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

R.A. Ilyas

R.A. Ilyas is a Senior Lecturer at the School of Chemical and Energy Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia. In 2012, he received his Diploma in Forestry from Universiti Putra Malaysia, Bintulu Campus (UPMKB), Sarawak, Malaysia. That same year, he was awarded the Public Service Department (JPA) scholarship to pursue his BSc in Chemical Engineering at UPM and then, in 2016, he was awarded the Graduate Research Fellowship (GRF) by UPM to undertake a PhD degree in the field of Biocomposite Technology & Design at the Institute of Tropical Forestry and Forest Products (INTROP) UPM. Dr. Ilyas was the recipient of the 2019 MVP Doctor of Philosophy Gold Medal Award UPM, that followed Best PhD Thesis and Top Student Awards.  In 2018, he was also awarded a National Book Award, an Outstanding Reviewer Award by 'Carbohydrate Polymers', Elsevier (United Kingdom), a Best Paper Award at the 11th AUN/SEED-Net Regional Conference on Energy Engineering, a Best Paper Award at the 2019 Seminar Enau Kebangsaan, Persatuan Pembangunan dan Industri Enau (Malaysia). In 2019, he was included in the list of the world’s top 2% scientists by Stanford University and received a 2021 PERINTIS Publication Award by Persatuan Saintis Muslim (Malaysia). His main research interests are in the fields of polymer engineering (biodegradable polymers, biopolymers, polymer composites, polymer gels) and materials engineering (natural fiber-reinforced polymer composites, biocomposites, cellulose materials, nanocomposites). To date, he has authored or coauthored more than 250 publications: 92 journal articles indexed in JCR/Scopus, 14 books, 69 book chapters, 51 conference proceedings/seminars, 2 research bulletins, 10 conference papers, and guest edited 6 journal special issues, as well as edited/coedited conference/seminar proceedings on green materials.

Affiliations and Expertise

Senior Lecturer, School of Chemical and Energy Engineering, Faculty of Engineering; Center for Advanced Composite Materials (CACM), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia

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