Industrial and Process Furnaces - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9780080993775, 9780080993782

Industrial and Process Furnaces

2nd Edition

Principles, Design and Operation

Authors: Barrie Jenkins Peter Mullinger
Hardcover ISBN: 9780080993775
eBook ISBN: 9780080993782
Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
Published Date: 25th October 2013
Page Count: 676
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Furnaces sit at the core of all branches of manufacture and industry, so it is vital that these are designed and operated safely and effi-ciently. This reference provides all of the furnace theory needed to ensure that this can be executed successfully on an industrial scale.

Industrial and Process Furnaces: Principles, 2nd Edition provides comprehensive coverage of all aspects of furnace operation and design, including topics essential for process engineers and operators to better understand furnaces. This includes: the combustion process and its control, furnace fuels, efficiency, burner design and selection, aerodynamics, heat release profiles, furnace atmosphere, safety and emissions. These elements and more are brought together to illustrate how to achieve optimum design and operation, with real-world case studies to showcase their application.

Key Features

  • Up-to-date and comprehensive reference encompassing not only best practice of operation but the essential elements of furnace theory and design, essential to anyone working with furnaces, ovens and combustion-based systems.
  • More case studies, more worked examples.
  • New material in this second edition includes further application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), with additional content on flames and burners, costs, efficiencies and future trends.


Professional engineers (chemical, mechanical, power, process, HVAC, environmental), designers, production staff who use heat and combustion as part of a process. Advanced students of Chemical, Mechanical and Powever Engineering (as a reference) dealing with energy conversion/thermal engineering

Table of Contents


Foreword to Second Edition

Foreword to First Edition

Preface to the Second Edition

Preface to First Edition


List of Figures

List of Tables

Chapter 1. Introduction


1.1 What is a Furnace?

1.2 Where are Furnaces Used? Brief Review of Current Furnace Applications and Technology

1.3 Drivers for Improved Efficiency

1.4 Concluding Remarks


Chapter 2. The Combustion Process


2.1 Simple Combustion Chemistry

2.2 Combustion Calculations

2.3 Chemical Reaction Kinetics

2.4 The Physics of Combustion

Nomenclature for Chapter 2

References for Chapter 2

Chapter 3. Fuels for Furnaces


3.1 Gaseous Fuels

3.2 Liquid Fuels

3.3 Solid Fuels

3.4 Waste Fuels

3.5 Choice of Fuel

3.6 Safety

3.7 Emissions



Solid Fuel Bibliography

Chapter 4. An Introduction to Heat Transfer in Furnaces


4.1 Conduction

4.2 Convection

4.3 Radiation

4.4 Electrical Heating



Chapter 5. Flames and Burners for Furnaces


5.1 Types of Flame

5.2 Function of a Burner and Basics of Burner Design

5.3 Gas Burners

5.4 Oil Burners

5.5 Pulverised Coal Burners

5.6 Furnace Aerodynamics

5.7 Combustion System Scaling

5.8 Furnace Noise

Nomenclature for Chapter 5

References for Chapter 5

Chapter 6. Combustion and Heat Transfer Modelling


6.1 Physical Modelling

6.2 Mathematical Modelling

6.3 Application of Modelling to Furnace Design



Chapter 7. Fuel Handling Systems


7.1 Gas Valve Trains

7.2 Fuel Oil Handling Systems

7.3 Pulverised Coal Handling and Firing Systems

7.4 Waste Fuel Handling


References for Chapter 7

Applicable Codes and Standards

Chapter 8. Furnace Control and Safety


8.1 Process Control

8.2 Furnace Instrumentation

8.3 Flue Gas Analysis

8.4 Combustion Control

8.5 Ensuring Furnace Safety

8.6 Burner Management Systems



Certification and Testing Organisations

Chapter 9. Furnace Efficiency


9.1 Furnace Performance Charts

9.2 Mass and Energy Balances

9.3 Energy Conversion

9.4 Heat Recovery Equipment

9.5 Identifying Efficiency Improvements

Nomenclature for Chapter 9


Chapter 10. Emissions and Environmental Impact


10.1 Formation of Carbon Monoxide

10.2 Formation of Nitrogen Oxides

10.3 Formation of Sulphur Oxides

10.4 Formation of Intermediate Combustion Products

10.5 Particulate Emissions

10.6 Environmental Control of Emissions


Chapter 11. Furnace Construction and Materials


11.1 Basic Performance Requirements of the Furnace Structure

11.2 Basic Construction Methods

11.3 Practical Engineering Considerations in the Use of Refractories

11.4 Ceramic Refractory Materials

11.5 Heat Resisting and Refractory metals

11.6 Practical Engineering Considerations in the Use of High Temperature Metals

11.7 Concluding Remarks


Selection of Relevant Standards

Advisory Organisations

Appendix 11A

Chapter 12. Furnace Design Methods


12.1 Introduction

12.2 Conceptual Design

12.3 Furnace Sizing

12.4 Burner Selection

12.5 Detailed Analysis and Validation of the Furnace Design

12.6 Furnace Instrumentation and Controls

Nomenclature for Chapter 12


Chapter 13. Economic Evaluation


13.1 Cost Accounting

13.2 Distinction Between Capital and Revenue

13.3 Profit and Profitability

13.4 Financial Ratios

13.5 Project Costing

13.6 Investment Evaluation

13.7 Determining Financial Benefits

13.8 Post Project Analysis


Chapter 14. Selected Examples of Real Furnace Applications


14.1 Design of a New Burner for a Lime Sludge Kiln

14.2 Optimising Flash Furnace Design

14.3 Contribution to the Design of a New Reforming Process for Fuel Cell Applications

14.4 Resolving Tube Internal Coking and Premature Tube Failure in a Refinery Heater

14.5 Unsuccessful Attempts to Resolve Severe Problems with a Preheater Cement Kiln

14.6 Investigation and Elimination of Coal Firing System Problems

14.7 Concluding Remarks on Implementation


Chapter 15. Future Trends and Concluding Remarks


15.1 Trends in New Materials

15.2 Trends in Furnace Emissions and Fuels for Furnaces

15.3 Prospects for Alternative Electrical Energy as a Power Source

15.4 Trends in Furnace Controls

15.5 New Applications for Furnaces

15.6 Concluding Remarks




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About the Author

Barrie Jenkins

Barrie Jenkins has held senior technical management roles in industry and academia. He currently advises major energy users and continues to lecture at a number of Universities.

Affiliations and Expertise

Consulting Engineer, High Wycombe, Bucks, UK

Peter Mullinger

Peter Mullinger held senior management roles with both equipment suppliers and end users before joining the University of Adelaide as Associate Professor in 1999. Now semi-retired, he continues to teach process design and process safety.

Affiliations and Expertise

Visiting Research Fellow, School of Chemical Engineering, University of Adelaide, South Australia


"The goal is not to explain how to design any particular furnace, but to introduce a more scientific approach to furnace design than the traditional methods of scaling from the previous design…For the second edition, they respond to reader requests by discussing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling at greater length and demonstrating its application in a new chapter profiling real furnace projects.", January 2014