Plant Factory

1st Edition

An Indoor Vertical Farming System for Efficient Quality Food Production

Editors: Toyoki Kozai Genhua Niu Michiko Takagaki
Paperback ISBN: 9780128017753
eBook ISBN: 9780128018484
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 26th October 2015
Page Count: 432
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Plant Factory: An Indoor Vertical Farming System for Efficient Quality Food Production provides information on a field that is helping to offset the threats that unusual weather and shortages of land and natural resources bring to the food supply.

As alternative options are needed to ensure adequate and efficient production of food, this book represents the only available resource to take a practical approach to the planning, design, and implementation of plant factory (PF) practices to yield food crops. The PF systems described in this book are based on a plant production system with artificial (electric) lights and include case studies providing lessons learned and best practices from both industrial and crop specific programs.

With insights into the economics as well as the science of PF programs, this book is ideal for those in academic as well as industrial settings.

Key Features

  • Provides full-scope insight on plant farm, from economics and planning to life-cycle assessment
  • Presents state-of-the-art plant farm science, written by global leaders in plant farm advancements
  • Includes case-study examples to provide real-world insights


Researchers, students and industry professionals in agriculture, food engineering, policy and regulation

Table of Contents

  • Preface

    • Acknowledgments
  • Part 1: Overview and Concept of Closed Plant Production System (CPPS)

    • Chapter 1: Introduction

      • Abstract
      • Introduction
    • Chapter 2: Role of the Plant Factory With Artificial Lighting (PFAL) in Urban Areas

      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Interrelated Global Issues to be Solved Concurrently
      • Resource Inflow and Waste Outflow in Urban Areas
      • Energy and Material Balance in Urban Ecosystems
      • Growing Social Needs and Interest in PFALs
      • Criticisms of PFALs and Responses to Them
      • Towards a Sustainable PFAL
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 3: PFAL Business and R&D in the World: Current Status and Perspectives

      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Japan
      • Taiwan
      • Korea
      • China
      • North America
      • Europe (England, The Netherlands, and Others)
    • Chapter 4: Plant Factory as a Resource-Efficient Closed Plant Production System

      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Definition and Principal Components of PFAL
      • Definition of Resource Use Efficiency
      • Water Use Efficiency
      • CO2 Use Efficiency
      • Light Energy Use Efficiency of Lamps and Plant Community
      • Electrical Energy Use Efficiency of Lighting
      • Electrical Energy Use Efficiency of Heat Pumps for Cooling
      • Inorganic Fertilizer Use Efficiency
      • Representative Values of Resource Use Efficiency
      • Electricity Consumption and Cost
      • Improving Light Energy Use Efficiency
      • Estimation of Rates of Photosynthesis, Transpiration, and Water and Nutrient Uptake
      • Coefficient of Performance of Heat Pump
    • Chapter 5: Micro- and Mini-PFALs for Improving the Quality of Life in Urban Areas

      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • <


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© Academic Press 2016
Academic Press
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About the Editor

Toyoki Kozai

Oyoki Kozai Japan Plant Factory Association (NPO) c/o Center for Environment, Health and Field Sciences, Chiba University 6-2-1 Kashiwa-no-ha, Japan Telephone: 81-4-7137 -8114, Fax: 81-4-7137 -8114 Electric mail address: Chief Director, Association for Plant Factory Managers Chief-Director, Japan Plant Factory Association (NPO) Professor Emeritus of Chiba University Summary of Academic achievements Publications: 270 original papers, 140 review papers, 159 miscellaneous papers, 171 book or book chapters, 7 translations of books from English to Japanese Patents: 20 active patents, 50 approved patents in total Number of Invited Lectures at International Meetings: 47 Number of Invited Lectures at National Meetings: 85 National and International Awards 2009 Awarded for Lifetime Achievement from The Society for In Vitro Biology 2003 Awarded for outstanding contribution from Japanese Society of High Technology in Agriculture 2002 Purple Ribbon Award from Prime Minister of Japanese Government for the academic achievement of environmental studies in biology. 2002 Friendship Award from Chinese Government for the 2003 achievement of outstanding contribution to Chinese horticultural industry 2000 Fellow, Japan Association of International Commission of Agricultural Engineering 1997 Japan Prize for Agricultural Science for the academic achievement “Growth Regulation and Mass-propagation of in vitro plantlets by Physical Environment Control” awarded by Japanese Academy of Agricultural Sciences and by Yomiuri Newspaper Co. 1992 Prize for academic achievement in “Environmental Control in Photoautotrophic Plant Tissue Culture” awarded by Japanese Society of Environment Control in Biology. 1991 Prize for academic achievement in “Fundamental Research on Environmental Control Methods for Factory-type Transplant Production” awarded by Japanese Society of High Technology in Agriculture. 1982 Pr

Affiliations and Expertise

Center for Environment, Health and Field Sciences, Chiba University, Japan

Genhua Niu

Texas AgriLife Research at El Paso and Texas A&M University, TX, USA Genhua Niu Associate Professor Texas AgriLife Research and Extension Center at El Paso, Texas A&M System El Paso, 1380 A&M Circle, TX 79927 Phone: 915 859 9111 Ext 232; Fax: 915 859 1078 Email:; URL: Areas of Expertise • Environmental stress physiology • Modeling and crop production under controlled environment • Nutrient and salinity management for efficient use of water and fertilizer • Micropropagation Dr. Genhua Niu is an off campus faculty at the Texas A&M AgriLife Research Center at El Paso with 100% Research Appointment. Her areas of special expertise are in environmental stress physiology and plant production in controlled environment. Her current research areas include identifying drought and salt tolerant low water use plant materials for urban landscape, quantifying growth and physiological responses of crops to drought, salt and heat stresses, and determining the minimum water requirement for urban landscape plants for maintaining a healthy landscape while conserving water. In addition, Dr. Niu is also working on evaluating the salt and drought tolerance of a range of bioenergy crops and vegetables for the semi-arid region. As a researcher at an off campus research center, Dr. Niu closely works with county extension agents on local extension programs. She also collaborates with faculty members at the Department of Horticultural Sciences, other research centers, and colleagues at other universities on research programs and graduate student education by co-advising and serving as a graduate committee member. In professional society service, Dr. Niu has been active by serving as officers of several working groups for American Society for Horticultural Science and USDA regional meetings. Professional Recognition: • Extension Communications Award by Southern Region American Soci

Affiliations and Expertise

Associate Professor, Texas AgriLife Research, El Paso, Texas A&M University, El Paso, TX, USA

Michiko Takagaki

Affiliations and Expertise

Center for Environment, Health and Field Sciences, Chiba University, Japan


"Plant Factory is very useful for a beginner interested to venture into crop production using plant factory system. It provides a comprehensive information from all aspects of crop production under a housing or factory system, inclusive the design of the structure and lighting and their mantainance. I would recommend it to be used as a textbook for horticulture course on vegetables production system where land is limited such as in urban areas. The science or technical know-how is very strong as a lot of research has been conducted to support the claims. It is quite unusual for a book to even provide information on the training centre whereby a trainee can register himself or herself. As it mentioned, this system of vegetables production is rather costly and the economics or cost-benefit analysis should be included as one of the main topic in the book. Also, the risk or probability of failure of the entrepreneur investing in this system to succeed or make money should also be highlighted. Also, it will be quite useful to know the perception of customers or how to convince the customers to pay more for the vegetables produced in the plant factory." -- Prof. Dr. Che Fauziah Ishak, Universiti Putra Malaysia