Plant Factory - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128017753, 9780128018484

Plant Factory

1st Edition

An Indoor Vertical Farming System for Efficient Quality Food Production

Editors: Toyoki Kozai Genhua Niu Michiko Takagaki
eBook ISBN: 9780128018484
Paperback ISBN: 9780128017753
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 26th October 2015
Page Count: 432
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Plant Factory: An Indoor Vertical Farming System for Efficient Quality Food Production provides information on a field that is helping to offset the threats that unusual weather and shortages of land and natural resources bring to the food supply.

As alternative options are needed to ensure adequate and efficient production of food, this book represents the only available resource to take a practical approach to the planning, design, and implementation of plant factory (PF) practices to yield food crops. The PF systems described in this book are based on a plant production system with artificial (electric) lights and include case studies providing lessons learned and best practices from both industrial and crop specific programs.

With insights into the economics as well as the science of PF programs, this book is ideal for those in academic as well as industrial settings.

Key Features

  • Provides full-scope insight on plant farm, from economics and planning to life-cycle assessment
  • Presents state-of-the-art plant farm science, written by global leaders in plant farm advancements
  • Includes case-study examples to provide real-world insights


Researchers, students and industry professionals in agriculture, food engineering, policy and regulation

Table of Contents

  • Preface
    • Acknowledgments
  • Part 1: Overview and Concept of Closed Plant Production System (CPPS)
    • Chapter 1: Introduction
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
    • Chapter 2: Role of the Plant Factory With Artificial Lighting (PFAL) in Urban Areas
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Interrelated Global Issues to be Solved Concurrently
      • Resource Inflow and Waste Outflow in Urban Areas
      • Energy and Material Balance in Urban Ecosystems
      • Growing Social Needs and Interest in PFALs
      • Criticisms of PFALs and Responses to Them
      • Towards a Sustainable PFAL
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 3: PFAL Business and R&D in the World: Current Status and Perspectives
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Japan
      • Taiwan
      • Korea
      • China
      • North America
      • Europe (England, The Netherlands, and Others)
    • Chapter 4: Plant Factory as a Resource-Efficient Closed Plant Production System
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Definition and Principal Components of PFAL
      • Definition of Resource Use Efficiency
      • Water Use Efficiency
      • CO2 Use Efficiency
      • Light Energy Use Efficiency of Lamps and Plant Community
      • Electrical Energy Use Efficiency of Lighting
      • Electrical Energy Use Efficiency of Heat Pumps for Cooling
      • Inorganic Fertilizer Use Efficiency
      • Representative Values of Resource Use Efficiency
      • Electricity Consumption and Cost
      • Improving Light Energy Use Efficiency
      • Estimation of Rates of Photosynthesis, Transpiration, and Water and Nutrient Uptake
      • Coefficient of Performance of Heat Pump
    • Chapter 5: Micro- and Mini-PFALs for Improving the Quality of Life in Urban Areas
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Characteristics and Types of m-PFAL
      • Various Applications of m-PFALs
      • Design Concept of m-PFALs
      • m-PFALs Connected to the Internet
      • Advanced Uses of m-PFALs Connecting with a Virtual m-PFAL
      • m-PFAL Connected with Other Biosystems as a Model Ecosystem
      • Light Source and Lighting System Design
    • Chapter 6: Rooftop Plant Production Systems in Urban Areas
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Rooftop Plant Production
      • Building Integration
  • Part 2: Basics of Physics and Physiology—Environments and Their Effects
    • Chapter 7: Light
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Physical Properties of Light and Its Measurement
      • Light Sources
    • Chapter 8: Physical Environmental Factors and Their Properties
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Temperature, Energy, and Heat
      • Water Vapor
      • Moist Air Properties
      • CO2 Concentration
      • Air Current Speed
      • Number of Air Exchanges Per Hour
    • Chapter 9: Photosynthesis and respiration
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Photosynthesis
      • C3, C4 and CAM Photosynthesis
      • Respiration
      • Photorespiration
      • LAI and Light Penetration
      • Single Leaf and Canopy
    • Chapter 10: Growth, Development, Transpiration and Translocation as Affected by Abiotic Environmental Factors
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Shoot and Root Growth
      • Environmental Factors Affecting Plant Growth and Development
      • Development (Photoperiodism and Temperature Affecting Flower Development)
      • Transpiration
      • Translocation
    • Chapter 11: Nutrition and Nutrient Uptake in Soilless Culture Systems
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Essential Elements
      • Beneficial Elements
      • Nutrient Uptake and Movement
      • Nutrient Solution
      • Solution pH and Nutrient Uptake
      • Nitrogen Form
      • New Concept: Quantitative Management
    • Chapter 12: Tipburn
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Cause of Tipburn
      • Countermeasure
    • Chapter 13: Functional Components in Leafy Vegetables
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Low-Potassium Vegetables
      • Low-Nitrate Vegetables
      • Improving the Quality of Leafy Vegetables by Controlling Light Quality
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 14: Medicinal Components
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Growing Medicinal Plants Under Controlled Environments: Medicinal Components and Environmental Factors
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 15: Production of Pharmaceuticals in a Specially Designed Plant Factory
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Candidate Crops for PMPs
      • Construction of GM Plant Factories
      • Optimization of Environment Conditions for Plant Growth
      • Concluding Remarks
  • Part 3: System Design, Construction, Cultivation and Management
    • Chapter 16: Plant Production Process, Floor Plan, and Layout of PFAL
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Motion Economy and PDCA Cycle
      • Plant Production Process
      • Layout
      • Sanitation Control
    • Chapter 17: Hydroponic Systems
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Hydroponic System
      • Sensors and Controllers
      • Nutrient Management Systems
      • Ion-Specific Nutrient Management
      • Sterilization System
    • Chapter 18: Seeding, Seedling Production and Transplanting
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Preparation
      • Seeding
      • Seedling Production and Transplanting
    • Chapter 19: Transplant Production in Closed Systems
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Main Components and Their Functions
      • Ecophysiology of Transplant Production
      • Photosynthetic Characteristics of Vegetable and Medicinal Transplants as Affected by Light Environment
      • Blueberry
      • Propagation and Production of Strawberry Transplants
    • Chapter 20: Photoautotrophic Micropropagation
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Development of PAM
      • Advantages and Disadvantages of PAM for Growth Enhancement of In Vitro Plants
      • Natural Ventilation System Using Different Types of Small Culture Vessels
      • Forced Ventilation System for Large Culture Vessels
      • Potential for Secondary Metabolite Production of In Vitro Medicinal Plants by Using PAM
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 21: Biological Factor Management
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Controlling Algae
      • Microorganism Management
    • Chapter 22: Design and Management of PFAL
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Structure and Function of the PFAL-D&M System
      • PFAL-D (Design) Subsystem
      • PFAL-M Subsystem
      • Design of Lighting System
      • Electricity Consumption and Its Reduction
      • Three-Dimensional Distribution of Air Temperature
      • Plant Growth Measurement, Analysis, and Control
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 23: Automated Technology in Plant Factories with Artificial Lighting
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Seeding Device
      • Seedling Selection Robot System
      • Shuttle-Type Transfer Robot
      • Cultivation Panel Washer
    • Chapter 24: Life Cycle Assessment
      • Abstract
      • Standard of LCA
      • Remarks for the Assessment of PFAL
      • Summary and Outlook
    • Chapter 25: Education, Training, and Intensive Business Forums on Plant Factories
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Plant Factories in the Center
      • Plant Environment Designing Program
      • Intensive Business Forums on Plant Factories
      • JPFA’s Business Workshops
  • Part 4: PFALs in Operation and its Perspectives
    • Chapter 26: Selected Commercial PFALs in Japan and Taiwan
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Representative PFALs in Taiwan
      • Spread Co., Ltd.
      • Mirai Co., Ltd.
      • Japan Dome House Co., Ltd.
      • Internationally Local & Company (InLoCo)
      • Sci Tech Farm Co., Ltd.
      • Berg Earth Co., Ltd.
    • Chapter 27: Challenges for the Next-Generation PFAL
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Lighting System
      • Breeding and Seed Propagation
      • Cultivation
      • PFAL with Solar Cells
    • Chapter 28: Conclusions: Resource-Saving and Resource-Consuming Characteristics of PFALs
      • Abstract
      • Roles of PFALs in Urban Areas
      • Benefits of Producing Fresh Vegetables Using PFALs in Urban Areas
      • Resource-Saving Characteristics of PFALs
      • Possible Reductions in Electricity Consumption and Initial Investment
      • Challenges
  • Index


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About the Editor

Toyoki Kozai

Oyoki Kozai

Japan Plant Factory Association (NPO)

c/o Center for Environment, Health and Field Sciences,

Chiba University

6-2-1 Kashiwa-no-ha, Japan

Telephone: 81-4-7137 -8114, Fax: 81-4-7137 -8114

Email address:

Chief Director, Association for Plant Factory Managers

Chief-Director, Japan Plant Factory Association (NPO)

Professor Emeritus of Chiba University

Summary of Academic achievements

Publications: 270 original papers, 140 review papers, 159 miscellaneous papers,

171 book or book chapters, 7 translations of books from English to Japanese

Patents: 20 active patents, 50 approved patents in total

Number of Invited Lectures at International Meetings: 47

Number of Invited Lectures at National Meetings: 85

National and International Awards

2009 Awarded for Lifetime Achievement from The Society for In Vitro Biology

2003 Awarded for outstanding contribution from Japanese Society of High Technology in Agriculture

2002 Purple Ribbon Award from Prime Minister of Japanese Government for the academic achievement of environmental studies in biology.

2002 Friendship Award from Chinese Government for the 2003 achievement of outstanding contribution to Chinese horticultural industry

2000 Fellow, Japan Association of International Commission of Agricultural Engineering

1997 Japan Prize for Agricultural Science for the academic achievement “Growth Regulation and Mass-propagation of in vitro plantlets by Physical Environment Control” awarded by Japanese Academy of Agricultural Sciences and by Yomiuri Newspaper Co.

1992 Prize for academic achievement in “Environmental Control in Photoautotrophic Plant Tissue Culture” awarded by Japanese Society of Environment Control in Biology.

1991 Prize for academic achievement in “Fundamental Research on Environmental Control Methods for Factory-type Transplant Production” awarded by Japanese Society of High Technology in Agriculture.

1982 Prize for academic achievement in “Solar Light Transmission in Greenhouses” awarded by the Society of Agricultural Meteorology of Japan

Affiliations and Expertise

Center for Environment, Health and Field Sciences, Chiba University, Japan

Genhua Niu

Texas AgriLife Research at El Paso and Texas A&M University, TX, USA

Genhua Niu

Associate Professor

Texas AgriLife Research and Extension Center at El Paso, Texas A&M System

El Paso, 1380 A&M Circle, TX 79927

Phone: 915 859 9111 Ext 232; Fax: 915 859 1078

Email:; URL:

Areas of Expertise

  • Environmental stress physiology
  • Modeling and crop production under controlled environment
  • Nutrient and salinity management for efficient use of water and fertilizer
  • Micropropagation

Dr. Genhua Niu is an off campus faculty at the Texas A&M AgriLife Research Center at El Paso with 100% Research Appointment. Her areas of special expertise are in environmental stress physiology and plant production in controlled environment. Her current research areas include identifying drought and salt tolerant low water use plant materials for urban landscape, quantifying growth and physiological responses of crops to drought, salt and heat stresses, and determining the minimum water requirement for urban landscape plants for maintaining a healthy landscape while conserving water. In addition, Dr. Niu is also working on evaluating the salt and drought tolerance of a range of bioenergy crops and vegetables for the semi-arid region. As a researcher at an off campus research center, Dr. Niu closely works with county extension agents on local extension programs. She also collaborates with faculty members at the Department of Horticultural Sciences, other research centers, and colleagues at other universities on research programs and graduate student education by co-advising and serving as a graduate committee member. In professional society service, Dr. Niu has been active by serving as officers of several working groups for American Society for Horticultural Science and USDA regional meetings.

Professional Recognition:

  • Extension Communications Award by Southern Region American Society for Horticultural Science. Mengmeng Gu, Dotty Woodson, Bart Drees, Steve George, Joe Masabni, Monte Nesbitt, Kevin Ong, Tony Provin, Benjamin Wherley, Doug Welsh, Genhua Niu, John Pitt, Christin LaChance, Charriss York, Richard White, James Thomas, Charles Fontanier, Jonathan Smith, Reagan Hejl.
  • 2014. Earth-Kind Landscape Management.
  • Bridget Fellow of Japan Society for Promotion of Science, 2010. Host: Chiba University from Nov 6 to Dec 11, 2010.
  • USDA CSREES National Water Program Award for Outstanding Integrated Activities for Water Resources, Rio Grande Basin Initiative Team Member, 2007.
  • First USDA national teamwork award for integrated water resources, ranked number 1 out of 37 nominations.
  • Vice Chancellor’s Award in Excellence, Rio Grande Basin Initiative Team Member, 2006, Texas A&M University Agriculture Program.
  • Post-doctoral research Fellowship of Japan Society for Promotion of Science (JSPS), 1997 - 1998, Chiba University, Japan.
  • Japanese Government Scholarship recipient, 1992 –1997, Chiba University, Japan

Affiliations and Expertise

Associate Professor, Texas AgriLife Research, El Paso, Texas A&M University, El Paso, TX, USA

Michiko Takagaki

Affiliations and Expertise

Center for Environment, Health and Field Sciences, Chiba University, Japan


"Plant Factory is very useful for a beginner interested to venture into crop production using plant factory system. It provides a comprehensive information from all aspects of crop production under a housing or factory system, inclusive the design of the structure and lighting and their mantainance. I would recommend it to be used as a textbook for horticulture course on vegetables production system where land is limited such as in urban areas. The science or technical know-how is very strong as a lot of research has been conducted to support the claims. It is quite unusual for a book to even provide information on the training centre whereby a trainee can register himself or herself. As it mentioned, this system of vegetables production is rather costly and the economics or cost-benefit analysis should be included as one of the main topic in the book. Also, the risk or probability of failure of the entrepreneur investing in this system to succeed or make money should also be highlighted. Also, it will be quite useful to know the perception of customers or how to convince the customers to pay more for the vegetables produced in the plant factory." -- Prof. Dr. Che Fauziah Ishak, Universiti Putra Malaysia