Incompressible Flow Turbomachines - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780750676038, 9780080478456

Incompressible Flow Turbomachines

1st Edition

Design, Selection, Applications, and Theory

Authors: G.F. Round
Hardcover ISBN: 9780750676038
eBook ISBN: 9780080478456
Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
Published Date: 15th June 2004
Page Count: 352
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The primary purpose of this book is to provide an integrated overview of incompressible flow turbomachines and their design, in this case pumps and turbines. Theory and empirical knowledge of turbomachines are brought together in detail to form a framework for a basic understanding of this complex subject. A step-by-step approach is used by means of solved problems at the end of each chapter to accomplish this.

Key Features

·Presents a clear overview of incompressible flow turbomachines
·Treats both types of turbomachines in one text
·Includes a large number of illustative solved problems


Industrial engineers, chemical engineers, mechanical engineers, technicians and designers working with hydraulic turbomachines; Final year undergraduate students and graduate students in advanced level fluid mechanics, thermodynamics or turbomachinery courses

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Historical Background and Present State of Development 1.1 Greek and Roman machines
1.2 The Middle Ages 1.3 The Renaissance 1.4 Post Renaissance 1.5 19th Century to the present 1.6 General classification of rotodynamic turbines and pumps 1.7 Theoretical limitations 1.8 References

Chapter 2
Theory of Turbomachines
2.1 Equations governing the behavior of turbomachines
2.2 Continuity equation
2.3 Linear momentum theorem 2.4 Angular momentum equation 2.5 Euler Turbine Equation 2.6 Bernoulli equation 2.7 The energy equation 2.8 Similarity 2.9 Dimensional analysis 2.10 Restrictions on similarity applications
2.11 Dimensionless groups and specific speed
2.12 Scaling discrepancies 2.13 Graphical correlations for specific speed
2.14 General geometry of rotational, radial and axial flows

2.15 Circulation, free vortex flow and the Kutta-Joukowski theorem 2.16 Forces acting on an axial flow turbine and axial flow pump blade 2.17 Stream function and streamlines 2.18 Velocity potential
2.19 Superposition of streamlines 2.20 Axisymetric flows and Stokes' stream function 2.21 Meridional streamlines and velocities 2.22 Effects of friction on flows through turbomachines

2.23 Solved problems

Chapter 3
Turbines 3.1 Classification of turbines 3.2 General operating conditions 3.3 Impulse turbines - Pelton wheels
3.3.1 Speed factor, Ö 3.3.2 Specific speed of Pelton wheels 3.3.3 Nozzles
3.3.4 Jet force on runner 3.3.5 Arrangement of nozzles and size of jets 3.3.6 Jet velocity and diameter 3.3.7 Runner 3.3.8 Turgo wheels 3.4 Radial flow turbines - Francis turbines 3.4.1 Choice of turbine speed 3.4.2 Effect of gate opening 3.5 Axial flow turbines - propeller and Kaplan turbines 3.5.1 Combinator 3.5.2 Effects of rotor and guide vane angle 3.5.3 Selection of speed and runner dimensions 3.6 Other turbines 3.61 Pump turbines 3.6.2 Deriaz turbine 3.6.3 Bulb turbine 3.6.4 Banki turbine 3.6.5 Michell turbine 3.7 Control and governing of turbines 3.7.1 Function of a governor 3.7.2 Equations for load changes 3.7.3 Governors 3.7.4 Relief valves 3.8 Solved problems 3.9 References

Chapter 4
4.1 Introduction 4.1.1 Theoretical characteristics of centrifugal pumps 4.2 Classification of rotary pumps 4.3 Radial flow pumps 4.3.1 Geometry 4.3.2 Power 4.3.3 Theoretical head 4.3.4 Energy Losses 4.3.5 Head losses 4.3.6 Leakage losses 4.3.7 Disk friction loss 4.3.8 Mechanical losses 4.3.9 Specific speed and impeller geometry 4.3.10 Modeling of flow through an impeller 4.3.11 Axi-symmetric flow 4.3.12 Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH) 4.3.13 Slip factors
4.3.14 Effect of blade number, outlet blade angle and circulation in blade passages 4.3.15 Choice of blade number and blade overlap 4.3.16 Energy recovery 4.3.17 Examples of radial flow pumps 4.3.18 Installation of a typical centrifugal pump 4.3.19 Special purpose radial flow pumps 4.4 Mixed flow pumps - diagonal impeller pumps 4.5 Axial and semi-axial pumps
4.5.1 Unbounded axial impellers or propellers 4.6 Pump characteristics of centrifugal pumps 4.6.1 single centrifugal pumps - radial and mixed flow impellers 4.6.2 Effect of fluid properties 4.7 Series and parallel connections 4.7.1 Multi-stage centrifugal pumps 4.8 Displacement rotary pumps 4.8.1 Vane pumps 4.8.2 Peristaltic pump 4.8.3 Lobe pumps 4.8.4 RVP pump 4.8.5 Water ring pump 4.9 Flow control 4.9.1 Throttling of the flow at inlet or outlet 4.9.2 Pump disconnection 4.9.3 Regulated flow bypass 4.9.4 Speed regulation 4.9.5 Impeller blade adjustment 4.9.6 Inlet guide vane adjustment
4.9.7 Air locking 4.10 Automatic priming 4.11 Fluid couplings 4.12 Solved problems 4.13 References

Chapter 5
Some aspects of design 5.1 General remarks
5.2 Application to flow 5.2.1 Axial flow design 5.3 Axial and radial thrusts in pumps and turbines 5.3.1 Axial 5.3.2 Closed single-entry centrifugal impellers
5.3.3 Multi-stage balancing of single-entry stages 5.3.4 Radial 5.4 Critical speeds 5.4.1 Unbalanced simple rotor
5.4.2 Application of the Rayleigh equations 5.4.3 Use of singularity functions 5.4.4 Solution by numerical integration

5.4.5 Torsional critical speed 5.5 Seals 5.6 Glands 5.7 Solved problems 5.8 References

Chapter 6
Blades of Single and Double Curvature
6.1 General remarks on design of runners and impellers 6.2 Single curvature design 6.2.1 Meridional velocities, inlet diameter and inlet angle. 6.2.2 Tip impeller velocity, u2 and outlet diameter d2.
6.2.4 Dimension calculations, continuity adjustments 6.3 Example of design - blade of single curvature 6.4.1 Impeller blades with double curvature 6.5 Design of double curvature blades by conformal mapping
6.6 References

Chapter 7 Inlet and Outlet Elements 7.1 Inlet elements of turbines 7.1.1 Surge tanks 7.1.2 Basic equations for differential surge tanks 7.1.3 Instability of the surge tank 7.2 Inlet elements of pumps 7.2.1 Volute suction chambers 7.3 Outlet elements of turbines 7.3.1 Draft tubes
7.4 Outlet elements of pumps 7.4.1 Volute design 7.4.2 Velocity distributions in different volute cross-sections 7.4.3 Example design of a constant velocity volute 7.5 Solved problems 7.6 References

Chapter 8 Head losses in components of turbine and pump systems 8.1 Pipes 8.1.1 Friction factor 8.1.2 Hydraulic diameter 8.2 Losses through other elements 8.2.1 Discharge, velocity and contraction coefficients
8.2.2 Nozzle loss 8.2.3 Fittings, valves and joints 8.2.4 Expansions and contractions 8.2.5 Losses in pipe branches 8.3 Total frictional loss in a pipe system 8.4 Solved problems 8.5 Reference

Chapter 9
Cavitation 9.1 Causes of cavitation and parts affected 9.1.1 Methods of detecting cavitation

9.2 Cavitation in turbines 9.2.1 Thoma number, s 9.3 Cavitation in pumps 9.3.1 Cavitation and specific speed 9.4 Determination of limits of cavitation 9.5 Limitations of similarity laws.
9.6 Methods of prevention of cavitation 9.7 Conclusions about cavitation

9.8 References

Chapter 10 Water hammer 10.1 Introduction 10.2 Equations describing wave generation and propagation 10.2.1 Valve opening or closure position as a function of time 10.3 Graphical solution 10.4 Other wave reflections 10.4.1 Reflection at the closed end of a pipe 10.4.2 Effect of change of area cross-section 10.4.3 Junctions and branches 10.5 Solved problems

10.6 References

Chapter 11 Corrosion 11.1 Introduction 11.2 Thermodynamics of the corrosion process 11.2.1 Corrosion of iron and steel 11.2.2 Effect of pH 11.2.3 Action of anaerobic bacteria 11.2.4 Pitting and crevice corrosion 11.3 Corrosion resistance of steel alloys 11.4 Stress corrosion cracking and corrosion fatigue
11.5 Galvanic or bimetallic corrosion 11.6 Cathodic protection 11.6.1 Sacrificial anodes 11.6.2 Protection and overprotection 11.7 References

Appendices A1 - Equations A2 - Table - Specific gravity and viscosity of water at atmospheric pressure A3 - Vapor pressure chart for various liquids A4 - Density of various liquids A5 - Mathematical and Physical Constants
A6 - Conversion factors A7 - Beam formulas and figures A8 - Charts for flows through fittings A9 - Friction factor - Reynolds number chart (Moody diagram) A10 - Table - Values of roughness, e for various materials


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About the Author

G.F. Round

Affiliations and Expertise

Dr. G.F. Round, Professor Emeritus, McMaster University