Incompressible Flow Turbomachines

Incompressible Flow Turbomachines

Design, Selection, Applications, and Theory

1st Edition - June 15, 2004

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  • Author: G.F. Round
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080478456
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780750676038

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The primary purpose of this book is to provide an integrated overview of incompressible flow turbomachines and their design, in this case pumps and turbines. Theory and empirical knowledge of turbomachines are brought together in detail to form a framework for a basic understanding of this complex subject. A step-by-step approach is used by means of solved problems at the end of each chapter to accomplish this.

Key Features

·Presents a clear overview of incompressible flow turbomachines

·Treats both types of turbomachines in one text

·Includes a large number of illustative solved problems


Industrial engineers, chemical engineers, mechanical engineers, technicians and designers working with hydraulic turbomachines; Final year undergraduate students and graduate students in advanced level fluid mechanics, thermodynamics or turbomachinery courses

Table of Contents

  • Chapter 1
    Historical Background and Present State of Development
    1.1 Greek and Roman machines
    1.2 The Middle Ages
    1.3 The Renaissance
    1.4 Post Renaissance
    1.5 19th Century to the present
    1.6 General classification of rotodynamic turbines and pumps
    1.7 Theoretical limitations
    1.8 References

    Chapter 2
    Theory of Turbomachines
    2.1 Equations governing the behavior of turbomachines
    2.2 Continuity equation
    2.3 Linear momentum theorem
    2.4 Angular momentum equation
    2.5 Euler Turbine Equation
    2.6 Bernoulli equation
    2.7 The energy equation
    2.8 Similarity
    2.9 Dimensional analysis
    2.10 Restrictions on similarity applications
    2.11 Dimensionless groups and specific speed
    2.12 Scaling discrepancies
    2.13 Graphical correlations for specific speed
    2.14 General geometry of rotational, radial and axial flows

    2.15 Circulation, free vortex flow and the Kutta-Joukowski theorem
    2.16 Forces acting on an axial flow turbine and axial flow pump blade
    2.17 Stream function and streamlines
    2.18 Velocity potential
    2.19 Superposition of streamlines
    2.20 Axisymetric flows and Stokes' stream function
    2.21 Meridional streamlines and velocities
    2.22 Effects of friction on flows through turbomachines

    2.23 Solved problems

    Chapter 3
    3.1 Classification of turbines
    3.2 General operating conditions
    3.3 Impulse turbines - Pelton wheels
    3.3.1 Speed factor, Ö
    3.3.2 Specific speed of Pelton wheels
    3.3.3 Nozzles
    3.3.4 Jet force on runner
    3.3.5 Arrangement of nozzles and size of jets
    3.3.6 Jet velocity and diameter
    3.3.7 Runner
    3.3.8 Turgo wheels
    3.4 Radial flow turbines - Francis turbines
    3.4.1 Choice of turbine speed
    3.4.2 Effect of gate opening
    3.5 Axial flow turbines - propeller and Kaplan turbines
    3.5.1 Combinator
    3.5.2 Effects of rotor and guide vane angle
    3.5.3 Selection of speed and runner dimensions
    3.6 Other turbines
    3.61 Pump turbines
    3.6.2 Deriaz turbine
    3.6.3 Bulb turbine
    3.6.4 Banki turbine
    3.6.5 Michell turbine
    3.7 Control and governing of turbines
    3.7.1 Function of a governor
    3.7.2 Equations for load changes
    3.7.3 Governors
    3.7.4 Relief valves
    3.8 Solved problems
    3.9 References

    Chapter 4
    4.1 Introduction
    4.1.1 Theoretical characteristics of centrifugal pumps
    4.2 Classification of rotary pumps
    4.3 Radial flow pumps
    4.3.1 Geometry
    4.3.2 Power
    4.3.3 Theoretical head
    4.3.4 Energy Losses
    4.3.5 Head losses
    4.3.6 Leakage losses
    4.3.7 Disk friction loss
    4.3.8 Mechanical losses
    4.3.9 Specific speed and impeller geometry
    4.3.10 Modeling of flow through an impeller
    4.3.11 Axi-symmetric flow
    4.3.12 Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH)
    4.3.13 Slip factors
    4.3.14 Effect of blade number, outlet blade angle and circulation in blade passages
    4.3.15 Choice of blade number and blade overlap
    4.3.16 Energy recovery
    4.3.17 Examples of radial flow pumps
    4.3.18 Installation of a typical centrifugal pump
    4.3.19 Special purpose radial flow pumps
    4.4 Mixed flow pumps - diagonal impeller pumps
    4.5 Axial and semi-axial pumps
    4.5.1 Unbounded axial impellers or propellers
    4.6 Pump characteristics of centrifugal pumps
    4.6.1 single centrifugal pumps - radial and mixed flow impellers
    4.6.2 Effect of fluid properties
    4.7 Series and parallel connections
    4.7.1 Multi-stage centrifugal pumps
    4.8 Displacement rotary pumps
    4.8.1 Vane pumps
    4.8.2 Peristaltic pump
    4.8.3 Lobe pumps
    4.8.4 RVP pump
    4.8.5 Water ring pump
    4.9 Flow control
    4.9.1 Throttling of the flow at inlet or outlet
    4.9.2 Pump disconnection
    4.9.3 Regulated flow bypass
    4.9.4 Speed regulation
    4.9.5 Impeller blade adjustment
    4.9.6 Inlet guide vane adjustment
    4.9.7 Air locking
    4.10 Automatic priming
    4.11 Fluid couplings
    4.12 Solved problems
    4.13 References

    Chapter 5
    Some aspects of design
    5.1 General remarks
    5.2 Application to flow
    5.2.1 Axial flow design
    5.3 Axial and radial thrusts in pumps and turbines
    5.3.1 Axial
    5.3.2 Closed single-entry centrifugal impellers
    5.3.3 Multi-stage balancing of single-entry stages
    5.3.4 Radial
    5.4 Critical speeds
    5.4.1 Unbalanced simple rotor
    5.4.2 Application of the Rayleigh equations
    5.4.3 Use of singularity functions
    5.4.4 Solution by numerical integration

    5.4.5 Torsional critical speed
    5.5 Seals
    5.6 Glands
    5.7 Solved problems
    5.8 References

    Chapter 6
    Blades of Single and Double Curvature
    6.1 General remarks on design of runners and impellers
    6.2 Single curvature design
    6.2.1 Meridional velocities, inlet diameter and inlet angle.
    6.2.2 Tip impeller velocity, u2 and outlet diameter d2.
    6.2.4 Dimension calculations, continuity adjustments
    6.3 Example of design - blade of single curvature
    6.4.1 Impeller blades with double curvature
    6.5 Design of double curvature blades by conformal mapping
    6.6 References

    Chapter 7
    Inlet and Outlet Elements
    7.1 Inlet elements of turbines
    7.1.1 Surge tanks
    7.1.2 Basic equations for differential surge tanks
    7.1.3 Instability of the surge tank
    7.2 Inlet elements of pumps
    7.2.1 Volute suction chambers
    7.3 Outlet elements of turbines
    7.3.1 Draft tubes
    7.4 Outlet elements of pumps
    7.4.1 Volute design
    7.4.2 Velocity distributions in different volute cross-sections
    7.4.3 Example design of a constant velocity volute
    7.5 Solved problems
    7.6 References

    Chapter 8
    Head losses in components of turbine and pump systems
    8.1 Pipes
    8.1.1 Friction factor
    8.1.2 Hydraulic diameter
    8.2 Losses through other elements
    8.2.1 Discharge, velocity and contraction coefficients
    8.2.2 Nozzle loss
    8.2.3 Fittings, valves and joints
    8.2.4 Expansions and contractions
    8.2.5 Losses in pipe branches
    8.3 Total frictional loss in a pipe system
    8.4 Solved problems
    8.5 Reference

    Chapter 9
    9.1 Causes of cavitation and parts affected
    9.1.1 Methods of detecting cavitation

    9.2 Cavitation in turbines
    9.2.1 Thoma number, s
    9.3 Cavitation in pumps
    9.3.1 Cavitation and specific speed
    9.4 Determination of limits of cavitation
    9.5 Limitations of similarity laws.
    9.6 Methods of prevention of cavitation
    9.7 Conclusions about cavitation

    9.8 References

    Chapter 10
    Water hammer
    10.1 Introduction
    10.2 Equations describing wave generation and propagation
    10.2.1 Valve opening or closure position as a function of time
    10.3 Graphical solution
    10.4 Other wave reflections
    10.4.1 Reflection at the closed end of a pipe
    10.4.2 Effect of change of area cross-section
    10.4.3 Junctions and branches
    10.5 Solved problems

    10.6 References

    Chapter 11
    11.1 Introduction
    11.2 Thermodynamics of the corrosion process
    11.2.1 Corrosion of iron and steel
    11.2.2 Effect of pH
    11.2.3 Action of anaerobic bacteria
    11.2.4 Pitting and crevice corrosion
    11.3 Corrosion resistance of steel alloys
    11.4 Stress corrosion cracking and corrosion fatigue
    11.5 Galvanic or bimetallic corrosion
    11.6 Cathodic protection
    11.6.1 Sacrificial anodes
    11.6.2 Protection and overprotection
    11.7 References

    A1 - Equations
    A2 - Table - Specific gravity and viscosity of water at atmospheric pressure
    A3 - Vapor pressure chart for various liquids
    A4 - Density of various liquids
    A5 - Mathematical and Physical Constants
    A6 - Conversion factors
    A7 - Beam formulas and figures
    A8 - Charts for flows through fittings
    A9 - Friction factor - Reynolds number chart (Moody diagram)
    A10 - Table - Values of roughness, e for various materials

Product details

  • No. of pages: 352
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Butterworth-Heinemann 2004
  • Published: June 15, 2004
  • Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080478456
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780750676038

About the Author

G.F. Round

Affiliations and Expertise

Dr. G.F. Round, Professor Emeritus, McMaster University

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