Income-Tested Transfer Programs

Income-Tested Transfer Programs

The Case for and Against

1st Edition - January 28, 1982

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  • Editor: Irwin Garfinkel
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483260495

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Income Tested Transfer Programs: The Case for and Against covers the proceedings of the 1979 conference of leading scientists, sponsored by the Institute for Research on Poverty. The contributors consider the contribution of social science knowledge and analysis in settling the arguments in the debate about the merits of income testing in transfer programs. This text is divided into 13 chapters and begins with an overview of the history, stigmatization processes, and social cohesion of the program. The succeeding chapters define the terms “income-tested” and “non-income-tested”, as well as the historical importance of the income-testing issue. The discussion then shifts to the development of both income-tested and non-income tested programs in the United States. These topics are followed by surveys of the income support system and the issues in the income-testing debate. The remaining chapters provide evidence that most Americans have too much income testing in the overall income maintenance system. These chapters also present a reform agenda designed to reduce the role of income testing. This book will be of value to social scientists, social welfare workers, and researchers.

Table of Contents

  • List of Figures and Tables



    1 Introduction

    Terms and Concepts

    Historical Importance of the Income-Testing Issue

    Our Current Income Support System

    The Issues and the Papers

    2 Stigma in Income-Tested Programs

    Stigmatization Processes

    The Stigma of Poverty

    The Intensified Stigma of Charity

    Responses to Stigmatization

    Stigma in Other Income-Tested Programs

    Conclusion: Income Testing as an Intensifier of the Poverty Stigma



    Discussion: Modeling the Decision to Apply for Welfare

    3 Income Testing and Social Cohesion

    What Is Social Cohesion?

    Argument 1: Universal Programs Are Less Likely to Reduce Social Cohesion Than Are Income-Tested Programs

    Argument 2: Universal Programs Are No Less Likely, Perhaps Even More Likely, to Reduce Social Cohesion Than Income-Tested Programs



    4 Income Testing and Politics: A Theoretical Model

    A Political Model

    The Politics of Income Testing





    5 Social Policy Development in Europe and America: A Longer View on Selectivity and Income Testing

    When and Why Social Insurance Benefits and Educational Opportunities Became More Widely Extended

    Trends Toward Universality of Coverage in Social Insurance and Education

    Universality and Selectivity in Contemporary American Policies



    Discussion: Ideology, Education, and Social Security

    6 A Simulation Analysis of the Economic Efficiency and Distributional Effects of Alternative Program Structures: The Negative Income Tax Versus the Credit Income Tax

    Introduction and Major Findings


    Results from the Simulations




    7 Taxpayer Behavior and the Design of a Credit Income Tax


    Antecedents of the CIT

    Definition of the Tax-Transfer Unit

    Accounting Period and Procedures

    Definition of Taxable Income

    Administrative Arrangements

    Surtax Considerations

    Categorization for Benefits

    Costs of Administration and Compliance

    The Role of the CIT in Public Finance

    Political Economy and CIT Implementation

    Appendix 7.A: Elements of Taxable Income for CIT

    Appendix 7.B: CIT Administrative Design and Marginal Tax Rates



    8 Income Testing and Social Welfare: An Optimal Tax-Transfer Model

    The Model



    Summary, Qualifications, and Policy Implications

    Appendix: Nonfully Integrated Tax-Transfer Systems



    9 Income Testing of In-Kind Transfers


    The Case for Income Testing

    The Case for Universal Services

    Conclusion: Income Testing as a Scarce Resource



    10 Financing Health Care

    Current Arrangements for Financing American Health Care and Their Problems

    Major Goals and Other Considerations of NHI

    The Universal and Income-Tested Concepts as Applied to NHI

    Alternative Approaches to NHI

    Assessment of NHI Alternatives

    Summary and Conclusions


    11 Single-Parent Households Under Alternative Transfer and Tax Systems

    Why Single-Parent Households Present a Special Problem for Society

    The History of Public Policy Toward Support of Children in One-Parent Households

    The Distributional Consequences of the Status Quo

    The Consequences of Credit and Negative Income Tax Schemes, with Categorical Modifications for One-Parent Households

    The Remaining Dilemma and a Possible Solution




    12 Income Testing in Income Support Programs for the Aged

    Should Social Adequacy Be a Concern of OASI?

    Models of the Three Systems

    The Problem of What to Hold Constant

    Data and Methodology

    Major Results

    Some Qualifications

    Isolating the Effects of the Welfare Features of OASI


    Appendix: Basic Provisions of the Supplemental Security Income Program



    13 Conclusion

    The Major Issues Reviewed

    Income-Testing Particular Programs

    Implications for Policy


    Author Index

    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 576
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1982
  • Published: January 28, 1982
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483260495

About the Editor

Irwin Garfinkel

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