Inactivity: Physiological Effects

Inactivity: Physiological Effects

1st Edition - December 9, 1986

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  • Author: Harold Sandler
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323159869

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Description

Inactivity: Physiological Effects describes the physiological deconditioning inherent in inactivity and immobilization. This book is organized into eight chapters that review the body of information from studies on healthy volunteers conducted in direct support of the space program. Considerable chapters are devoted to the changes occurring in the cardiovascular system, bone and muscle, metabolism and endocrine responses, psychosocial responses, and exercise tolerance. Other chapters discuss the clinical effects and clinical management of deterioration while indicating the changes that have been found in health, normal bed rested subjects. The remaining chapters explore the data on crews that have flown in since their physiological responses are qualitatively similar to those observed in bed rested subjects or immobilized patients on earth. Clinicians, nursing staff, physiologists, researchers, and students in the field will find this book invaluable.

Table of Contents


  • Foreword

    Preface

    1 Introduction

    I. Entry into the Space Age

    II. Ground-Based Simulations of Weightlessness

    III. Effects of Inactivity

    IV. The Effects of Gravity

    V. Summary

    References

    2 Cardiovascular Effects of Inactivity

    I. The Impact of Gravity

    II. Levels of Defense in Body Position Changes

    III. The Gauer-Henry Reflex

    IV. Cardiovascular Responses to Inactivity and Immobilization

    V. Stress Test Responses following Inactivity

    VI. Cardiovascular Changes with Weightlessness

    VII. Management of Cardiovascular Effects of Inactivity

    VIII. Clinical Applications

    References

    3 Effects of Inactivity on Bone and Calcium Metabolism

    I. Current Concepts of Skeletal Metabolism

    II. Current Concepts in Calcium Metabolism

    III. Negative Calcium Balance during Bed Rest

    IV. Changes in Blood Chemistries during Bed Rest

    V. Intestinal Calcium Absorption during Bed Rest

    VI. Renal Excretion of Calcium during Bed Rest

    VII. Influence of Age and Sex on Calciuria

    VIII. The Effect of Bed Rest on Bone Density

    IX. Effects of Immobilization on Bone Composition and Structure

    X. Effects of Exercise on Bone Loss during Bed Rest

    XI. Bone Loss during Spaceflight

    XII. Bone Changes in "Bed Rested" Animal Models

    XIII. Summary

    Reference

    4 Effects of Inactivity on Muscle

    I. Muscles and Gravity

    II. Functional Anatomy

    III. Biochemistry of Muscle Contraction

    IV. Neural Control

    V. Effects of Exercise on Muscles

    VI. Disuse Atrophy of Muscle

    VII. Effects of Inactivity

    VIII. Spaceflight Findings

    IX. Management of Disuse Atrophy

    X. Diseases of Muscle Inactivity

    XI. Conclusions

    References

    5 Metabolic and Endocrine Changes

    I. Metabolic Changes with Inactivity

    II. Post-Bed-Rest Orthostatic Hypotension and Countermeasures

    III. Drug Metabolism and Drug Action

    IV.Conclusions

    References

    6 Psychosocial and Chronophysiological Effects of Inactivity and Immobilization

    I. Introduction

    II. Isolation

    III. Immobilization

    IV. Summary and Conclusions

    References

    7 Exercise Responses after Inactivity

    I. Introduction

    II. Exercise Performance after Bed Rest

    III. Physiologic Changes Associated with Reduced Work Capacity

    IV. Environmental Factors Affecting Exercise Performance after Bed Rest

    V. Recovery from Bed Rest Inactivity

    VI. Practical Applications

    VII. Summary

    References

    8 Conclusions

    I. Cardiovascular Effects

    II. Effects on Bone

    III. Effects on Muscle

    IV. Metabolic and Endocrine Changes

    V. Psychosocial Aspects of Immobilization

    VI. The Impact of Exercise

    VII. Summary

    References

    Index




Product details

  • No. of pages: 222
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1986
  • Published: December 9, 1986
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323159869

About the Author

Harold Sandler

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