In Vitro Toxicity Indicators

In Vitro Toxicity Indicators

1st Edition - April 25, 1994

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  • Editor: Hanspeter Witschi
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080924403

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About the Series:In the tradition of Methods in Enzymology and Methods in Neurosciences, Academic Press is pleased to announce a new serial: Methods in Toxicology. There is a pressing need among researchers involved in toxicologic investigation for a series of publications that organizes and presents information on the latest experimental methodologies. To address the needs of researchers in toxicology, toxicologic pathology, pharmacology, and clinical biochemistry, this new serial provides comprehensive descriptions of state-of-the-art methods for evaluating drug and chemical toxicity. Thematic volumes focus on mechanistic approaches to the study of toxicity both in vitro and in vivo, taking advantage of the recent advances in the biological and chemical sciences that allow closer scrutiny of the mechanisms by which agents cause damage. Each volume begins with an introductory chapter that offers a broad guide to the application of methods addressed in that volume. Subsequent chapters contain detailed descriptions of research protocols, accessible both to experts and those new to toxicologic investigation. Included in each chapter are clearly defined procedures, discussions of limitations of the method, comparative considerations (species, sex, strain), interpretations of results, and explanations of how the methods may serve as alternatives to in vivo testing. Each volume of Methods in Toxicology is available in case binding for the library and Wire-O-binding for the laboratory. About the Book:Concurrent with the development of biological systems for in vitro toxicologic investigations (Volume 1A-In Vitro Biological Systems), techniques have evolved to detect and evaluate the diverse effects produced when toxicants interact with these systems. This volume describes methods for detecting and quantifying pertubations in various cellular parameters related to cell dysfunction and death (including apoptosis) associated with adverse toxicant action. Each endpoint measurement probes one aspect of the response of the biological system to a toxicant. When several techniques are used in combination, it is possible to derive a more complete understanding of the mechanism of toxicity at the cellular, tissue, or organ level. The methods collected here are organized by major categories of toxic effects, such as membrane damage, disruption of energy metabolism, and lipid peroxidation, commonly monitored by toxicologists during a comprehensive toxicity study. Specialized techniques of interest and value in mechanistic investigations are included. As with the first volume, the goal is not to obtain an exhaustive collection of methods, but rather to assemble in a single central reference a set of valuable techniques that are used for toxicologic investigations, along with cautionary remarks on their use and limitations.

Table of Contents

  • Contributors.
    Cellular and Molecular Pathobiology of Reversible and Irreversible Injury, B.F. Trump and I.K. Berezesky.
    Molecular Mechanisms of Toxic Cell Death: An Overview, P. Nicotera and S. Orrenius.
    Membrane Lipid Peroxidation: Cellular Mechanisms and Toxicological Implications, L. Ernster and P. Hochstein.
    Membrane Integrity and Function:
    Enzyme Leakage as an Indicator of Cytotoxicity in Cultured Cells, A.A. Welder and D. Acosta.
    Cellular K+, V. Kefalas and N.H. Stacey.
    Morphological and Biochemical Investigations on Plasma Membrane Blebbing During Cell Injury, G. Bellomo, F. Mirabelli, M. Vairetti, F. Iosi, and W. Malorni.
    Morphological Evaluation of Gap Junctional Intercellular Communication, J.E. Klaunig and T.K. Baker.
    Fluorescence Microscopic Examination of Cytoskeletal Elements, I.-N. Chou, W. Li, and G.B. Zamansky.
    Energy Coupled Na+ Cotransport, S.M. Ford.
    Renal Organic Ion Transport, C.E. Groves, H.V. Sheevers, and S.J. McGuinness.
    Endoplasmic Reticulum Calcium Pump, L. Moore.
    Energy Metabolism:
    Measurement of Oxygen Consumption, R.G. Schnellmann.
    ATP and Other Energetic Parameters as Indicators of Cell Injury, Y. Park, T.Y. Aw, and D.P. Jones.
    Evaluation of Glucose Metabolism in Vitro: Altered Competence of Intermediary Metabolism as an Index of Hepatotoxicity, M.J. Olson
    DNA-Related Indices:
    Quantitation of DNA by Fluorometry, S.R. Gallagher and Z. Rymaszewski.
    Techniques for Measuring Cell Proliferation, F. Dolbeare and M. Vanderlaan.
    Nuclease P1-Enhanced 32P-Postlabeling Assay for Aromatic Carcinogen-DNA Adducts, M.V. Reddy and K. Randerath.
    Genomic Hypomethylation, V.L. Wilson.
    DNA Degradation: Double-Strand Breaks, A.H. Wyllie, M.J. Arends, R.M. Hogg, and A. Nunn.
    Genotypic Mutation Analysis by RFLP/PCR, F. Aguilar and P. Cerutti.
    Functional Indices:
    Gluconeogenesis in Liver Cells, R.G. Knowles and C.I. Pogson.
    Measurement of Protein Synthesis, M.J. Meredith.
    Measuring Collagen Synthesis, W.J. Lindblad.
    Measurement of Macrophage Phagocytosis Using a Sheep Red Blood Cell Assay, G.L. Finch.
    Biochemical Indices:
    Cell Function Studies Using Fluorescent Ca2+ Indicators, A.P. Thomas.
    Ca2+-Bioluminescent Indicators, A.B. Borle.
    Measurement of Receptor-Activated Accumulation of Inositol Phosphates as an Index of Phospholipase C Activity, S.B. Shears.
    Covalent Binding to Proteins, S.D. Nelson.
    Glutathione, Oxidized Glutathione, and Mixed Disulfides in Biological Samples, E.P. Gallagher, T.J. Kavanagh, and D.L Eaton.
    Lipid Peroxidation:
    Thiobarbituric Acid Assay Reactants, S.D. Aust.
    Volatile Hydrocarbons, H. Kappus.
    Electronically Excited State Formation, E. Cadenas, C. Giulivi, F. Ursini, and A. Boveris.
    Spectrophotometric Detection of Lipid-Conjugated Dienes, E.A. Glende, Jr., and R.O. Recknagel.
    Quantitation of Conjugated Dienes by a Dieles-Alder Reaction, D.A.G. Mickle.
    Quantitation of Conjugated Dienes by Second-Derivative UV Spectroscopy, F.P. Corongiu, S. Banni, and B. Lombardi.
    Specialized Techniques:
    A Centrifuge Filtration Separation of Cells, and the Measurement of Constituents, D.J. Reed.
    Flow Cytometry, J.D. Laskin and D.L. Laskin.
    Single-Cell Microscopic Techniques for Studying Toxic Injury, J.J. Lemasters, A.-L. Nieminen, E. Chacon, J.M. Bond, I. Harper, J.M. Reece, and B. Herman.
    Measurement of Macrophage and Neutrophil Chemotaxis, D.L. Laskin.
    Two-Dimensional Electrophoresis as Applied to Problems of in Vitro and in Vivo Toxicology, N.L. Anderson, R. Esquer-Blasco, and N.G. Anderson.

Product details

  • No. of pages: 497
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2013
  • Published: April 25, 1994
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080924403

About the Serial Editor

Hanspeter Witschi

Affiliations and Expertise

Institute of Toxicology and Environmental Health, University of California, Davis, U.S.A.

About the Editor

Charles Tyson

Affiliations and Expertise

Biochemical Toxicology Program, SRI International, Menlo Park, California, U.S.A.

About the Serial Volume Editor

John Frazier

Affiliations and Expertise

The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A.

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