Immunophysiology of the Gut - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780127320854, 9781483273495

Immunophysiology of the Gut

1st Edition

Editors: W. Allan Walker Paul R. Harmatz Barry K. Wershil
eBook ISBN: 9781483273495
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 6th May 1993
Page Count: 474
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Description

Bristol-Myers Squibb/Mead Johnson Nutrition Symposia, Volume 11: Immunophysiology of the Gut represents a comprehensive and systematic coverage of the immunophysiology of the gut, compiling research that integrates the mucosal immune system and intestinal physiology.

This book discusses the immunological regulation of epithelial function, fibroblastic sheath, pathways of arachidonic acid metabolism, and gastric response to mucosal anaphylaxis. The implications for inflammatory diarrhea, role of breast milk in neonatal host defense, and milk-borne peptide growth factors in human and bovine milk are also elaborated. This publication likewise covers the immunopathologic features of celiac disease, immune responses in protein-energy malnutrition, and bacterial translocation.

This volume is suitable for experts and clinicians from the disciplines of mucosal immunology, intestinal physiology, and enteric neurophysiology.

Table of Contents


Contributors

Sponsor's Foreword

Foreword

Preface

Part I Immunophysiology of the Gut

1 Immunological Regulation of Epithelial Function

I. Introduction

II. Discovery—Evidence of Immune Regulation of Epithelial Function

III. Integration—"Patterns That Connect"

IV. Application—Protection, Reconstruction, Attenuation, and Augmentation of Mucosal Immune Responses

References

2 Mesenchymal-Epithelial Interactions: The Subepithelial Fibroblastic Sheath as a Paracrine Modulator of Inflammation-Induced Intestinal Secretion

I. Introduction

II. The Fibroblastic Sheath

III. Methods

IV. Results

V. Discussion

References

3 Immune Regulation of Intestinal Arachidonic Acid Metabolism: Effects on Intestinal Water and Electrolyte Transport

I. Introduction

II. Pathways of Arachidonic Acid Metabolism

III. Immune and Inflammatory Mediators That Stimulate Intestinal Arachidonic Acid Metabolism

IV. Cellular Origin of Stimulated Increases in Arachidonic Acid Metabolites

V. Cellular Mechanisms for Immune Regulation of Arachidonic Acid Release and Metabolism

VI. Mechanisms of Action of Arachidonic Acid Metabolites on Intestinal Secretion

VII. Conclusions

References

4 Gastrointestinal Anaphylaxis: Effect on Gastric and Intestinal Function

I. Introduction

II. Animal Model

III. The Gastric Response to Mucosal Anaphylaxis

IV. Intestinal Response to Acute Anaphylaxis

V. Intestinal Response to Chronic Anaphylaxis

VI. Summary

References

5 Acute and Chronic Control of Colonic Chloride Secretion by Mast Cell Mediators

I. Introduction

II. Acute Effects of Mast Cell Mediators on T84 Cells

III. Chronic Effects of Mast Cell Mediators on T84 Cells

IV. Implications for Inflammatory Diarrhea

References

Part II Lymphokines and Mucosal Immune Function

6 Cytokines and Immune Regulation: An Overview

I. Introduction

II. The Regulation of IgE and IgG1 Antibody Production

III. Cytokine Production by T-Cell Subsets

IV. The Regulation of IgA Production

V. Conclusions

References

7 Antigen-Independent and Antigen-Dependent Development of Mucosal Immunity and Hypersensitivity

I. Introduction

II. Antigen-Independent Development of the Mucosal Immune System in the Human Fetus

III. Cell-Mediated Immune Responses in Intestinal Mucosa Using Explants of Fetal Gut

IV. Activated T Cells in Intestinal Diseases

References

8 Interferon-γ and Class II Antigen Expression on Enterocytes

I. Introduction

II. Expression of Class II Antigens on Intestinal Enterocytes

References

9 Modeling the Intestinal Crypt Abscess-A Characteristic Lesion of Acute Intestinal Inflammation

I. Introduction

II. Model Intestinal Epithelium

III. Polymorphonuclear Leukocyte Transmigration Across T84 Monolayers

IV. The Crypt Abscess

V. Summary

References

10 Role of Lymphokines in Function of Gastrointestinal Mucosal T Cells

I. Introduction

II. Cell Surface Glycoprotein Expressed by Mucosal T Cells

III. Lymphokine Production by Mucosal T Cells in Vitro

IV. Lymphokine Utilization by Mucosal T Cells in Vitro

V. Immunoregulatory Function of Intestinal T Cells in Vitro

VI. Evidence of Lymphokine Production in Response to Specific Antigens

VII. T-Cell Lymphokine mRNA Expression in Vivo in Normal and Inflamed Intestinal Mucosa

VIII. Implications of Mucosal T-Cell Lymphokine Production

References

11 Cytokine Production in the Gastrointestinal Tract During Inflammation

I. The Cytokine Network

II. Inflammatory and Immunoregulatory Cytokines

III. Interleukin 1

IV. Interleukin 2

V. Interleukin 2 Receptor

VI. Interferon-γ

VII. Interleukin 4

VIII. Cytokines in the Pathogenesis and Therapy of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

References

Part III Endocrine Effects on Mucosal Immune Function

12 Neuroimmune Interactions in the Regulation of Mucosal Immunity

I. Introduction

II. Neuroimmune Regulation

III. Mast Cells and Nerves

IV. Nerve Growth Factor

V. Neuronal Remodeling During Inflammation

VI. Summary

References

13 Sex Hormone, Glucocorticoid, and Cytokine Regulation of Mucosal Immunity: Hormonal Influences on Antibody Levels and Antigen Presentation in the Female Genital Tract

I. Introduction

II. Hormonal Regulation of Antibodies in Uterine and Cervicovaginal Secretions

III. Effect of Glucocorticoids on Mucosal Immunity

IV. Influence of Antigen and Interferon-γ on Secretory Component and IgA in the Rat Uterus

V. Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II Expression and Antigen Presentation by Epithelial and Stromal Cells from the Rat Uterus

VI. Conclusions

References

14 Enteric Neuroimmune Interactions

I. Introduction

II. Enteric Neuroimmune Communication

III. Responses of Enteric Neurons to Immune Signals

IV. Neuronal Behavior in the Sensitized Intestine

V. Clinical Implications of Neuroimmune Communication

References

15 Neuroimmune Amplification and Inhibition of Mucosal Function

I. Introduction

II. Methods

III. Results and Discussion

IV. Conclusions

References

Part IV Nutrition and Mucosal Host Defense

16 Breast Milk: Role In Neonatal Host Defense

I. Introduction

II. Qualities and Capacities of Human Milk in Host Defense

III. Breast-Feeding of the Neonate in Different Populations

IV. The Effects of Breast-Feeding on the Neonate

V. Conclusions

References

17 Milk-Borne Peptide Growth Factors in Human and Bovine Milk

I. Introduction

II. Hormonally Active Peptides in Human and Bovine Milk

III. Fate of Milk-Borne Growth Factors in the Neonate

IV. Conclusions

References

18 The Serologic and Mucosal Immunologic Basis of Celiac Disease

I. Introduction

II. Normal Features of Mucosal Immunity

III. Immunopathologic Features of Celiac Disease

IV. Putative Immunopathologic Mechanisms in Celiac Disease

V. Summary

References

19 Food Allergy—Role of Mucosal Immune Regulation and Oral Tolerance: Facts, Fiction, and Hypotheses

I. Introduction

II. Genetic Influences

III. Lumenal Factors Involved in Gastrointestinal Immunoregulation

IV. Immunological Consequences of Antigen Presentation to the Gut-Associated Lymphoid Tissues

V. The Role of the Enterocyte in Antigen Presentation

VI. Regulatory T-Lymphocyte Subsets in the Lamina Propria and Intestinal Epithelium

VII. T-Lymphocyte Effectors in Murine Gut-Associated Lymphoid Tissues After Antigen Exposure

VIII. Intestinal Antigen Exposure via Breast Milk

IX. Control of IgE Responses

X. Oral Antigen Administration in the Neonatal Period and Subsequent Immune Response

XI. Antibody Transfer via Breast Milk

XII. Possible Clinical Consequences of Breakdown of Mucosal Immunoregulation

XIII. Oral Tolerance and Autoimmunity

XIV. Conclusion

References

Part V Effects of Nutritional Factors and the Microenvironment on Mucosal Immune Function

20 Effect of Intestinal Microenvironment on Mucosal Immune Response to Viruses

I. Introduction

II. Changes in the Natural Environment of the Gut

III. Immunological Effects of the Intestinal Microenvironment

IV. Conclusion

References

21 Nutritional Deficiencies and Intestinal Mucosal Immunity

I. Introduction

II. Immune Responses in Protein-Energy Malnutrition

III. Selected Nutrient Deficiencies

IV. Mucosal Immunity

V. Practical Significance

References

22 Enteric Versus Parenteral Feeding and Mucosal Function

I. Introduction

II. Bacterial Translocation

III. Lumenal Contents

IV. Nutritional Factors

V. Regulation

VI. Summary

References

Summary, Conclusions, and Future Projections

Index

Details

No. of pages:
474
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1993
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9781483273495

About the Editor

W. Allan Walker

Affiliations and Expertise

Conrad Taff Professor of Nutrition and Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School, Professor of Nutrition; Chief, Combined Program in Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Children's Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA

Paul R. Harmatz

Barry K. Wershil